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Wd & im session a5 _hosting_march 08,2010


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Wd & im session a5 _hosting_march 08,2010

  1. 1. Web Designing & Internet Marketing Session 5: Hosting What we are gone cover in this session ? Domain Name Free Host Servers & Paid Host Servers
  2. 2. The DNS is…• The “Domain Name System” – Created in 1983 by Paul Mockapetris. – modified, updated, and enhanced by a myriad• What Internet users use to reference anything by name on the Internet• The mechanism by which Internet software translates names to addresses and vice versa Web Designing & Internet Marketing
  3. 3. A Quick Digression: Names versus Addresses• An address is how you get to an endpoint – Typically, hierarchical (for scaling): • IIPM, IIPM Tower, M.G. Road Cochin, 36 •, +1-650-381-6003• A “name” is how an endpoint is referenced – Typically, no structurally significant hierarchy • “David”, “Tokyo”, “IIPM”• DNS as a Lookup Mechanism – Users generally prefer names to numbers – Computers prefer numbers to names – DNS provides the mapping between the two • I have “x”, give me “y” Web Designing & Internet Marketing
  4. 4. The Name Space• The name space is the structure of the DNS database – An inverted tree with the root node at the top• Each node has a label – The root node has a null label, written as “” The root node "" top-level node top-level node top-level nodesecond-level node second-level node second-level node second-level node second-level node third-level node third-level node third-level node Web Designing & Internet Marketing
  5. 5. Domain Names• A domain name is the sequence of labels from a node to the root, separated by dots (“.”s), read left to right – The name space has a maximum depth of 127 levels – Domain names are limited to 255 characters in length• A node’s domain name identifies its position in the name space Web Designing & Internet Marketing
  6. 6. Subdomains• One domain is a subdomain of another if its apex node is a descendant of the other’s apex node• More simply, one domain is a subdomain of another if its domain name ends in the other’s domain name – So is a subdomain of • • org – is a subdomain of org Web Designing & Internet Marketing
  7. 7. Domain name space Levels:• Top-level domains• Second-level and lower level domains Web Designing & Internet Marketing
  8. 8. Top-level domains• The highest level of domain names of the Internet.• They form the DNS root zone of the hierarchical Domain Name System. Every domain name ends in a top-level or first-level domain label.• When the Domain Name System was created in the 1980s, the domain name space was divided into two main groups of domains. – The country code top-level domains (ccTLD) were primarily based on the two-character territory codes of ISO-3166 country abbreviations. – In addition, a group of seven generic top-level domains (gTLD) was implemented which represented a set of categories of names and multi-organizations. – These were the domains GOV, EDU, COM, MIL, ORG, NET, and INT.• The Big 3: .com, .net and .org – Although there has recently been some discussion about possible moves to restrict the .org top domain to non-profits, as was originally intended – The current situation is that all 3 of these domain name extensions are accessible to anyone, without restrictions, and are widely recognized around the world. Web Designing & Internet Marketing
  9. 9. Second-level and lower level domains• Below the top-level domains in the domain name hierarchy are the second-level domain (SLD) names.• These are the names directly to the left of .com, .net, and the other top-level domains. As an example, in the domain, wikipedia is the second-level domain.• Next are third-level domains, which are written immediately to the left of a second- level domain.• There can be fourth- and fifth-level domains, and so on, with virtually no limitation.• An example of an operational domain name with four levels of domain labels is The www preceding the domains is the host name of the World-Wide Web server. Each label is separated by a full stop (dot).• ‘wdnim is said to be a sub-domain of, and bba a sub-domain of, etc.• Second-level (or lower-level, depending on the established parent hierarchy) domain names are often created based on the name of a company (e.g.,, product or service (e.g., Web Designing & Internet Marketing
  10. 10. The Current TLDs "." Generic TLDs Country Code TLDs International TLDs US Legacy TLDs (gTLDs) (ccTLDs) (iTLDs) (usTLDs)COM AF INT GOVCommercial Organizations Afghanistan International Treaty Organizations Governmental OrganizationsNET AL ARPA MILNetwork Infrastructure Albania (Transition Device) Military OrganizationsORG DZ EDUOther Organizations Algeria Educational Institutions ... YU Yugoslavia ZM Zambia ZW Zimbabwe Web Designing & Internet Marketing
  11. 11. Registries, Registrars, and Registrants• The Domain Wars resulted in a codification of roles in the operation of a domain name space• Registry – the name space’s database – the organization which has edit control of that database • Including dispute resolution, policy control, etc. – The organization which runs the authoritative name servers for that name space• Registrar – the agent which submits change requests to the registry on behalf of the registrant• Registrant – The entity which makes use of the domain name Web Designing & Internet Marketing
  12. 12. Registries, Registrars, and Registrants Registry updates Master zone updated Registry Zone DB Slaves Registrar submits updated add/modify/delete to registry Registrar Registrar Registrar End user requests add/modify/delete Registrants Web Designing & Internet Marketing
  13. 13. How to choose the Domain name• Relevant domain• Ask few more question about domain• Consult most appropriate domain name• Check Nearly expired domains• Check domains for sale• book Back Order Domains• Make sure your domain name reflects your business.• SEO analysis for domain names• Brand Development around domain name• Reflect your Business (Ex:• Traffic generation – "" was purchased for $3 million by an established company that already had other domain names!• Industry domination (Ex:"“)• Marketing Slogans• Make it simple (Ex:• Make it memorable (Ex:, Web Designing & Internet Marketing
  14. 14. Hosting• A web hosting service is a type of Internet hosting service that allows individuals and organizations to make their own website accessible via the World Wide Web.• Web hosts are companies that provide space on a server they own or lease for use by their clients as well as providing Internet connectivity.• Free Host Servers• Paid Host Servers Web Designing & Internet Marketing
  15. 15. Service scope• The scope of hosting services varies widely.• The most basic is web page and small-scale file hosting, where files can be uploaded via File Transfer Protocol (FTP) or a Web interface.• Many Internet service providers (ISPs) offer this service free to their subscribers. People can also obtain Web page hosting from other, alternative service providers.• Personal web site hosting is typically free, advertisement-sponsored, or cheap.• Business web site hosting often has a higher expense.• Single page hosting is generally sufficient only for personal web pages.• A complex site calls for a more comprehensive package that provides database support and application development platforms (e.g.PHP, Java, Ruby on Rails, ColdFusion, and ASP.NET).• These facilities allow the customers to write or install scripts for applications like forums and content management.• For e-commerce, SSL is also highly recommended.• The host may also provide an interface or control panel for managing the Web server and installing scripts as well as other services like e-mail.• Some hosts specialize in certain software or services (e.g. e-commerce).• They are commonly used by larger companies to outsource network infrastructure to a hosting company. Web Designing & Internet Marketing
  16. 16. Types of Hosting• Free Web space with most things in life, you get what you pay for!!! – for example, a small amount of disk space, no server-side scripting, tiny transfer allowance, and no guaranteed uptime and advertisement on your web pages• Shared hosting  cheapest form of paid hosting , Your site sits on a single Web server with sometimes hundreds of other sites. – quite a load on the server, resulting in a slow site at peak times, – and you dont have much control over the server should you need to install and customize complex Web applications.• Virtual private server  sits between shared hosting and dedicated servers in terms of power and price, – you can install any software you like on it – youre responsible for managing the server yourself - installing security updates, fixing problems, and so on - which requires some degree of server administration skills – Option for managed virtual servers• Dedicated server you have access to the entire power of the physical machine – ideal if youre running a high-traffic site – youre responsible for keeping the machine up to date with security patches, as well as installing software and troubleshooting• Managed server  you rent an entire server to yourself, but the hosting company looks after it. – You dont have to worry about stuff like installing upgrades and security patches, or troubleshooting – Managed servers are generally pricier than plain dedicated servers• Colocated server  – your own Web server in the hosting companys server room – cheaper than hiring a dedicated server as youre not paying for the server itself, just the network usage and server room space – any upgrades or maintenance will have to be done yourself. Web Designing & Internet Marketing
  17. 17. How to choose Commercial Web Hosting Service?– Reliability and speed of access Provide uptime of 99%– Data Transfer (Traffic/Bandwidth) unlimited, ... Ex: just one page of 50kb, 2000 page views consumes 100mb– Disk space  ask? 10MB, 20MB, unlimited– Technical support  is it 24x7,check is it really technical– Scripting & database  FTP, PHP, Perl, SSI, .htaccess, telnet, SSH, MySQL, crontabs (Note that some commercial hosts do not allow you to install PHP or Perl scripts )– SSL (secure server), Shopping Cart– Email, Autoresponders, POP3, Mail Forwarding, , Spam free, virus free email solutions– Control Panel  add, delete, and manage your email addresses, and change passwords for your account– Multiple Domain Hosting and Sub domains  For those who are thinking of selling web space or having multiple domains or sub domains hosted in your account– Server  Is the type of operating system and server important? Ex: ASP programs, you have no choice but to look for a Windows server.– Price& Payment plans– Resellers?  Not all hosting companies own or lease their own web servers. Some of them are actually resellers for some other hosting company.– International  option of hosting your site with some local provider.– Statistics Many Web hosting providers throw in free site statistics as part of their hosting packages, ..count views.etc– Backup & Monitoring Web Designing & Internet Marketing
  18. 18. Assignments• Assignment 1: – List out 5 website you used the most, explain its use, like, dislikes, features (maximum 5 pages, 1 page for each site)• Assignment 2: – Create HTML page, with proper use various tags (working with text, images, links & lists, tables, etc)• Assignment 3: – Find out free & paid hosting services providers (min 2 each) and compare them Web Designing & Internet Marketing
  19. 19. Thank you !!!