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Internet System Administration course work of NCC Education

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Internet System Administration course work of NCC Education in June 2011.

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Internet System Administration course work of NCC Education

  1. 1. 9 Statement and Confirmation of Own Work Programme/Qualification name: Each NCC Education assessed assignment submitted by you must have this statement attached to the assignment as the cover page or it will not be accepted for marking. Please ensure that this statement is either firmly attached to the cover of the assignment or electronically inserted into the front of the assignment. Student declaration I have read and understood NCC Education’s Policy on Academic Dishonesty and Plagiarism. I can confirm the following details: Student ID/Registration number: 00120142 Name: Md. Mahbub Alam Centre Name: Daffodil Institute of IT Module Name: Internet System Administration Module Leader: Mr. Mustafizur Rahman Number of words: I confirm that this is my own work and that I have not plagiarized any part of it. I have also noted the assessment criteria and pass mark for assignments. Due Date: Student Signature: Submitted Date: Internet System Administration June 2011 Final @NCC Education 2011
  2. 2. 9 ACKNOWLEDGMENT: I am Md. Mahbub Alam is grateful to Daffodil Institute of IT (DIIT) for giving the chance to doing the assignment in the field of Internet System Administration and it’s such a pleasure to me. I am also grateful & like to express thanks to Mr. Mustafizur Rahman Lecturer of Internet System Administration of DIIT. He continues support, concentration & encouragement help me to complete this assignment. Huge unknown things are now know to me by doing this assignment. In class room we collect theoretical knowledge about Internet System Administration but practically I gather knowledge by doing this assignment. It was a glorious memory by doing this assignment in my Life. Internet System Administration June 2011 Final @NCC Education 2011
  3. 3. 9 Task 1: Problem Statement: Describing the functionality of the following features of Google. a) Installation of Google Desktop and Google Toolbar b) Google Chrome c) Gmail d) Google Apps e) Google AdWords Your report should include the following: • What type of information do you surrender to Google when using each of the above? • In what types of enterprise and which business situations might each of the above be particularly useful or beneficial? Introduction: In this task I have to describe about Installation of Google Desktop and Google Toolbar, Google Chrome, Gmail, Google Apps and Google AdWords. Installation of Google Desktop and Google Toolbar: To install Google I was gone in www.google.com at that time I type there “Download Google desktop and toolbar” and this web site show me a link after that I click there. A new page was opened. That page has an install button and I click there then I agreed user license agreement. Then setup was started from internet. Functionality: Google desktop and toolbar helps to search content on the web using google. It is a desktop application that provide full text search over email, files, music, photos, chats, gmail, web pages that we have viewed, and more. By making your computer searchable, Desktop puts information easily within reach and frees from having to manually organize files, emails and bookmarks.( Google Desktop Publisher's description)i Information that I give to use this service:  Google desktop weather gadget: Here I insert my country name, state and zip code.  Slideshow for Facebook: Here I insert my email address and password which I use in www.facebook.com  Scratch Pad: This is a one type of note pad gadget which is used to save some useful data.  RSS: Here we can insert some RSS link which is information.  Google Search toolbar: We are input word which is related to what kind of website we want to visit.  Gmail: Here we input out email id and password to login. Internet System Administration June 2011 Final @NCC Education 2011
  4. 4. 9 Benefits for enterprise and business situations:  Use full for e-business person or organization.  Use full for web developers.  Use full who wants to log on always in facebook, Gmail & BlogSpot or others web service.  Use full for a organization for information transfer like chatting etc. Google Chrome: Functionality: It’s a web browser like others web browser like Fire-fox, internet Explorer & Opera etc. We use it to browse webpage or website. It’s light and flexible from others web browser. It’s need to install chrome internet connection. Google is the author of this browser. Information that I give to use this service:  We insert here web address like www.google.com  E-Mail address password.  Search able content text.  Shortcut command if users feel it is necessity without use of mouse. Benefits for enterprise and business situations:  Chrome is faster. To open a web page it need little time.  Low bandwidth user can use it.  Use full for busy organization for faster work experience.  Look’s style is greeted.  Always updated and helps of Google.  It’s freeware so that No need to buy. Gmail: Functionality: Gmail is an online webmail program. User can send and get email by using it. No need any third- party software because only browser is enough for use it. It give approximant 7GB hard disk space for maintain email program for each user and it’s free. Information that I give to use this service:  Receivers email address.  Email subject  Email body  Attach file Internet System Administration June 2011 Final @NCC Education 2011
  5. 5. 9 Benefits for enterprise and business situations:  To communicate business man or customers.  Share information with others  It’s freeware but if user need more space have to pay. Google Apps: Functionality: Google Apps is for business offers powerful messaging and collaborating apps that meet more than three million business run using Google apps. It’s a group of Google service. All services are online and helpful for a person or an organization. It’s fully free for business or educational purpose. Every enterprise organization has to need those services. Google service allowed by their administrator from a single account associated with their organization. Information that I give to use this service:  Receivers email address.  Information about business or others.  Using Google doc, save our information like letter, business papers, applications information etc  Using website or blog we can provide organization information. Benefits for enterprise and business situations:  Individuals, groups and entrepreneurs can get up to 50 custom accounts like you@example.com for free.  Businesses can get the added controls and features that companies need at $50 per user per year.  Schools can also get many of the capabilities offered to businesses, but at no charge. Google AdWords: Functionality: Google AdWards is Advertiser of others websites. Google AdWords pushed ads in the Sponsored Links section next to search results to boost website traffic and sales. Google published ads in a budget & more skilled advertiser. Track result and tailor ads. Information that I give to use this service: Internet System Administration June 2011 Final @NCC Education 2011
  6. 6. 9  Keywords, which are words or phrases related to business  Organizations domain name  Type of website or domain  Language that use on domain  Location or county Benefits for enterprise and business situations:  To communicate business man or customers.  It’s help to more traffic on website  Website optimization  It’s help to manage effectively Adwards companies Conclusion: In the above, I complete task 1 by flowing the scenario of task 1. I describe here about Google desktop and toolbar. I describe here what they do, what kind of information are provided by us and benefiters of those service. Internet System Administration June 2011 Final @NCC Education 2011
  7. 7. 9 Task 2: Problem Statement: Write a brief report covering each one of the following technologies.  Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)  Proxy servers  Web Robots  DNS  Firewalls  IPV4  IPV6 Reports should describe: • Objective of the technology • How the objective is achieved • Shortcomings of the technology • The manner these weaknesses can be overcome Introduction: In this task I have to describe about Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), Proxy server, Web Robots, DNS, Firewalls, IPV4 & IPV6. Secure Sockets Layer (SSL): • Objective of the technology: o Support many applications and protocols o Use available TCP/IP based networks o Requires a reliable transport layer (e.g. TCP) o Applications (and developers) need to support SSL, but do not need to worry about key generation and negotiation techniques (SSL -- Design Objectives and Constraints)ii • How the objective is achieved Protects your online transactions and helps increase trust in. SSL makes easy for Web site visitors to trust on the web site.iii • Shortcomings of the technology Internet System Administration June 2011 Final @NCC Education 2011
  8. 8. 9 The most obvious weakness of the protocol is the susceptibility of the ciphers which use small keys to brute force attack, in particular RC4-40, RC2-40 and to some extent…( Brute Force Attack Against Weak Ciphers)iv • The manner these weaknesses can be overcome We can purchase antivirus software that doesn’t only protect your computer against virus, Trojan, worm and other malicious software, but also against phishing attacks. There are even some products that can be integrated with your Internet browser, which gives us an additional defense against phishing attacks.( ssl basics)v Proxy Server: • Objective of the technology: Proxy is hardware/ software indirect access to other networks. All computers on the local network have to go through it before accessing information on the Internet. Organization , universities , companies use proxy systems Proxy act as gateway Proxy act as Cache Server/Firewall Proxy share a connection to others LAN INTERNET(SlideShare)vi • How the objective is achieved A content filtering proxy will often support user authentication, to control web access. It also usually produces logs, either to give detailed information about the URLs accessed by specific users, or to monitor bandwidth usage statistics. It may also communicate to daemon-based and/or ICAP-based antivirus software to provide security against virus and other malware by scanning incoming content in real time before it enters the network.( Proxy server)vii • Shortcomings of the technology o Less secure, and o Usage of E-mail, transferring of files and web surfing are limited in proxy server. There is only couple of disadvantages in Proxy Server and Proxy Server serves as a best server for transferring resources between a client and real server.( Disadvantages of Proxy Server)viii • The manner these weaknesses can be overcome o email messages for SMTP, o Usenet news postings for NNTP, and o Clock settings for NTP.( Chapter 7 Proxy Systems)ix Web Robots: Internet System Administration June 2011 Final @NCC Education 2011
  9. 9. 9 • Objective of the technology Web Spiders are computer programs that search the Internet for web pages. Web spiders are the one used by search engines like Google and AltaVista to index the web. Web spiders are also called web robots or wanderers.( Web Spider)x • How the objective is achieved Web crawlers are mainly used to create a copy of all the visited pages for later processing by a search engine that will index the downloaded pages to provide fast searches. Crawlers are used to gather specific types of information from Web page…(Web crawler)xi • Shortcomings of the technology Most modern Web robots that crawl the Internet to support value-added services and technologies possess sophisticated data collection and analysis capabilities. Some of these robots, however, may be ill-behaved or malicious, and hence, may impose a significant strain on a Web server. …( Derek Doran . Swapna S. Gokhale)xii • The manner these weaknesses can be overcome Weakness of web robot can be overcome in three ways: 1. Use of web metrics 2. Limitations of web metrics 3. Overcoming limitations 4. Determination of needs 5. Multiple sources(Dr. Birgit Weischedel & Dr. Eelko K.R.E. Huizingh)xiii DNS: • Objective of the technology It needed to support host identification, mail delivery and other functions. DNS needed to be inherently able to support different underlying protocols. Both large and small computers needed to be able to use the system.( DNS Design Goals, Objectives and Assumptions)xiv • How the objective is achieved We want to decide whether the current observations actually correspond to malicious activities or not. We call malicious intention recognition this second functionality. Combining these two functionalities would enable the security administrator to have a global understanding of what happens in the system in order to prepare an adequate reaction. Notice that sometimes, this reaction might be launched before the intrusion scenario is completed, that is before the intrusion objective is actually achieved xv • Shortcomings of the technology Internet System Administration June 2011 Final @NCC Education 2011
  10. 10. 9 Unfortunately many security weaknesses surround IP and the protocols carried by IP. The DNS is not immune to these security weaknesses. The accuracy of the information contained within the DNS is vital to many aspects of IP based communications.( By Diane Davidowicz,)xvi • The manner these weaknesses can be overcome This paper gives an overview of the DNS, its security weaknesses, and the new security extensions being worked on by the IETF’s DNSSEC Working Group (WG).xvii Firewalls: • Objective of the technology o Maximum concurrent connections(firewall testing) o connection setup rate/connections-per-second (CPS) o Protocol latency - time to first byte and time to last byte o Throughput - using active/passive FTP connections o DDoS Multiprotocol Streetxviii • How the objective is achieved If the web server compromised, the remaining computers in the internal network are vulnerable. Moat attract are multistage, which means the first target is rarely the objective. Most attracters use one computer to compromise another until the objective is achieved. Therefore it is a good practice to separate machine and services, even in the internal network. xix • Shortcomings of the technology Accesses to the external network that circumvent the firewall are also security weaknesses. This is notably the case of connections made from the internal network by way of a modem or any other means of connection that avoids the firewall. • The manner these weaknesses can be overcome o Service set identifier (SSID) o Wired equivalent privacy (WEP) protocol o VPN o MAC restrictions Those steps can be protecting a firewall form any kind of system breakings. xx IPv4: • Objective of the technology Internet System Administration June 2011 Final @NCC Education 2011
  11. 11. 9 In the transition system, the structure that is allows packet to be transmitted over an Internet protocol version four without the need to configure explicit tunnel. By addressing using IPV4 one device can communicate and share resources with another device. xxi • How the objective is achieved o Standardization was achieved o TLDs approved in the last few years o RFC 822 compatibility o network file and resource sharing protocolsxxii • Shortcomings of the technology o Uses 32 bit IP o IP wasn’t designed to provide security o IP is an evolving protocol o No traffic priority (easy to flood the network). o Traffic can be injected; packets can be stolen or hijacked. o UDP (datagram based) offers no authentication. o No confidentiality (no encryption) o Checksums are easy to cheat (weak algorithm)xxiii • The manner these weaknesses can be overcome o Know your weaknesses o Use encryption techniques o Protect your network from outside (firewall, router access list ... Etc) o Intrusion Detection, Network Monitoring. xxiv IPv6: • Objective of the technology IPv6 is a version of the IPv4 that is designed to succeed Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4). It can work more powerfully against version of Internet protocol version 4. • How the objective is achieved o It’s provide More IP o Provide 128 bit address o More secure against IPv4 o automatic mechanism for forming the host identifier Internet System Administration June 2011 Final @NCC Education 2011
  12. 12. 9 • Shortcomings of the technology • The manner these weaknesses can be overcome Conclusion: In the above I describe about SSL, proxy server, web Robot, firewall, DNS, IPv4 and IPv6 and I also make a report about that which has some important information about that. Internet System Administration June 2011 Final @NCC Education 2011
  13. 13. 9 Task 3: Problem Statement: a) Create an HTML document that contains the following code and publish it on a web server: <HTML> <HEAD> <title> Internet Systems Administration assignment, Task 3 </title> </HEAD> <BODY> This is a simple HTML page. </BODY> </HTML> b) Using perl, create a CGI script to generate an HTML page which looks as similar as possible to the page created bt the HTML document. c) Create a simple HTML form to call the CGI script using a POST method d) Modify the form to call your CGI script using a GET method e) Write a report (approximately 1000 words) that discusses the advantages and disadvantages of both the POST and GET methods for server-side scripting in a professional IT environment. Your report should include appropriate screen shots and code produced for parts (a) to (d) of this task. Introduction: In this task I have to use CGI scrip as Perl. By using Perl I have to create html page, sample form with post and get method and also a report about those works. a) Creating an HTML document and publishing it on a web server: <html> <head> <title>Internet Systems Administration Assignment, Task 3 </title> </head> <body> <b>This Is A Simple HTML Page<b> </body> </html> HTML code that I use in my page which is under the below. Internet System Administration June 2011 Final @NCC Education 2011
  14. 14. 9 Screenshot: A simple HTML page. b) CGI script as perl, generating an HTML page which looks as HTML document: #!c:/perl/bin/perl.exe # hello.pl -- my first perl script! use warnings; use strict; print "Content-type: text/htmlnn"; print <<"EOF"; <HTML> <HEAD> <TITLE>Internet System Administrator assignment, Task 3</TITLE> </HEAD> <BODY> <H1>Welcome to Internet System Administrator Assignment created by Md. Mahbub alam</H1> </BODY> </HTML> EOF This is code of perl. That was using in my below page to generate automated html page. Internet System Administration June 2011 Final @NCC Education 2011
  15. 15. 9 Screenshot: A simple HTML page genereted by server using perl. c) Creating a simple HTML form to call the CGI script using a POST method: #!c:/perl/bin/perl.exe # dynamic.pl use warnings; use strict; use CGI ':standard'; if (param()) { # we have parameters, so process the form data my @params = param(); my $firstname = param('firstname') || 'you have no first name!'; my $lastname = param('lastname') || 'you have no last name!'; my $cell = param('cell') || 'you have no cell Number!'; my $email = param('email') || 'you have no email!'; print header(), start_html( -title => 'Welcome!', -text => '#520063' ), h1("Hello, $firstname $lastname $cell $email!"), end_html(); } else { # no parameters, so build the form Internet System Administration June 2011 Final @NCC Education 2011
  16. 16. 9 print header(), start_html('A Simple Form'), h1('Please Enter Your Information here:'), start_form(-method => 'POST'), 'First name: ', textfield(-name => 'firstname'), br(), 'Last name: ', textfield(-name => 'lastname'), br(), 'Cell Number: ', textfield(-name => 'cell'), br(), 'Email ID: ', textfield(-name => 'email'), br(), submit(), end_form(), end_html(); } Code of a simple HTML form to call the CGI script using a POST method. Screenshot: Client side html form page include post method genereted by perl Internet System Administration June 2011 Final @NCC Education 2011
  17. 17. 9 Screenshot: User information publishes successfully. d) Modifying the form to call CGI script using a GET method: #!c:/perl/bin/perl.exe # dynamic.pl use warnings; use strict; use CGI ':standard'; if (param()) { # we have parameters, so process the form data my @params = param(); my $firstname = param('firstname') || 'you have no first name!'; my $lastname = param('lastname') || 'you have no last name!'; my $address = param('address') || 'you have no address!'; my $cell = param('cell') || 'you have no Cell number!'; my $email = param('email') || 'you have no E-Mail ID!'; print header(), start_html( -title => 'Welcome!', -text => '#520063' ), h1("Hello, $firstname $lastname! $address $cell $email!"), end_html(); } else { Internet System Administration June 2011 Final @NCC Education 2011
  18. 18. 9 # no parameters, so build the form print header(), start_html('A Simple Form'), h1('your information under the below'), start_form(-method => 'GET'), 'First name: ', textfield(-name => 'firstname'), br(), 'Last name: ', textfield(-name => 'lastname'), br(), 'address: ', textfield(-name => 'address'), br(), 'Cell number: ', textfield(-name => 'cell'), br(), 'E-Mail ', textfield(-name => 'email'), br(), submit(), end_form(), end_html(); } Post method form page is modifying as get method form page and code is above. Screenshot: Get method form. Internet System Administration June 2011 Final @NCC Education 2011
  19. 19. 9 Screenshot: client part code of get method page. e) Discussion Report and Screen shots: Advantage of Post and Get method:xxv  Post requests can be longer than the maximum allowed length (usually 256) for an environment variable.  Get method can be used without having to encode a FORM  In Post method data send in body portion  Post method have security of data. Disadvantage of Post and Get Method:  The post method disadvantage is that it creates a temporary list to hold the keys  Get method is default method In this data is send with URL, Not a secure manner.  data is visible to the user  it is not secure Internet System Administration June 2011 Final @NCC Education 2011
  20. 20. 9 Report a) Here I write a html page which is publishing on a apache2.2 version server. This page contain some code which is under the below: <html> <head> <title>Internet Systems Administration Assignment, Task 3 </title> </head> <body> <b>This Is A Simple HTML Page<b> </body> </html> When run those code to a client pc the page is looks like under the below. Screenshot: A simple HTML page. b) Here is the code which is responsiable to generete a html page dynamicly. #!c:/perl/bin/perl.exe # hello.pl -- my first perl script! use warnings; use strict; print "Content-type: text/htmlnn"; print <<"EOF"; <HTML> <HEAD> <TITLE>Internet System Administrator assignment, Task 3</TITLE> </HEAD> Internet System Administration June 2011 Final @NCC Education 2011
  21. 21. 9 <BODY> <H1>Welcome to Internet System Administrator Assignment created by Md. Mahbub alam</H1> </BODY> </HTML> EOF To flow the above code under the page was created dynamicaly. Screenshot: A simple HTML page genereted by server using perl. c) Here I created a html post method page using perl which is able to post data to a server. And to help a server to process data. This page contain five text field to collect user information. Those are user first name, last name, address, cell and email. If not fill a text field and when this page is submited to the server than the a message is genereted automaticaly againsest blak text fields. The code is under the below. #!c:/perl/bin/perl.exe # dynamic.pl use warnings; use strict; use CGI ':standard'; if (param()) { # we have parameters, so process the form data Internet System Administration June 2011 Final @NCC Education 2011
  22. 22. 9 my @params = param(); my $firstname = param('firstname') || 'you have no first name!'; my $lastname = param('lastname') || 'you have no last name!'; my $cell = param('cell') || 'you have no cell Number!'; my $email = param('email') || 'you have no email!'; print header(), start_html( -title => 'Welcome!', -text => '#520063' ), h1("Hello, $firstname $lastname $cell $email!"), end_html(); } else { # no parameters, so build the form print header(), start_html('A Simple Form'), h1('Please Enter Your Information here:'), start_form(-method => 'POST'), 'First name: ', textfield(-name => 'firstname'), br(), 'Last name: ', textfield(-name => 'lastname'), br(), 'Cell Number: ', textfield(-name => 'cell'), br(), 'Email ID: ', textfield(-name => 'email'), br(), submit(), end_form(), end_html(); } Code of a simple HTML form to call the CGI script using a POST method. Internet System Administration June 2011 Final @NCC Education 2011
  23. 23. 9 Screenshot: Client side html code of post method form genereted by perl Screenshot: Client side html form page include post method genereted by perl Internet System Administration June 2011 Final @NCC Education 2011
  24. 24. 9 Screenshot: Client side html form page when user data inserting. In this page user not input user id and if he click on submit quary button than server response as under the below screenshot. Internet System Administration June 2011 Final @NCC Education 2011
  25. 25. 9 Screenshot: this page is viewed with user fault to insert data Screenshot: User information publishes successfully. d) Internet System Administration June 2011 Final @NCC Education 2011
  26. 26. 9 #!c:/perl/bin/perl.exe # dynamic.pl use warnings; use strict; use CGI ':standard'; if (param()) { # we have parameters, so process the form data my @params = param(); my $firstname = param('firstname') || 'you have no first name!'; my $lastname = param('lastname') || 'you have no last name!'; my $address = param('address') || 'you have no address!'; my $cell = param('cell') || 'you have no Cell number!'; my $email = param('email') || 'you have no E-Mail ID!'; print header(), start_html( -title => 'Welcome!', -text => '#520063' ), h1("Hello, $firstname $lastname! $address $cell $email!"), end_html(); } else { # no parameters, so build the form print header(), start_html('A Simple Form'), h1('your information under the below'), start_form(-method => 'GET'), 'First name: ', textfield(-name => 'firstname'), br(), 'Last name: ', textfield(-name => 'lastname'), br(), 'address: ', textfield(-name => 'address'), br(), 'Cell number: ', textfield(-name => 'cell'), br(), 'E-Mail ', textfield(-name => 'email'), br(), submit(), end_form(), end_html(); } Post method form page is modifying as get method form page and code is above. Internet System Administration June 2011 Final @NCC Education 2011
  27. 27. 9 Screenshot: Get method form. Screenshot: client part code of get method page. Internet System Administration June 2011 Final @NCC Education 2011
  28. 28. 9 Task 4: Problem Statement: Write a report (approximately 600 words) comprising of the following: a) Briefly description of the P2P and Client-server architectures and the affect each technology has had on the Internet environment. b) Briefly discussion of the salient features of two well known applications of the client-server architecture and one example each for four main categories of the P2P architecture i.e. Communication and collaboration, File sharing, Platform as well as Distributed computing. c) Comparison of the two architectures, particularly from the following points of view. 1) Cost effectiveness 2) Expertise required for management and configuration 3) Provision of system wide services 4) Network security 5) Handling organizational expansion 6) Availability of mature technologies 7) Traffic congestion on the network 8) Availability of redundant resources for maintenance and in case of node failure 9) Computer resource sharing 10) The best uses of architectures Introduction: In this task I have to describe about P2P and client server architectures and the affect each technology has had on the Internet environment. I also have to write about Features of two well known applications of the client-server architecture and some Comparison of the two architectures. a) P2P and Client-server architectures and the affect each technology: P2P: Peer-to-peer is that it is relatively inexpensive and fairly simple to set up and manage. The flip side is that it is limited in extensibility, tends to overburden user workstations by having them play the role of server to other users, is largely unsecured, and is typically unable to provide system-wide services since the typical workstation will run a standard desktop operating system incapable of hosting any major service.( Client/Server Vs Peer to Peer Networking(accessd on 08/06/2011))xxvi Client Server: Client-server is that it can extend to handle organizational growth, allows user workstations to function as unburdened clients, can provide sophisticated system-wide services, and is configurable for maximum security. The downside is obvious: higher initial capital investment to establish, and Internet System Administration June 2011 Final @NCC Education 2011
  29. 29. 9 a greater level of technology expertise required to configure and manage, as compared to the vanilla peer-to-peer network.( Client/Server Vs Peer to Peer Networking(accessd on 08/06/2011))xxv b) Two well known applications of the client-server architecture and one example each for four main categories of the P2P architecture: c) Comparison of the two architectures, particularly from the following points of view. 1) Cost effectiveness: P2P: Low because any workstation can become a server by sharing resources. It's free; all client software is included with any release of Windows 9x, Windows NT Workstation, Windows 2000 Professional, Windows Me, and WindowsXP(Comparing Client/Server and Peer-to-Peer Networks). xxvii Client Server: High, due to specialized design of server, high-performance nature of hardware, and redundancy features. License fees per workstation user are part of the cost of the Network Operating System server software (Windows NT and Windows 2000 Server, .NET Server, and Novell NetWare)( Comparing Client/Server and Peer-to-Peer Networks).xxvi 2) Expertise required for management and configuration P2P: In P2P network, expert user not require to use this network or configure this network. Because drives can be easily shared between peer-to-peer computers, data only needs to be stored on one computer. Client Server: Server needs a expert to configure. Servers are specialised software or networking operating system. It have to be configure for business require or user need and always alert in security. Server controll the whole network and server administrator configure it. Server provide service on a network. 3) Provision of system wide services 4) Network securityxxviii P2P: Low because knowing the password gives anybody access to a shared resource. Due to the security issues and the lack of extensibility, peer-to-peer networks are used in a home network or in Internet System Administration June 2011 Final @NCC Education 2011
  30. 30. 9 an environment where growth is not expected ( Client/Server Vs Peer to Peer Networking(accessd on 08/06/2011))xxv Figure : Per 2 Per network. Client Server: High because access is controlled by user or by group identity. For security administrator manage active directory. Figure : Client server network. 5) Handling organizational expansion 6) Availability of mature technologies 7) Traffic congestion on the networkxxix Internet System Administration June 2011 Final @NCC Education 2011
  31. 31. 9 P2P: Low because servers often act as workstations and workstations work as a server. Client Server: High because the server doesn't waste time or resources handling workstation tasks. 8) Availability of redundant resources for maintenance and in case of node failure 9) Computer resource sharingxxx Client server: client-server networks, where network information is stored on a centralized file server PC and made available to tens, hundreds, or thousands client PCs, the information stored across peer-to-peer networks is uniquely decentralized.( by Matt Chapman) xxix P2P: A peer-to-peer network allows two or more PCs to pool their resources together. Individual resources like disk drives, CD-ROM drives, and even printers are transformed into shared, collective resources that are accessible from every PC.( by Matt Chapman) xxix A peer-to-peer network can be built with either 10BaseT cabling and a hub or with a thin coax backbone. 10BaseT is best for small workgroups of 16 or fewer users that do not span long distances, or for workgroups that have one or more portable computers that may be disconnected from the network from time to time.( by Matt Chapman) xxix 10) The best uses of architectures Client server is the best architecture for network. Now a days it’s mostly use in world widely. Internet is on kind of client server network. Server give us service and we got it. Server’s are more inteligent againest normal os. Internet System Administration June 2011 Final @NCC Education 2011
  32. 32. 9 Reference: Internet System Administration June 2011 Final @NCC Education 2011
  33. 33. i Google desktop, Google Desktop Publisher's description, http://www.loaddd.com/audio_multimedia_software.php?id=239 ii The Secure Sockets Layer Protocol (SSL) : SSL -- Design Objectives and Constraints. http://www.ietf.org/proceedings/32/sec/cat.elgamal.slides.html, [accessed on 15/03/2011] iii Maury Wright is the Senior Technical Editor of LEDS MAGAZINE. Courtesy LEDs Magazine, [accessed on 15/03/2011] iv Brute Force Attack Against Weak Ciphers, http://ntrg.cs.tcd.ie/mepeirce/Dce/99/ssl/weak.htm, [accessed on 15/03/2011] v mrcracker, ssl basics, http://mrcracker.com/2009/05/ssl-basics/ , [accessed on 15/03/2011] vi SlideShare, http://www.slideshare.net/poustchi/proxy-servers-firewalls-178732, [accessed on 15/03/2011] vii Wikipedia, Proxy server, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proxy_server, [accessed on 15/03/2011] viii Browseme, Disadvantages of Proxy Server, http://browseme.info/about-proxy-server.asp, [accessed on 15/03/2011] ix Building Internet firewalls, Chapter 7 Proxy Systems, http://www.xs4all.nl/~sjoel/the-networking-cd-bookshelf/firewall/ch07_05.htm, [Accessed on 15/03/2011] x Epromptc, Web Spider, http://epromptc.com/web/web_spider_definition.html , [Accessed on 15/03/2011] xi Web crawler, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Web_crawler, [Accessed on 16/03/2011] xii springerlink , Abstract, Derek Doran . Swapna S. Gokhale, http://www.springerlink.com/content/5373335271231665, [Accessed on 16/03/2011] xiii Dr. Birgit Weischedel & Dr. Eelko K.R.E. Huizingh, Website Optimization with Web Metrics: A Case Study.Associate Professor of Business Development, Department of Business Development,
  34. 34. University of Groningen. xiv The tcp/ip guide, DNS Design Goals, Objectives and Assumptions, http://www.tcpipguide.com/free/t_DNSDesignGoalsObjectivesandAssumptions.htm, [Accessed on 16/03/2011] xv http://4lx.free.fr/articles/CAMB202.ps., [Accessed on 16/03/2011] xvi By Diane Davidowicz, 1999 Diane Davidowicz, http://compsec101.antibozo.net/papers/dnssec/dnssec.html. xvii By Diane Davidowicz, 1999 Diane Davidowicz, http://compsec101.antibozo.net/papers/dnssec/dnssec.html. xviii Ixiacom, firewall testing, http://www.ixiacom.com/library/test_plans/display?skey=firewall#3, [Accessed on 16/03/2011] xix Computer and information security handbook, By John R. Vacca, [Accessed on 16/03/2011] xx How to beef up wireless security, http://www.techrepublic.com/article/how-to-beef-up-wireless-security/1055365, [Accessed on 16/03/2011] xxi CCNA Cisco Certified Network Associate, study gude sixth edition, Todd Lammle. xxii Tcpipgude, http://www.tcpipguide.com, [Accessed on 16/03/2011] xxiii Slidshare, http://www.slideshare.net/eroglu/t-c-p-i-p-weaknesses-and-solutions, [Accessed on 16/03/2011] xxiv Slidshare, http://www.slideshare.net/eroglu/t-c-p-i-p-weaknesses-and-solutions, [Accessed on 16/03/2011] xxv Online documentation server, http://ods.com.ua/win/eng/program/Perl5Unleashed/ch22.phtml, [Accessed on 06/05/2011] xxvi xtreme.net.au, Client/Server Vs Peer to Peer Networking, http://www.xtreme.net.au/, [Accessed on 08/05/2011] xxvii Free open book, upgrading and repaireing PCs, Comparing Client/Server and Peer-to-Peer Networks, chapter 20, http://www.freeopenbook.com/upgrading-repairing-pc/ch20lev1sec3.html, [Accessed on 06/05/2011]
  35. 35. xxviii Free open book, upgrading and repaireing PCs, http://www.freeopenbook.com/upgrading-repairing-pc/ch20lev1sec3.html, [Accessed on 06/05/2011] xxix Free open book, http://www.freeopenbook.com/upgrading-repairing-pc/ch20lev1sec3.html, [Accessed on 06/05/2011] xxx IM Bored, clinet sever and peer to peer network comparison by Matt Chapman on May.08, 2010, under Uncategorized http://lateforlunch.co.uk/blogs/mattchapman/2010/05/06/clinet-sever-and-peer-to-peer-network- comparison/, [Accessed on 08/05/2011]

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