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Biotechnological tools


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here i have been given the detailed presentation on control of environmental pollution by using biotechnology/biologically, when i was studying Ph.D(Aquaculture) in Mangalore Fisheries College for 2 months!!!!!!
now i am doing Ph.D in Extension Dept. in Kolkata. I had my P.G in Extension only.

Published in: Technology, Business

Biotechnological tools

  1. 1. Yarrakula Mahesh Babu, M.F.Sc Ph.D. 1st year Dpt. Of Aquaculture College of Fishery Science Mangalore
  2. 2. O Environment Abiotic BioticO Environmental pollutionO Pollutants Chemical Biological Physical 2
  3. 3. O Bio-monitoringO Biotechnological tools Biosensors Bioremediation Bio-fertilizers Bio-fuels Genetically modified microorganisms 3
  4. 4. O These are biophysical devices which can detect and measure the presence of specific substances.O Definition: it is an analytical device containing an immobilized biological material, which can interact with an analyte and produce signals to measure.O Biosensors basically involve in the quantitative analysis of various substances by converting 4 their biological actions into measurable signals.
  5. 5. O Components of biosensor Biological component Physical componentO Special kits have been designed to identify the specific pollutants. Gas biosensors Immunoassay biosensors BOD biosensors 5
  6. 6. O Definition: it is the process of using microorganisms to remove the environmental pollutants.O Bioremediation is carried out in two ways: In situ bioremediation Intrinsic bioremediation Engineered in situ bioremediation Ex-situ bioremediation Solid phase treatment Slurry phase treatment 7
  7. 7. O It is a direct approach for the microbial degradation of xenobiotics at the site of pollution.O Generally used for cleanup of oil spillage, etc.Intrinsic bioremediation:It is the inherent metabolic ability of themicroorganisms to degrade certain pollutants.There will be no addition of nutrient supply foraccelerating metabolic activity. 8
  8. 8. Engineered in situ bioremediation: Here the bioremediation process is engineered to increase the degradation efficiency. In this process optimal environment will be maintained for the microorganisms to overcome the slow and limited bioremediation. 9
  9. 9. O The waste will be collected from the polluted sites and the bioremediation will be carry out at designed place by using microorganisms.O Classification Solid phase treatment Slurry phase treatment 10
  10. 10. O Solid phase treatment:This system includes land treatment soil pilescomprising of organic wastes.O Slurry phase treatment:This is a triphasic treatment system involvingthree components (water, suspendedparticulate matter and air). 11
  11. 11. Use of genetic engineering forefficient bioremediationO In recent years, efforts have been made to create genetically engineered microorganisms (GEMs) to overcome problems and enhance bioremediation.O Problems during bioremediation are: Growth of microorganisms reduced by the xenobiotics. Natural one type of microorganism can’t degrade all the xenobiotics. Slow process. Sometimes xenobiotics will become unavailable 12 form.
  12. 12. O The genetic manipulations of plasmids can lead to the creation of new strains of bacteria.O In 1970s new strain of pseudomonas was developed by the scientists named as “superbug”.O This superbug has the capability of degrading hydrocarbons of petroleum. 13
  13. 13. Engineered bacteria used for the degradation of xenobiotics. Bacterium Substrate that can be degradedPseudomonas capacia 2,4,5- trichloro-phenoxy acetic acid P. putida & other sp. 2,2,5-dichloropropionate; mono and dichloroaromatics Alcaligenes sp. Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, mixed chlorophenols; 1,4- dichlorobenzene Acinetobacter sp. 4-chlorobenzene 14
  14. 14. O Biofertilizer: Nutrient inputs of biological origin to support plant growth by the addition of microbes.O Biofertilizers are divided into four categories. 1. Symbiotic nitrogen fixers 2. Asymbiotic nitrogen fixers 3. Phosphate solubilizing bacteria 4. Organic fertilizers 15
  15. 15. O Symbiotic nitrogen fixers: The diazotrophic microorganisms are thesymbiotic nitrogen fixers that serve asbiofertilizers e.g. Rhizobium sp.,Bradyrhizopium sp.O Asymbiotic nitrogen fixers:The asymbiotic nitrogen fixing bacteria candirectly convert the gaseous nitrogen to nitrogenrich compounds. e.g. Azobacter sp.,Azospirillum sp. 16
  16. 16. O Phosphate solubilizing bacteria:Thiobacillus, Bacillus are capable ofconverting non-available inorganic phosphoruspresent in the soil to organic or inorganic formof phosphate.O Organic fertilizers: Certain types of organic wastes are usedas fertilizers e.g. animal dung, urban garbage,sewage, crop residues and oil cakes. All these wastes can be converted in toorganic manures. 17
  17. 17. Advantages: Improves the tolerance against toxic heavy metals. Possible to fertile the saline and alkaline soils. Helps in environmental pollution control. Fertility of soil will be increased year after year. Low cost and easy to produce. Increases the physico-chemical properties of the soil, soil texture and water holding capacity. 18
  18. 18. Global warming, industrialization and increasingprice of fossil fuels made search of alternative.An alternative, biodegradable, domestic fuelcontributes no net CO2 or S2 to the atmosphere.Mono alkyl esters of long chain fatty acidsderived from a renewable lipid feed stock suchas vegetable oil or animal fat will be used. 19
  19. 19. ADVANTAGES:O BiodegradableO Non-toxic fuelO Not contribute to global warmingO Alternative to petro -based fuelsO Favorable energy balanceO Lower harmful emissions of CO2 & unburned hydrocarbons 20
  20. 20. O CO2 is the main cause of green house effect.O There is steady increase in the CO2 content mainly due to industrial processes.O Biotechnological methods have been used to reduce the atmospheric CO2 content at two levels: Photosynthesis Biological calcification. 21
  21. 21. O Fast growing plants utilize CO2 more efficiently.O Further, CO2 utilization can be increased by enhancing the rate of photosynthesis.O Ribulosebiphosphate carboxylase is an enzyme which can fix the CO2 efficiently.O Microalgae like chlorella and spirulina can utilize CO2 efficiently than higher plants. 22
  22. 22. O The sewage is treated to get rid of the undesirable substances by subjecting the organic matter to biodegradation by microorganisms.O The biodegradation involves the degradation of organic matter to smaller molecules and requires constant supply of oxygen.O This problem is overcome by growing microalgae in the ponds and tanks where sewage treatment is carried out. 23
  23. 23. Removal of oil by using biotechnologyO Manual and mechanical cleaning is very expensive.O To overcome this oleophilic fertilizers are being developed.O These fertilizers will allow rapid growth and multiplication of microorganisms.O Recently oil utilizing microbes were developed by using genetic engineering. 24
  24. 24. O Some of the oil utilizing microbes can also produce surface active compounds that can emulsify oil in water and thereby removing the oil.O A strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa produces a glycolipid emulsifier that reduces the surface tension of oil-water interface which helps in the removal of oil from water.O This microbial emulsifier is nontoxic and biodegradable and has shown promising results in the laboratory experiments. 25
  25. 25. O Use of chemical pesticides, herbicides and fertilizers are hazardous.O They undergo degradation by microorganisms and ultraviolet light which releases toxic chemicals.O To overcome this bacterial and viral pesticides are being developed by using biotechnology. 26
  26. 26. O Mutation of the microbes may cause diseases to the organisms.O Cost effective and more shelf life biofertilizers should be developed.O Micro algae like Chlorella, Spirulina should be cultured near the industries.O Protection of coral beds. 27
  27. 27. O Use of biofertilizers and biofuels should be encouraged.O Recycling of the different products should be increase.O Organic farming has to be develop.O Continuous biomonitoring of the environment and biological control methods should be developed rather than chemical methods. 28
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