Creation of a new word
The process of forming new words from words or
word groups with the same root
3 main types of process
Compounds consist of two more free morphemes or words consisting of free
blackbird, clock work, light bulb, notebook, bittersweet
Compounding is the strongest process of word formation!
In English, when two words are of different grammatical categories, the class of the second or
final word becomes the category of the compound
Compounds formed with a preposition are in the category of the non-prepositional part of the
Examples: undertake, uphill
Something “less” than a compound....
smog = smoke + fog
motel = motor + hotel
Brunch = breakfast + lunch
Parts of two or more different words join- usually 1st part of one and 2nd part of other.
A new word is created by removing what is mistakenly
considered to be an affix
edit from editor;
peddle from peddler;
enthuse from enthusiasm
orientate from orientation
A bound morpheme is added with another
# Prefixation -
Example : independent, impossible
# Suffixation -
Example : kindness, kindly
# Infixation -
Example : absobloominglutely
Derivational affixes attaches to the base form of a word to create
a new word
1. Verb to noun : preserve to preservation
2. Verb to verb : appear to disappear
3. Verb to adjective : bore to boring
4. Adjective to noun : ugly to ugliness
• The creation of a new ROOT, BASE, or simple WORD
• Rare compared with compounding and derivation
• ECHOISM, NEOLOGISM, ONOMATOPOEIA are some types of
Acronyms are new words formed from the initial letters of a set of other
Initialism is pronounced as a word
e.g. CD (compact disk)
VCR (video cassette recorder)
RADAR (radio detection and ranging)
HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus)
ATM (automated teller machine)
Clipping occurs when a word with more than one syllable is reduced to a
A word or phrase is shortened
largely a convention of written language, sometimes
abbreviations carry over into spoken language
Apr. – April, cm – centimeter(s),
dept. – department, Dr. – doctor
Reconstruction and addition of new words.
Words created from scratch or derived
from names of individuals, places, or
“Coinage is the invention of totally new terms”
Sources of coined words:
1. Trade names of commercial products that become general terms or Eponyms.
Example: aspirin, kleenex, teflon, xerox.
2. New words based on the name of a person or a place.
Example: hoover, jeans, sandwich.