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WORD FORMATION
PROCESS
Word-formation
Creation of a new word
The process of forming new words from words or
word groups with the same root
3 main types of process
Subtractive
process
Meaning change
Additive
process
Compounding
Compounds consist of two more free morphemes or words consisting of free
morphemes.
Examples:
blackbird, clock...
In English, when two words are of different grammatical categories, the class of the second or
final word becomes the cate...
BLENDING
Something “less” than a compound....
smog = smoke + fog
motel = motor + hotel
Brunch = breakfast + lunch
Parts of...
Back formation
A new word is created by removing what is mistakenly
considered to be an affix
edit from editor;
peddle fro...
AFFIXATION
A bound morpheme is added with another
morpheme
Prefixation
Suffixation
Infixation
# Prefixation -
Example : independent, impossible
# Suffixation -
Example : kindness, kindly
# Infixation -
Example : abso...
Derivational
Derivational affixes attaches to the base form of a word to create
a new word
1. Verb to noun : preserve to p...
Root creation
• The creation of a new ROOT, BASE, or simple WORD
• Rare compared with compounding and derivation
• ECHOISM...
Subtractive process
Subtractive
process
Acronym
abbreviation
orthographic
clipping
 Acronyms are new words formed from the initial letters of a set of other
words.
 Initialism is pronounced as a word
 e...
Clipping
 Clipping occurs when a word with more than one syllable is reduced to a
shorter form.
 E.g. gasoline(gas)
adve...
Clipping
Fore clipping
Middle clipping
Complex clipping
Back clipping
Abbreviations
 A word or phrase is shortened
 largely a convention of written language, sometimes
abbreviations carry ov...
MEANING CHANGE
Meaning
change
Generification
Metaphorical
extension
Category
change
Reconstruction and addition of new words.
Words created from scratch or derived
from names of individuals, places, or
prod...
Coinage
“Coinage is the invention of totally new terms”
Sources of coined words:
1. Trade names of commercial products tha...
THANK YOU
Word formation process
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Word formation process

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Word formation process

  1. 1. WORD FORMATION PROCESS
  2. 2. Word-formation Creation of a new word The process of forming new words from words or word groups with the same root
  3. 3. 3 main types of process Subtractive process Meaning change Additive process
  4. 4. Compounding Compounds consist of two more free morphemes or words consisting of free morphemes. Examples: blackbird, clock work, light bulb, notebook, bittersweet Compounding is the strongest process of word formation!
  5. 5. In English, when two words are of different grammatical categories, the class of the second or final word becomes the category of the compound Example: blackbird. Compounds formed with a preposition are in the category of the non-prepositional part of the compound. Examples: undertake, uphill
  6. 6. BLENDING Something “less” than a compound.... smog = smoke + fog motel = motor + hotel Brunch = breakfast + lunch Parts of two or more different words join- usually 1st part of one and 2nd part of other.
  7. 7. Back formation A new word is created by removing what is mistakenly considered to be an affix edit from editor; peddle from peddler; enthuse from enthusiasm orientate from orientation
  8. 8. AFFIXATION A bound morpheme is added with another morpheme Prefixation Suffixation Infixation
  9. 9. # Prefixation - Example : independent, impossible # Suffixation - Example : kindness, kindly # Infixation - Example : absobloominglutely
  10. 10. Derivational Derivational affixes attaches to the base form of a word to create a new word 1. Verb to noun : preserve to preservation 2. Verb to verb : appear to disappear 3. Verb to adjective : bore to boring 4. Adjective to noun : ugly to ugliness
  11. 11. Root creation • The creation of a new ROOT, BASE, or simple WORD • Rare compared with compounding and derivation • ECHOISM, NEOLOGISM, ONOMATOPOEIA are some types of root creation
  12. 12. Subtractive process Subtractive process Acronym abbreviation orthographic clipping
  13. 13.  Acronyms are new words formed from the initial letters of a set of other words.  Initialism is pronounced as a word  e.g. CD (compact disk) VCR (video cassette recorder) RADAR (radio detection and ranging) HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) ATM (automated teller machine)
  14. 14. Clipping  Clipping occurs when a word with more than one syllable is reduced to a shorter form.  E.g. gasoline(gas) advertisement(ad) laboratory(lab) telephone(phone) examination(exam)
  15. 15. Clipping Fore clipping Middle clipping Complex clipping Back clipping
  16. 16. Abbreviations  A word or phrase is shortened  largely a convention of written language, sometimes abbreviations carry over into spoken language  Example : Apr. – April, cm – centimeter(s), dept. – department, Dr. – doctor
  17. 17. MEANING CHANGE Meaning change Generification Metaphorical extension Category change
  18. 18. Reconstruction and addition of new words. Words created from scratch or derived from names of individuals, places, or product names.
  19. 19. Coinage “Coinage is the invention of totally new terms” Sources of coined words: 1. Trade names of commercial products that become general terms or Eponyms. Example: aspirin, kleenex, teflon, xerox. 2. New words based on the name of a person or a place. Example: hoover, jeans, sandwich.
  20. 20. THANK YOU

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