UNIT I (A)

INTRODUCTION TO

MANAGEMENT
What is Management?
CONCEPT OF MANAGEMENT

The term management is used in three
alternative ways:
1. Management as a discipline
2. Management ...
Management defined…

“Management is the art of getting things done through and
with people in formally organized groups” -...
Nature of Management
Nature of Management
☺ Multidisciplinary
☺ Dynamic Nature of Principles
☺ Relative, not Absolute Principles
☺ Management: ...
IMPORTANCE OF MANAGEMENT

Effective Utilization of Resources
Development of Resources
To incorporate Innovations
Integrati...
FUNCTIONS OF MANAGEMENT
WRITERS
Henry Fayol
Luther Gulick
Lyndall Urwick

Ralph Davis
E.F.L Brech
Koontz and O’Donnell

FU...
FUNCTIONS OF MANAGEMENT
TAYLOR’S SCIENTIFIC
MANAGEMENT
Scientific Management concept was
introduced by Frederick Winslow Taylor in
USA in the begi...
ELEMENTS AND TOOLS OF SCIENTIFIC
MANAGEMENT

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Separation of Planning and Doing.
Functional Foreman...
Separation of Planning and Doing
Functional Foremanship
Job Analysis
Standardization.
Scientific Selection and Training of
Workers
Financial Incentives.
Economy &Mental Revolution
PRINCIPLES OF SCIENTIFIC
MANAGEMENT

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Replacing Rule of Thumb with Science
Harmony in Group Action
Co-opera...
Harmony in Group Action
Co-operation
Maximum Output
FAYOL’S PRINCIPLES OF
MANAGEMENT
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Division of Work
Authority and Responsibility
Discipline
Unity of C...
FAYOL’S PRINCIPLES OF
MANAGEMENT
(contd.)

8. Centralization
9. Scalar Chain
10. Order
11. Equity
12. Stability of Tenure
...
MAYO’S HAWTHORNE EXPERIMENTS

The Hawthorne plant of Generic Electric
Company, Chicago, was manufacturing telephone
system...
FOUR PHASES OF HAWTHORNE
EXPERIMENTS

1. Illumination Experiments (1924-27)
2. Relay Assembly test room experiments
(1927-...
IMPLICATIONS OF HAWTHORNE
EXPERIMENTS

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Social Factors in Output
Group Influence
Conflicts
Leadership
Su...
CRITICISMS
The Hawthorne researchers did not give
sufficient attention to the attitudes that people bring
with them to the...
MASLOW’S THEORY OF HUMAN
NEEDS

The behavior of an individual at a
particular moment is usually determined
by his stronges...
MASLOW’S THEORY OF HUMAN
NEEDS
MASLOW’S THEORY OF HUMAN
NEEDS
Basic Human Needs
• Food
• Air
• Water
• Clothing

Physiological Needs
Safety and Security
• Protection
• Stability
• Pain Avoidance
• Routine/Order

Safety Needs
Love and Belonging
• Affection
• Acceptance

Social Needs

• Inclusion
Esteem

Esteem Needs

• Self-Respect
• Self-Esteem
• Respected by Others
Self-Actualization

• Achieve full potential
• Fulfillment
Summary

Self-Actualization

Esteem

Belonging

Safety
Physiological
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Unit i (a)

  1. 1. UNIT I (A) INTRODUCTION TO MANAGEMENT
  2. 2. What is Management?
  3. 3. CONCEPT OF MANAGEMENT The term management is used in three alternative ways: 1. Management as a discipline 2. Management as a group of people 3. Management as a process
  4. 4. Management defined… “Management is the art of getting things done through and with people in formally organized groups” - Harold Koontz “To manage is to forecast and plan, to organize, to command, to coordinate and control” - Henry Fayol “ Management is concerned with the systematic organization of economic resources and its task to make these resources productive” - Peter F Drucker
  5. 5. Nature of Management
  6. 6. Nature of Management ☺ Multidisciplinary ☺ Dynamic Nature of Principles ☺ Relative, not Absolute Principles ☺ Management: Science or Art ☺ Management as Profession ☺ Universality of Management
  7. 7. IMPORTANCE OF MANAGEMENT Effective Utilization of Resources Development of Resources To incorporate Innovations Integrating various Interest Groups Stability in the Society Handling Difficulties Economy and Efficiency
  8. 8. FUNCTIONS OF MANAGEMENT WRITERS Henry Fayol Luther Gulick Lyndall Urwick Ralph Davis E.F.L Brech Koontz and O’Donnell FUNCTIONS . Planning, Organizing, Commanding, Coordinating, Controlling. POSDCORB Planning, Organizing, Commanding, Coordinating, Communicating, forecasting, investigating. Planning, Organizing, Controlling Planning, Organizing, Motivating, Coordinating, controlling Planning, Organizing, staffing, leading, controlling.
  9. 9. FUNCTIONS OF MANAGEMENT
  10. 10. TAYLOR’S SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT Scientific Management concept was introduced by Frederick Winslow Taylor in USA in the beginning of 20th century. “ Scientific Management is concerned with knowing exactly what you want men to do and then see in that they do it in the best and cheapest way.”
  11. 11. ELEMENTS AND TOOLS OF SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Separation of Planning and Doing. Functional Foremanship. Job Analysis. Standardization. Scientific Selection and Training of Workers. Financial Incentives. Economy. Mental Revolution.
  12. 12. Separation of Planning and Doing
  13. 13. Functional Foremanship
  14. 14. Job Analysis
  15. 15. Standardization.
  16. 16. Scientific Selection and Training of Workers
  17. 17. Financial Incentives.
  18. 18. Economy &Mental Revolution
  19. 19. PRINCIPLES OF SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Replacing Rule of Thumb with Science Harmony in Group Action Co-operation Maximum Output Development of Workers
  20. 20. Harmony in Group Action
  21. 21. Co-operation
  22. 22. Maximum Output
  23. 23. FAYOL’S PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Division of Work Authority and Responsibility Discipline Unity of Command Unity of Direction Subordination of Individual to General Interest Remuneration of Personnel
  24. 24. FAYOL’S PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT (contd.) 8. Centralization 9. Scalar Chain 10. Order 11. Equity 12. Stability of Tenure 13. Initiative 14. Esprit de Corps
  25. 25. MAYO’S HAWTHORNE EXPERIMENTS The Hawthorne plant of Generic Electric Company, Chicago, was manufacturing telephone system bell. It employed about 30,000 employees at the time of experiments. A team was constituted led by Elton Mayo (Psychologist) to investigate the causes of dissatisfaction among the employees.
  26. 26. FOUR PHASES OF HAWTHORNE EXPERIMENTS 1. Illumination Experiments (1924-27) 2. Relay Assembly test room experiments (1927-28) 3. Mass interviewing programme (1928-30) 4. Bank Wiring Observation Room Experiments (1931-32)
  27. 27. IMPLICATIONS OF HAWTHORNE EXPERIMENTS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Social Factors in Output Group Influence Conflicts Leadership Supervision Communication
  28. 28. CRITICISMS The Hawthorne researchers did not give sufficient attention to the attitudes that people bring with them to the work place. The Hawthorne plant was not a typical plant because it was a thoroughly unpleasant place to work. They assume acceptance of management’s goals and look on the worker as someone to be manipulated by management.
  29. 29. MASLOW’S THEORY OF HUMAN NEEDS The behavior of an individual at a particular moment is usually determined by his strongest need.
  30. 30. MASLOW’S THEORY OF HUMAN NEEDS
  31. 31. MASLOW’S THEORY OF HUMAN NEEDS Basic Human Needs • Food • Air • Water • Clothing Physiological Needs
  32. 32. Safety and Security • Protection • Stability • Pain Avoidance • Routine/Order Safety Needs
  33. 33. Love and Belonging • Affection • Acceptance Social Needs • Inclusion
  34. 34. Esteem Esteem Needs • Self-Respect • Self-Esteem • Respected by Others
  35. 35. Self-Actualization • Achieve full potential • Fulfillment
  36. 36. Summary Self-Actualization Esteem Belonging Safety Physiological

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