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Presented by: Rijah Jawwad.
Meaning , Importance
The importance of public opinion developed gradually along with the evolution of
In past, political authority remained concentrated mostly either in one person or in
an elite group while general people were deprived of political participation.
The concept of fundamental rights promoted political consciousness in the general
masses hence they became involved in practical politics.
– Three different meanings are attached to the concept of public opinion
1 general perception of certain facts
2 the awareness of the people
3 public opinion as a belief system has different connotations.
From a different angle , public opinion may be interpreted as the aspiration of a
people they intend to put into practice.
Public opinion can be effective only when it is formulated on the basis of
contemporary realities and established values.
– Public opinion means the view of people
– People’s opinion formed in the general interest and it is not synonymous with the
opinion of the majority.
– Public opinion is initially the opinion of a few persons who are active in political
– Their opinion later shapes the general trends of the people and there by
transforming it into public opinion.
– Effective public opinion is indispensable for the success of democracy.
– Voting behavior on correct lines is also dependent on a sound public opinion.
– The success and failure of political parties is also conditioned by the trends of
public opinion ,it determines the directions of the whole political life.
– Public opinion place a significant role in national reconstruction and
development, provided it is well informed and properly guided.
– Laswell has rightly observed that public opinion is an effective channel of
information flow and instrumental in transmitting cultural legacy and promotion
of national integration, provided it is vigilant and well organized.
Cultural Context and
Public Opinion , Public
Opinion and Propaganda
Cultural context of public
– In almost every sphere of human activity there exists vales beliefs and national
symbols that mark out the charter of the nation.
– These values and beliefs are transmitted to the next generation and preserved as
– Established beliefs and values in a society have deep imprints on the behavior
and attitude of the people.
– Voting-behavior with reference to political culture as been the subject of political
enquiry most popular among the western researches.it helps in the measurement
of public opinion hence imperative for political parties to know the popular
Impact of cultural values
– During the research on voting behavior it was found that the values of people
have deep impact on their action and thoughts.
– During the elections The clever politicians try to exploit this expect of social life
using attractive slogans.
Impact of institutional settings
– The institutions such as family clan, primary, schools and religious institutions
act as a channel of transmitting old values to new generations. Cultural heritage
of people set the tone of social life.
– The study of these primary institutions is vital in eliciting public opinion in
Political system and cultural
– The importance of cultural values in third world societies is more deep rooted
than developed societies.
– Infra structure of British political system is based on convections and traditions.
– Thus no leader and political party can dare to violate the established values
– The people of Pakistan also gave importance to cultural heritage, no party in
Pakistan can afford the basic values and beliefs that underlie the ideology of this
Public opinion and propaganda
– The process of influencing public opinion is called propaganda it involves
influencing the opinion of others with the help of arguments, evidence etc. . In the
light of the view point of a particular person.
– Propaganda is regarding as the most effective technique to influence others
techniques . It was use in a way that the concept became synonymous with evil.
– In modern democracies political parties make use of propaganda to influence public
– During war points propaganda is used in most scientific manner to tame down enemy
and boost up the morale of nation. In its global perspective it aims at winning
sympathies of other nations through holding the rival nation responsible for waging
– Media is regarding as the most effective channel of communication to affect
– Another method that was commonly use was the indoctrination of a particular
thought, known as brain washing.
– Despite the development of most effective techniques, propaganda has its
limitation too. It cannot completely change a thinking of people
– Established values popular trend and instinctive behavior of man kind are the
others factors that limit the effect of propaganda.