Pakistani women and their political empowerment
BIBI MARYAM &
Pakistani culture ; According to lyon
Women position in Pakistani culture
In Pakistani society women have secondary position while
men have primary position ( NCSW , 2010: Bano, 2009)
Public sphere is related to men and domestic sphere is linked
with women (3Cs)
Women have lower position as compared to men .
Women are highly under-represented in the political arena
throughout the globe.
Women occupy only 18.5 percent of seats in national parliaments
which varies across the world.
There is variation in the percentage of women in parliament
across developed and developing countries. Women occupy only
18.5% of the seats in national parliments
around the world.(but regional averages varies from
developed to developing countries).
Political empowerment and political participation is closely
Political empowerment according to Ibraham: as the
autonomy of individuals to caste according to their consent,
content election, authority to present and take actions according
to their needs and priorities
Sharma and Sharma highlights that women’s participation in
politics is affected by multiple interrelated factors that varies
across countries which include countries political history,
religious diversity, customs.
Barriers to women effective political participation exist
throughout the globe.
A Case Study Of Kashmir.
Three political parties
Pakistan People’s party 150 Respondents
Factors Affecting Women’s Participation In Politics
Dual roles conflict
Less exposer of public life
Lack of political capital
Less access to training
Ideological and psychological
Strict Norms ( pardha and mobility)
Stereotype and Prejudice
Not good profession for women
Prior political experience , education and
occupational background, ambition and resources
are important for access to political power in any
Norris (1997) and Matland ( 2005)
Women don’t enjoy equal status in the parties due
to masculine political culture.
Bano (2009)and Bari (2005)
Ideas about women’s status and role in society can
enhance or constrain women’s access to political
power even in the presence of favorable political
Kunovich and Paxton(2005)