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Demonstrasi kimia


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Demonstrasi kimia

  1. 1. CHEMICAL DEMONSTRATIONS BOOKLET ‘exciting students about chemistry and helping them to understand chemical concepts’Prepared by Magda WajrakSchool of Natural SciencesEDITH COWAN UNIVERSITY © 2008
  2. 2. Contents Introduction 1 Topic: Physical and Chemical Changes Demonstration: Distinguishing between physical & chemical change 3 Topic: The Mole Concept Demonstration: Visualizing Avogadro’s number 6 Topic: Chemical Reactions Demonstration: Burning magnesium 8 Demonstration: Reaction between sodium and water 10 Demonstration: Reacting hydrogen gas with oxygen gas to produce water 12 Topic: Properties of gases Demonstration: Preparation and properties of oxygen gas 14 Topic: Energy forms Demonstration: Chemiluminescence reaction 16 Topic: Metallic bonding and alloys Demonstration: Memory metal 18 Topic: Oxidising agents and reaction rates Demonstration: Decomposition of hydrogen peroxide 20 Topic: Equilibrium and lechatelier’s principle Demonstration: Nitrogen dioxide and dinitrogen tetroxide equilibirium 22 Topic: Change of state Demonstration: Sublimation of iodine 24 Topic: Rates of reactions Demonstration: Oscillating Briggs-Rauscher reaction 25 Topic: Reactions of acids and bases Demonstration: Neutralisation reaction 27 Topic: pH indicators Demonstration: Carbonic acid and pH indicators 29 Topic: Oxidation states Demonstration: Oxidation states of vanadium 31 Topic: Redox reactions Demonstration: Zinc and copper sulfate redox reaction 34 Topic: Isomers Demonstration: Optical activity of sugar 36 Topic: Chemical properties of alcohols Demonstration: Oxidation of alcohol using dichromate 38 Topic: Polar and non-polar substances Demonstration: Lava lamp 40 Reducing sugars Demonstration: Silver mirror 41 Topic: Amino acids Demonstration: Iodine fuming – fingerprinting 42 References 43i Chemical Demonstrations Booklet © 2008
  3. 3. IntroductionIntroduction Chemistry is a visual subject with many abstract concepts that students find difficult to grasp. Chemical demonstrations can be a valuable tool for teachers to help students to understand difficult concepts and at the same time excite students about chemistry. Bassam Z. Shakhashiri in the book ‘Chemical Demonstrations: A Handbook for Teachers of Chemistry’ (Published by Univ of Wisconsin Press, 1989) states that ‘demonstrations capture interest, teach, inform, fascinate, amaze, and perhaps, most importantly, involve students in chemistry.’ For a number of years now I have been teaching first year foundations of chemistry unit to students who have no chemistry background or a limited science background. I observed that the students struggled with many chemical concepts and also were not as excited or interested in chemistry as I was, keeping their attention in a two hour lecture was a challenge. I realised that I needed to do something to capture student’s attention and interest during the lecture. So I decided to bring ‘real chemistry’ into the lecture theatre and perform chemical demonstrations during each lecture which were relevant to the topic being introduced and which helped students to grasp chemical concepts. However, finding chemical demonstrations which were safe enough to perform outside of lab; didn’t take up too much time; were easy to implement and used relatively cheap chemicals was rather difficult. I began to search for suitable demonstrations by talking to other chemistry lecturers (in 2005 I organised a workshop on the value of chemical demos during the Royal Australian Chemical Institute National Convention Conference), looked through literature and also came up with a number of my own demonstrations. In time I was able to compile enough demonstrations so that I had at least one for each of the topics I was teaching. Students were asked to comment on the use of the demos during my lectures and below are some of their responses: “The demonstrations are a great way to hold our attention and keep us interested while increasing our ability to remember the lecture content” “The demo’s are great! They helped me so much and inspired me to investigate chemistry further” “I think they are helpful because you remember the demos and therefore the reaction -> equations, it is easier to understand what is meant by the equations and I am more interested in chemistry because of them.” “I would prefer more demonstrations. The demonstrations are great they DO help me understand. I am a visual person, when it comes to exams I remember the demos.’ “I believe the demonstrations used in our lectures were extremely useful learning tool. It helped me remember kinds of chemical reactions, colours and products of reactions.” 1Chemical Demonstrations Booklet © 2008
  4. 4. Encouraged by these comments, I continue to perform chemical demonstrations in all my lectures. I have also, on many occasions, been invited to secondary and primary schools to perform these demonstrations and at various other outreach activities, such as the Siemens Science Experience and Science Week. Many teachers have expressed interest in these demonstrations and therefore I decided to put together a booklet with detailed information about each demonstration. The demonstrations featured in this booklet are appropriate for a range of levels from year eight up to year 12. Each demonstration has been thoroughly tested. For each demonstration, there is a list of equipment needed, preparation instructions, demonstration procedure and safety information (IMPORTANT: Please note that I have only provided very basic safety information, you should consult MSDS forms for more safety details with regard to the chemicals being used and disposal) as well as learning outcomes and concepts covered. I have also provided photos of the equipment and what actually happens during the demonstration (all photographs have been taken by me, please ask me for permission before using these photos). Please note that this is a first edition of the booklet and I am still in the process of developing it further and adding more demonstrations. I hope you will find this booklet useful in your teaching and I welcome any comments and suggestions. Magdalena Wajrak Chemistry Lecturer School of Natural Sciences, Faculty of Computing, Health and Science EDITH COWAN UNIVERSITY 270 Joondalup Drive JOONDALUP, WA, 6027 Email: Phone: 6304 56542 Chemical Demonstrations Booklet © 2008
  5. 5. TOPIC: Physical and Chemical ChangesDemonstration: Distinguishing between chemical and physical changeConcepts:A physical change does not involve any bond breaking or making and no new chemical is formed, only the state of the chemical is changed; eg. from solid to liquidA chemical change involves the breaking and making of bonds and the formation of a new substance, identified by, for example, a change in colour or formation of a gasSafety:safety glasses must be worn at all timesdo not touch dry ice using bare hands – use tongs or insulated gloveshandle lead nitrate and potassium iodide with care – minimise contact with skin by wearinggloves if possible when handing these chemicalsEquipment:Physical Changedry ice in an eskytongs250 mL conical flask or beakerblack backgroundChemical Change2 x large test tubesrubber stopper to fit test tube15 g lead nitrate15 g potassium iodideblack backgroundPreparation:Make sure that both lead nitrate and potassium iodide are in fine powder form, if not, grind-up separatelyeach solid using mortar and pestle, prior to the demonstration.Demonstration instructions:Physical change1. Using tongs, transfer some of the dry ice into a conical flask. Shake the flask to increase the rate of change from solid to gas.2. Alternatively, using tongs, transfer some dry ice directly onto a black background and gently blow across the dry ice. 3Chemical Demonstrations Booklet © 2008
  6. 6. Chemical change1. Place about 15g of lead nitrate into one test tube and about 15g of potassium iodide into another test tube then transfer one solid into another.2. Stopper the test tube and shake vigorously until there is a colour change. Please wear gloves.Observations:Physical ChangeA white vapour can be readily seen arising from the solid dry ice. This is condensed water as solid carbondioxide converts to gaseous carbon dioxide. Inform students that at atmospheric pressure it is not possibleto observe liquid phase of carbon dioxide.Chemical ChangeBoth lead nitrate and potassium iodide are whitesolids. Upon mixing, a yellow solid (lead iodide) isproduced. A change in colour indicates chemicalchange rather than physical change.4 Chemical Demonstrations Booklet © 2008
  7. 7. Chemical equations: CO2 (s)  CO2 (g) Pb(NO3 ) 2 (s) + 2KI(s)  PbI2 (s) + 2KNO3 (s) (yellow)Mixing of two solids to produce chemical reaction is unusual, as normally this reaction is done bymixing lead nitrate solution and potassium iodide solution, however, using solids is more effective asa demonstration.Students will observe that in the first instance there was only physical change since solid carbon dioxideturned into gas, whereas in the second example, a new substance with different colour was formed withno white powder remaining, which means that both potassium iodide and lead nitrate have converted to anew substance.Learning outcomes:Students will be able to distinguish between physical and chemical changes.Students will be able to write balanced equations from observations and include physical states for all reactants and products.Chemical disposal:Any left over dry ice should be placed in the esky. All solid waste should be disposed of into a special toxicwaste bin. 5Chemical Demonstrations Booklet © 2008
  8. 8. TOPIC: The mole conceptDemonstration: Visualizing Avogadro’s numberConcepts:Avogadro’s numberWhat is a mole and why chemists use it?The relationship between moles and massSafety:Wear safety gloves when measuring out one mole mass of aluminium and copper sulphateEquipment:One mole of a variety of elements and/or compounds, each in a suitable, sealed container. Below are some examplesPreparation:Weigh out one mole of a variety of elements and compounds and place each into a sealed container. Labeleach container with the element’s or compound’s name and its molecular weight.Demonstration instructions:1. Show class the amount of one mole of each element/compound (don’t forget to point out the molecular weight of each element and compound).2. Explain to students that a mole is just a number, just like dozen of eggs means 12 eggs, a mole of eggs would be 6.02x1023 eggs. Now although it is possible to pick up just one egg and weigh it, it is impossible to pick up one atom and weigh it, because we do not have the instruments sensitive enough to do that, so when we want to work with atoms we have to use large numbers of them, otherwise they are too small to measure out individually.3. Mention a number of analogies to describe the size of one mole to help students comprehend the size of this number, for example: 1 mole of rice would cover the whole of Australia to about 1 km deep; Approximately one mole is the number of millilitres of water in the Pacific Ocean; 1 mole of marbles, each 2 cm in diameter, would form a mountain 116 times higher than Mount Everest, and the base of it would be slightly larger than the area of the USA; 1 mole of oranges would form a sphere the size of the earth.6 Chemical Demonstrations Booklet © 2008
  9. 9. Observations:Students see a measurable unit (mole) of commonly used chemicals.Analogies for a mole are given using examples that students can identify with.Learning outcomes:Students should be able to understand that a mole is just a number, like a dozen, which is more realistic to work with when dealing with atoms.Students should be able to appreciate the size of a mole and at therefore the size of an atom.Students should be able to understand the relationship between mole and molar mass.Disposal of chemicals:Elements and compounds in sealed containers can be stored for future use - refer to MSDS forms forstorage requirements. 7Chemical Demonstrations Booklet © 2008
  10. 10. TOPIC: CHEMICAL REACTIONSDemonstration: Burning magnesiumConcepts:Characteristics of a chemical changeIdentification of products of a reactionBalancing chemical equationsSafety:Safety glasses MUST be worn at all timesDO NOT look directly at the light produced by the magnesiumWork on a heat-proof mat when using open flamesTurn off gas when not in useEquipment:safety glassesheat-proof matmetal tongsportable Bunsen burner or small gas torchmatchesmagnesium ribbon stripsPreparation:Check that the portable Bunsen burner is working. Make sure that smoke detectors have been de-activatedbefore doing this demo. Prepare small strips of magnesium and clean off (use sand paper) any oxide layerformed on the magnesium prior to burning.Demonstration instructions:1. Place portable Bunsen burner on top of the heat-proof mat. Turn on the gas and light the burner. Make sure that you have a blue-coned flame.2. Using metal tongs, pick up a piece of magnesium ribbon and hold it inside the hottest part of the flame. Wait until the magnesium starts to burn then take it out of the flame. Please make sure you tell students NOT TO look directly at the light produced by the magnesium.3. Drop the burning magnesium ribbon onto the heat-proof mat.Observations:The heated magnesium strip produces a bright white light (Figure 1).The magnesium changes from a silver metallic strip to a white powder.8 Chemical Demonstrations Booklet © 2008
  11. 11. Figure 1. Left - place magnesium ribbon in the hottest past of the flame and hold till it lights up, right – close upview of the burning magnesiumChemical equation: heat 2Mg(s) + O2 (g) 2MgO(s) silver metal white powderLearning outcomes:Students should be able to convert observations into a chemical equation.Students should be able to balance chemical equation.Students should identify states of matter and include those when writing equation.Disposal of chemicals:All solids may be placed into a laboratory bin. 9Chemical Demonstrations Booklet © 2008
  12. 12. TOPIC: CHEMICAL REACTIONSDemonstration: Reaction between sodium and waterConcepts:Characteristics of a chemical changeConverting observations into chemical equationIdentifying products of a reactionBalancing chemical equationsSafety:Safety glasses MUST be worn at all timesMUST use tweezers when handling sodiumTake only one piece of sodium at a time out of the paraffin oilObserve from a distance. Do not stand too close while the reaction is taking placeOnly use small pieces of sodium (no bigger than pea size)Equipment:safety glassesoverhead projectorlarge glass bowlwatertweezersscalpelceramic platesodium metal in a container with paraffin oilphenolphthalein indicatorPreparation:Cut three pea-size pieces of sodium metal and place them in paraffin oil in an enclosed container. Half-fillthe large glass bowl with water.Demonstration instructions:1. The bowl of water should be placed on top of the overhead projector.2. Place about five drops of phenolphthalein indicator into the water.3. Drop a small piece of sodium metal into water (Figure 1).Figure 1. Using tweezers drop small piece of sodiummetal into water.10 Chemical Demonstrations Booklet © 2008
  13. 13. Observations:A vigorous reaction takes place upon dropping the sodium metal into the water.A pink colour is formed as the metal reacts with the water (Figure 2).A colourless gas is evolved which ignites and small flame is produced (depends on the size of the sodium).Figure 2 As soon as the sodium is dropped into water, it starts to turn pink, the colour is due to phenolphthalein .indicator which turns pink in the presence of hydroxide ions, as the reaction proceeds more hydroxide ions areformed and more pink colour appears.Chemical equation: 2Na(s) + 2H2O(l) → 2NaOH(aq) + H2 (g)Learning outcomes:Students should gain practice in converting observations from a reaction into a chemical equation.Students should be able to balance chemical equations and identify states of matter.Students should understand the purpose of an indicator in this reaction and hence why the water turns pink once the sodium metal is dropped in.Disposal of chemicals:Left over solution should be washed down a laboratory sink with plenty of water. Make sure any left overunused sodium pieces are returned to the paraffin oil container. DO NOT place ANY sodium pieces (nomatter how small) down the sink. 11Chemical Demonstrations Booklet © 2008
  14. 14. TOPIC: CHEMICAL REACTIONSDemonstration: Reacting hydrogen gas with oxygen gas to produce waterConcepts:Characteristics of a chemical changeConverting observations into chemical equationIdentifying products of a reactionBalancing chemical equationsSafety:Safety glasses must be worn at all timesTie long hair backNote that this reaction produces a large flame and some smoke. DO NOT do this reaction in a small classroom. Reaction may be done in a lecture theatre with plenty of overhead space or alternatively outdoors away from flammablesRecommend you turn off smoke sensors to avoid an unnecessary evacuation – but note location of manual fire alarm and have a fire extinguisher close by in case of a fireDo not fill the balloon up too much with hydrogen as this will lead to a larger explosion. A small size balloon gives just as good as an affect and is safer and not as loudEquipment:safety glassesfew balloonshydrogen gasseveral pieces of string (about 2 m each)a long stick with wax taper secured to the endmatchesPreparation:Blow up the balloons with hydrogengas. If you are using a reactionbetween zinc and hydrochloric acidas your source of hydrogen gas, trynot to let in any air into the balloonas this may lead to balloon not toexplode, rather it will melt and burn.Tie a long piece of string to the endof each balloon.Demonstration instructions:1. Tie the end of the string around the leg of a chair or table. Make the string as long as possible, without allowing the balloon to touch the ceiling and so that you are able to reach it with the wax taper stick.2. Light the wax taper.3. Stand as far away as possible from the balloon and hold out the wax taper until it touches the balloon (Figure 1). WARN students of the bang.12 Chemical Demonstrations Booklet © 2008
  15. 15. Figure 1: Hydrogen balloon just before it explodes Figure 2: You can see the amount of heat given offObservations:A very loud bang is heard.A large ball of flame is produced (Figure 2).Inspection of the remains of the balloon show small droplets of water formed inside the balloon (Figure 3). Figure 3: Water droplets left on the remains of the balloonChemical equation: HEAT 2H2 (g) + O2 (g) 2H2O(l)Learning outcomes:Students should be able to write a balanced equation from observation and identify states of matter.Students should gain practice in converting observations from a reaction into a chemical equation.Disposal of chemicals:Unexploded hydrogen balloons should be leaked out away from sparks. 13Chemical Demonstrations Booklet © 2008
  16. 16. TOPIC: PROPERTIES OF GASESDemonstration: Preparation and properties of oxygen gasConcepts:Properties of oxygen gasMethod used in identification of oxygen gasThe role of a catalyst in a reactionBalancing chemical equationsSafety:Safety glasses MUST be worn at all timesTake care when handling glass tubing, particularly when inserting into stoppers or plastic tubing.Do not place a lighted wooden splint inside the O2 containing test tubeEquipment:safety glassesa large plastic container1 L beaker3 test tubesa delivery tube with a stopper on one enda clamp and standspatula10 mL measuring cylinderwooden splint and matchestwo rubber stoppersmanganese (IV) dioxide20 mL of 20% hydrogen peroxidePreparation:Three quarters fill a 1 L beaker with tap water.Fill two test tubes with water. Place a finger over the tube mouth, invert and place the unsealed end under the surface of the water before removing your finger. The test tube should not contain any air.Place the end of the delivery tube into the beaker.Clamp the reaction tube.Demonstration instructions:1. Do this reaction within the plastic container to contain any spills.2. Place a small quantity (about a spatula full) of MnO2 into a reaction tube and add 5 mL 20% H2O2 (Figure 1). Quickly replace the stopper assembly.3. Allow a little gas to pass through the delivery tube (to displace the air) and then collect a test tube of oxygen to directing the tubing underneath one of the water filled test tubes (Figure 2). If the reaction stops add a further 5 mL H2O2.14 Chemical Demonstrations Booklet © 2008
  17. 17. 4. When the test tube is filled with oxygen, stopper it and remove it from the beaker of water (Figure 3).5. Place a glowing, but not alight, wooden splint into the test tube (Figures 4 and 5).Figure 1: MnO2 bubbling Figure 2: Collecting oxygen Figure 3: Placing the rubber stopperFigure 4: Glowing splint Figure 5: Splint re-lighting in O2 filled test tubeObservations:The reaction is quite vigorous, with the black MnO2 foaming quickly (Figure 1).A colourless, odourless gas (O2) is seen filling up the water filled test tubes (Figure 2).Oxygen is collected by downward displacement of water.A glowing splint re-lights when placed inside the test tube (Figure 4).Chemical equation: MnO2 2H2O2 (l) O2 (g) + 2H2O(l)Learning outcomes:Students should be able to explain properties of oxygen gas.Students should be able to explain the role of a catalyst.Students should be able to write a balanced chemical equation for the preparation of oxygen gas.Disposal of chemicals:Liquid waste should be washed down the sink with plenty of water. 15Chemical Demonstrations Booklet © 2008
  18. 18. TOPIC: ENERGY FORMSDemonstration: Chemiluminescence reactionConcepts:Light as a form of energyReactions that produce energy in a form of lightExcited statesSafety:Safety glasses MUST be worn at all timesWear safety gloves when handling hydrogen peroxideCheck MSDS forms for safety information for hydrogen peroxide, luminol and copper sulphateEquipment:0.3 g luminol36 g sodium bicarbonate6 g sodium carbonate0.6 g copper sulphate –5-hydrate1 L of water500 mL of 10% hydrogen peroxide2 x 1 L beakersYou may also want to bring in other examples more readily accessible, such as glowing partysticks/ necklaces.Preparation:In a 2 L beaker mix together the luminol, sodium bicarbonate, sodium carbonate, copper sulphate and 1Lof water (heating may be required to dissolve luminol). In another 1L beaker place 500mL of 10% hydrogenperoxide.Demonstration instructions:In a completely dark room mix together the two solutions by pouring them both at the same time into a 2 Lbeaker from some height. Allow the solutions to mix before they go into the beaker – looks great!16 Chemical Demonstrations Booklet © 2008
  19. 19. Observations:As the two solutions are mixed a bright blue glow is seen, which only lasts for a few seconds.After a few seconds the reaction stops glowing and a brown coloured solution is formed.Lots of fizzing is observed.Learning outcomes:Students should understand that some chemical reactions emit energy in the form of light and these are called chemiluminescence reactions.Students should understand the concept of excited states of atoms.Disposal of chemicals:All solutions should be poured down a laboratory sink with plenty of water. 17Chemical Demonstrations Booklet © 2008
  20. 20. TOPIC: METALLIC BONDING AND ALLOYSDemonstration: Memory metalConcepts:Metallic bondingCrystalline structuresAlloysSafety:Be careful with hot water, use tongs when placing and removing memory metal from hot waterEquipment:2 x 250 mL beakersMemory Metal (Nitinol) in some configuration (can be obtained from Institute of Chemical Education at a cost of approx. $50)200 mL of hot water (at least 60oC)200 mL of cold water (less than 20oC)Preparation:Fill one beaker with 150 mL cold water and the other beaker with 150 mL hot water (50°C)Demonstration instructions:1. Show the students the memory metal in it’s original configuration, then stretch it out completely.2. Place the stretched out wire into the beaker with cold water (Figure 1).3. Then place it into the beaker with hot water (Figure 2).Observations:When the stretched out wire is placed in cold water, nothing happens, however, when it is placed into thehot water it immediately returns to its original shape. See the following website for detailed informationexplaining the theory and cool movies( Chemical Demonstrations Booklet © 2008
  21. 21. Learning outcomes:Students should understand what is an alloy and the difference in properties between pure metals and alloys formed from those metals.Students should be able to explain using metallic bonding theory why hot water was needed to reform the shape of the memory metal. Figure 1. The memory metal is still deformed after being taken out of ice-cold water Figure 2. The memory metal reforms its original structure after being placed in hot water.Disposal of chemicals:Nothing to dispose of. 19Chemical Demonstrations Booklet © 2008
  22. 22. TOPIC: OXIDISING AGENTS AND REACTION RATESDemonstration: Decomposition of hydrogen peroxideConcepts:Oxidising agentsDecomposition reactionsReaction rates and catalystsSafety:Safety glasses MUST be worn at all timesWear safety gloves when handling 30% hydrogen peroxideCheck MSDS forms for safety information for hydrogen peroxideEquipment:100 mL of 30% hydrogen peroxidepea-size amount of potassium permanganate5 L conical flaskspatulaoverhead projectorPreparation:No prior preparation required.Demonstration instructions:Add enough hydrogen peroxide to cover the bottom of the conical flask (about 30ml into 5 L flask) –Figure 1. Place the flask on top of a projector and turn on the light. Then quickly add a pea-sized amount ofKMnO4 to the flask. Make sure you are wearing safety glasses (Figure 2). Figure 1. Pour in enough hydrogen peroxide Figure 2. Quickly add small amount of potassium permanganateto cover the bottom of the flask. while the flask is sitting on top of the projector20 Chemical Demonstrations Booklet © 2008
  23. 23. Observations:When the peroxide is poured into the flask, it looks like it is ‘boiling’ as it slowly starts to decompose to a colourless gas.When potassium permanganate is added, suddenly all of the hydrogen peroxide is decomposed and due to lots of heat being given off steam is formed (Figure 2).At the end of the decomposition process, potassium permanganate is seen at the bottom of the flask (Figure 3). Figure 3 left over KMnO4Chemical equation: KMnO4 2H2O2 (l) 2H2O(l) + O2 (g)Learning outcomes:Students should appreciate the role of a catalyst in increasing the rate of reaction and not taking part in the reaction.Students should be able to understand decomposition reactions.Students should be able to write a balanced chemical equation for decomposition of hydrogen peroxide.Disposal of chemicals:Rinse out the flask with water and wash it down the laboratory sink with plenty of water. 21Chemical Demonstrations Booklet © 2008
  24. 24. TOPIC: EQUILIBRIUM AND LeCHATELIER’S PRINCIPLEDemonstration: Nitrogen dioxide and dinitrogen tetroxide equilibiriumConcepts:Characteristics of dynamic equilibriumLeChatelier’s PrincipleTemperature effect on equilibriumPredicting shifts in equilibriumSafety:Safety glasses must be worn at all timesEquipment:3 sealed glass tubes of NO2 /N2O42 x 2000 mL beakersiceboiling waterPreparation:Fill one beaker ¾ full of boilingwater and the other beaker ¾ fullof ice.Demonstration instructions:1. Place one NO2 /N2O4 tube in the hot water and the other tube into beaker with ice (try to pack the ice around the entire tube) and leave one tube at room temperature (Figure 1).2. After a several minutes remove the tubes from the beakers and observe the colours. Figure 1. Comparison of NO2/N2O4 tubes after several minutes at different temperatures.22 Chemical Demonstrations Booklet © 2008
  25. 25. Observations:The gas in the tube with hot water becomes very dark brown (Figure 2).The gas in the tube with ice becomes very light brown. Figure 2. Close-up shot of tube in hot water, showing how there is more NO2 being producedChemical equation: 2NO2 (g) ↔ N2O4 (g) (brown) (colourless)Learning outcomes:Students should understand the concept of dynamic equilibrium.Students should be able to predict the shit in equilibrium after subjecting the NO2 /N2O4 equilibrium to different temperatures.Disposal of chemicals:Nothing to dispose of. 23Chemical Demonstrations Booklet © 2008
  26. 26. TOPIC: CHANGE OF STATEDemonstration: Sublimation of iodineConcepts:Change of state from solid to gasStates of matterClosed system dynamic equilibriumSafety:Safety glasses MUST be worn at all timesWear safety gloves when handling iodineMinimise exposure to iodine fumesEquipment:2 L measuring cylinderwatchglassiodine crystalsPreparation:No prior preparation required.Demonstration instructions:1. Place some crystals into the cylinder so that they cover the base.2. Quickly place the watch-glass on top of the cylinder to enclose the gas.Observations:While the reaction starts immediately it will take some time to see the purple gas inside the cylinder, it will take up to about 30 min to see considerable amount of iodine gas.Initially a pale purple gas will be seen in the cylinder. This is most obvious in a well-lit room with a white background.Chemical equation: 2I(s) ←→ I2 (g)Learning outcomes:Students should be able to observe that this is an enclosed system where dynamic equilibrium has been set up between solid and gas states.Students should be able to understand that at atmospheric pressure iodine will directly change state from solid to gas.Students should be able to write a balanced equation for this process.Students should be able to recognise that this is a physical change.Disposal of chemicals:Place left over solid iodine back into iodine bottle.24 Chemical Demonstrations Booklet © 2008
  27. 27. TOPIC: RATES OF REACTIONSDemonstration: Oscillating Briggs-Rauscher reactionConcepts:Rates of reactionsTypes of reactionsSafety:Safety glasses and safety gloves MUST be worn at all timesPerform this demonstration in a well ventilated roomRefer to individual MSDS before handling and disposing of the chemical used in this demonstrationEquipment:1 L beaker500 mL beaker500 mL measuring cylinder100 mL measuring cylinderstirring rod850 mL DI water13.0 g KI1.0 g MnSO4.1H2O5.0 g Malonic acid2.5 g Vitex3 mL conc. H2SO470 mL of 30% H2O2Preparation:In a 1 L beaker dissolve potassium iodide, manganese sulfate hydrate, malonic acid, vitex and concentratedsulfuric acid in 850 mL DI water.Demonstration instructions:1. Measure out 300 mL of the dissolved solids and transfer to the 500 mL beaker.2. Measure out 70 mL H2O2 and add to the dissolved solids.3. Quickly transfer mixture to the 500 mL measuring cylinder.4. Stir the solution in the measuring cylinder to create a vortex to increase the visual appeal of the reaction as the oscillation proceeds.Observations:The reaction initially turns from colourless to yellow (Figure 1).The reaction then proceeds to a dark blue and back to colourless.The reaction will oscillate through this colour change about 5 – 10 times before slowing down and stopping in dark blue (Figure 2).Throughout this reaction colourless gas is formed.Figure 1. Adding H2O2 to the dissolved solids startsthe reaction as seen by the colour change fromcolourless to yellow. 25Chemical Demonstrations Booklet © 2008
  28. 28. Figure 2. The reaction oscillates between yellow, dark blue and colourless.Chemical equation:This reaction is quite complex and not fully understood. As I2 is generated (equation ii) the blue colour isformed with vitex and as it is reduced to I-, the blue colour disappears. The system runs down as malonicacid is consumed.(i) H + + KIO3 → HIO3 + K+ Mn2+(ii) 5H2O2 + 2HIO3 → I2 + 6H2O + 5O2 (g)(iii) I2 + CH2 (COOH) 2 → ICH(COOH) 2 + I- + H +(iv) I2 + ICH(COOH) 2 → I2 C(COOH) 2 + I- + H +(v) 5H2O2 + I2 → 2HIO3 + 4H2O(vi) HIO + H2O2 → I- + O2 + H + + H2OLearning outcomes:Students should be able to appreciate that chemical reactions have different rates.Students should be able to recognise hydrogen peroxide as an oxidising agentDisposal of chemicals:This reaction produces elemental iodine, I2, which should be reduced to iodide ions before disposal.Therefore, under a hood add sodium thiosulfate crystals until the mixture becomes colourless. When itcools, it may be flushed down the laboratory drain with plenty of water.26 Chemical Demonstrations Booklet © 2008
  29. 29. TOPIC: REACTIONS OF ACIDS AND BASESDemonstration: Neutralisation reactionConcepts:Chemical properties of acids and basespH indicatorsAcid-base reactions producing carbon dioxide gasSafety:Safety glasses must be worn at all timesHandle all chemicals with careEquipment:1 L measuring cylinder100 mL water2 large spoonfuls of laundry detergent4 large spoonfuls of NaHCO3400 mL beaker200 mL vinegar3 mL bromophenol blue indicatorA large tray to catch any spillsPreparation:In the 1 L measuring cylinder add the water, detergent and NaHCO3 and in the beaker mix the vinegar withthe indicator.Demonstration instructions:Quickly pour the contents of the beaker into the cylinder (Figures 1 and 2).Observations:A thick foam is produced (Figure 2).When the vinegar is added the solution in the cylinder changes colour to blue/purple (Figure 3). 27Chemical Demonstrations Booklet © 2008
  30. 30. Figure 1: Adding vinegar. Figure 2: Mixing the vinegar and Figure 3: Production of CO2 sodium hydrogen-carbonate causes and the presence of detergent a colour change due to the increasing produces a foam that spills over pH and the presence of universal the walls of the cylinder. indicator.Chemical equation: NaHCO3 (s) + CH3COOH(aq) → CH3COONa(aq) + H2O(l) + CO2 (g)Learning outcomes:Students should be able to predict the gas that is evolved when acid reacts with bicarbonateStudents should be able to explain the reason for the colour change.Students should be able to write a balanced chemical equation for this reaction.Disposal of chemicals:Dispose of all waste down a laboratory sink with plenty of water.28 Chemical Demonstrations Booklet © 2008
  31. 31. TOPIC: pH INDICATORSDemonstration: Carbonic acid and pH indicatorsConcepts:Common pH indicator solutions and their pH rangeSafety:Safety glasses MUST be worn at all times.Do not handle dry ice with your bare hands – use either tongs or insulated glovesEquipment:3 x 1000 mL measuring cylinders, each with 750 mL wateruniversal indicatorbromothymol blue indicatorphenolphthaleindilute NaOH2 mL disposable pipettedry Icetongs or insulated glovesPreparation:No prior preparation required.Demonstration instructions:1. To the first cylinder add 10 drops of universal indicator, to the second cylinder add 10 drops of bromothymol blue and to the third cylinder add 10 drops of phenolphthalein.2. Add a couple of drops of NaOH to each cylinder (Figure 1) then stir each solution to get a homogenous colour.3. Using the tongs, drop small pieces of dry ice into the cylinders and leave to stand (Figure 2).Figure 1: NaOH and indicators Figure 2: Dry ice is added to Figure 3: While the dryare added to each cylinder. each cylinder. ice dissolves, CO2 forms(A) Universal Indicator; carbonic acid.(B) Bromothymol blue;(C) Phenylphthalein. 29Chemical Demonstrations Booklet © 2008
  32. 32. Figure 4: The production of Figure 5: The pH continues to Figure 6: The last colour change.carbonic acid alters the pH, as lower, causing another colourseen by the change in colour of change.the indicators.Observations:The dry ice appears to ‘dissolve’ in the water.As more CO2 dissolves the colour of each solution with respect to the change in pH of each solution.The pH drop is seen by the colour change in all three cylinders (Figures 3 – 6).A mist forms when dry ice is added to each measuring cylinder.Chemical equation: - NaOH(aq) + CO2 (s) → Na + (aq) + HCO3 (aq)Learning outcomes:Students should be able to identify the pH of each cylinder as indicated by the colour change.Students should be able to write a chemical equation for the reaction.Disposal of chemicals:Dispose of all solutions down a laboratory sink with plenty of water.30 Chemical Demonstrations Booklet © 2008
  33. 33. TOPIC: OXIDATION STATESDemonstration: Oxidation states of vanadiumConcepts:Oxidation states and electron configurationVariable oxidation statesSafety:Safety glasses MUST be worn at all timesHandle amalgam with great care. Mercury is poisonous. Wear gloves.Use a plastic tray at all times to trap any mercury spilled.Please check MSDS form for safety information on ammonium vanadate solutionEquipment:sarge tray to catch any spills50 mL of ammonium vanadate solution (NH4VO3 )120 mL 0.1 M H2SO430 mL of 2% zinc-mercury amalgam2 x Stoppered bottlesstirring rod100 mL measuring cylinder20 mL measuring cylinder25.0 mL pipettePreparation:Prepare the vanadate solution prior to the demonstration. Dissolve about 2 g, accurately weighed,of ammonium vanadate in about 20 mL of dilute sodium hydroxide solution. Dilute to 250.00 mL in avolumetric flask. Then pipette 25.00 mL of this vanadate solution into an Erlenmeyer flask (conical flask).Add 20 mL of dilute sulphuric acid and approx. 1 g of sodium sulphite. Boil the solution in a fume cupboarduntil all the excess sulphur dioxide is expelled (10-12 minutes should suffice). Reduce a mixture of 25 mLof the vanadate solution (prepared in Part A above) and about 20 mL of dilute sulphuric acid by shakingvigorously with 2 % zinc amalgam, contained in a stoppered bottle, until no further colour changes occur.Note the intermediate colour(s).Demonstration instructions:1. Mix 25.0 mL vanadate solution, 20 mL sulfuric acid and the amalgam in a stoppered bottle (Figure 1).2. Shake the bottle vigorously for approximately 5 minutes — ensure the bottle is well sealed by holding your thumb firmly on the stopper while shaking (Figure 2).3. Measure out 60 mL of vanadate solution into the second stoppered bottle.4. Decant the solution from the first bottle into the second bottle.5. Introduce a further 25.0 mL vanadate and 20 mL acid into the second bottle.6. Repeat step 2 onwards through all oxidation states (Figure. 3).Observations:When shaking the mixture vigorously the vanadium goes through different oxidation states.Colours are associated with each oxidation state: yellow (V5 + ), blue (V4 + ), blue-green (V3 + ) and lavender (V2+ ) (Figure 4). The V4 + appears to be green due to a mixture of the yellow and blue of V5 + and V4 + . 31Chemical Demonstrations Booklet © 2008
  34. 34. Figure 1. Adding the vandate Figure 2. Shaking the mixture Figure 3. Final colour of the solution to the zinc amalgam. solutionChemical equation:This reaction is quite complex. The zinc is required for the reduction of V3+.The ions related to each vanadium species are: Vanadium (V) is (VO2) + Vanadium (IV) is (VO) 2+ Vanadium (III) is V3+ Vanadium (II) is V2+The reactions are as follows:(VO2) + (aq) + 2H + (aq) + e- ←→ (VO) 2+ (aq) + H2O (l)(VO) 2+ (aq) + 2H + (aq) + e- ←→ V3 + (aq) + H2O (l)2H + (aq) + 2e - ←→ H2 (g)V3 + (aq) + e - ←→ V2+ (aq)Zn2+ (aq) + 2e - ←→ Zn32 Chemical Demonstrations Booklet © 2008
  35. 35. Y ellow Blue Blue-Green Purple Figure 4: The colours of each oxidation state of vanadiumLearning outcomes:Students should be able to explain the colour changes in each stage of the process.Students should be able to recognizing what species have been reduced and what species have been oxidized.Students should be able to identifying all oxidation states of vanadium and their colours.Students should be able to write redox half-equations.Disposal of chemicals:Stopper the bottle that contains the zinc amalgam and make sure that the amalgam is left in 2 M sulfuric acid.Dispose of the vanadium solutions down a laboratory sink with plenty of water. 33Chemical Demonstrations Booklet © 2008
  36. 36. TOPIC: REDOX REACTIONSDemonstration: Zinc and copper sulfate redox reactionConcepts:Spontaneous redox reactionsOxidation and reduction processesBalancing redox reactionsSafety:Safety glasses MUST be worn at all timesHandle all chemicals with careEquipment:2 square zinc strips2 x 200 mL beakers150 mL of 0.1 mol L-1 CuSO4150 mL of 0.1 mol L-1 ZnSO4tongsPreparation:Cut out square zinc strips.Demonstration instructions:1. Place a zinc strip into each beaker.2. Pour in CuSO4 solution into one beaker and ZnSO4 solution into the other beaker.Observations:The Zn metal will react with the copper solution immediately and a brown precipitate will form on the top of the zinc metal, with time the blue solution of the copper sulphate will change to colourless.Nothing happens to the second beaker where zinc is sitting in zinc sulphate solution.After 30 minutes more brown precipitate deposits on the zinc in the copper sulphate solution and still no reaction in the second beaker.Figure 1. Pouring CuSO4 and ZnSO4 solutions into Figure 2. Cu metal deposits on the Zn strip in thebeakers containing zinc strips. CuSO4 solution, but not in the ZnSO4 solution34 Chemical Demonstrations Booklet © 2008
  37. 37. Chemical equation:Zn(s) + CuSO4 (aq) → ZnSO4 (aq) + Cu(s) E° = + 1.1VZn(s) + ZnSO4 (aq) → No reaction Learning outcomes:Students should understand and be able to explain the reaction between Zn metal and CuSO4.Students should understand and be able to explain why there is no reaction between Zn metal and ZnSO4.Students should be able to write full equations for the redox reactions.Students should be able to predict if a reaction is spontaneous or not.Students should be able to calculate potential of redox reaction.Disposal of chemicals:Dispose of liquid waste into a laboratory sink with plenty of water. Dispose of solid waste into alaboratory bin. 35Chemical Demonstrations Booklet © 2008
  38. 38. TOPIC: ISOMERSDemonstration: Optical activity of sugarConcepts:Functional groupsStructural isomerismRotation of lightSafety:Be careful with hotplate and avoid sugar solution spilling over onto the hotplateEquipment:overhead projector2 pieces of cardboard about A4 size4 squares of Polaroid film (about 4cm wide)sticky tape2 x 250 mL beakers400 mL waterwhite sugarhot platestirrer barPreparation:Cut two squares in each piece of cardboard at equal distance apart. Secure the Polaroid film over the holes, with the Polaroid’s grain direction on one sheet at 900 to the other sheet (see sketches below). ↑ → ↑ →In one of the beakers dissolve as much sugar in 200 mL water until a syrup is formed – heating will be required.36 Chemical Demonstrations Booklet © 2008
  39. 39. Demonstration instructions:1. Place one of the Polaroid sheets on the overhead projector (Figure. 1). Then place each beaker over a Polaroid square. Note that a square of light is projected through both liquids (Figure 2). Figure 1. Setup for Step 1. Figure 2. Projection of light through one layer of polaroid film.2. Then place the other Polaroid sheet on top of the beakers in line with the other sheet (see Figure 3). Note that now only one square of light, coming from the beaker containing the sugar is being projected (Figure 4). Figure 3. Setup for step 2. Figure 4. Projection of light through two layers of Polaroid film. Some light is seen through the sugar solution.Observations:When the Polaroid sheets are in the same vertical position light goes through both solutions.When one Polaroid sheet is in the horizontal position, only the sugar solution shows the reflection.Learning outcomes:Students should understand that sugar is optically active and therefore rotates plane of polarized light, where as water isn’t optically active and cannot rotate plane of polarized light.Disposal of chemicals:Not applicable. 37Chemical Demonstrations Booklet © 2008
  40. 40. TOPIC: CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF ALCOHOLSDemonstration: Oxidation of Alcohol using DichromateConcepts:Oxidation of alcoholsSafety:Safety glasses MUST be worn at all timesWash hands immediately if they come into contact with dichromateKeep flames away from alcoholEquipment:overhead projector2 crystallization dishes3 mL spirits (e.g. Vodka)6 mL acidified 0.1 mol L-1 K 2Cr2O7Preparation:To allow the reaction to be more obvious you may like to spikethe vodka with some ethanol.Demonstration instructions:1. Place both crystallization dishes on the overhead projector.2. Pour half of the K 2Cr2O7 into each dish.3. To one dish add 3 mL of the vodka and into the other dish add 3mL of water.Observations:After a couple of minutes the dish with the addition of Vodka changes colour from orange to green (Figure 1).38 Chemical Demonstrations Booklet © 2008
  41. 41. Chemical equations: 3CH3CH2OH + 16H + + 2Cr2O72- → 3CH3COOH + 4Cr3+ + 11H2O (orange) (green)Figure 1. On the left is potassium dichromate, on the right some alcohol has been added to the dichromate.Learning outcomes:Students should be able to calculate oxidation numbers for an organic reaction.Students should be able to understand the reaction of ethanol with dichromate.Students should be able to write a balanced chemical equation to represent this reaction.Students should be able to predicting the organic product when any alcohol is oxidized.Students should be able to explain how breathalysers workDisposal of chemicals:Dispose of dichromate solution into a special waste beaker and follow school’s protocols for disposal of thischemical. Wash all other chemicals down laboratory sink with plenty of water. 39Chemical Demonstrations Booklet © 2008
  42. 42. TOPIC: POLAR AND NON-POLAR SUBSTANCESDemonstration: Lava lamp!Concepts:Solubility of polar and non-polar substancesDensity of solutionsSafety:Safety glasses MUST be worn at all timesKeep flames away from alcoholEquipment:500 mL measuring cylinder vegetable oil250 mL of water oil soluble dye (Sudan III works well)250 mL of 100% ethanol plastic pipettePreparation:Add a small amount of Sudan III powder to a small amount of vegetable oil and mix. Pour water intocylinder and then carefully add ethanol to cylinder trying to reduce any mixing. The division of the twolayers will not be readily observable from a distance.Demonstration instructions:Using plastic pipette apply colour oil drop wise to the cylinder (Figure 1).Observations:Oil moves quickly through the top ethanol layer but then gets suspended at the water interface (Figure 2). Figure 1. Addition of oil dye Figure 2. Suspended oil dye dropLearning outcomes:Students should be able to explain why the vegetable oil stops at the water interface.Students should be able to understand why ethanol is on top of the water.Disposal of chemicals:Wash all chemicals down laboratory sink with plenty of water.40 Chemical Demonstrations Booklet © 2008
  43. 43. TOPIC: REDUCING SUGARSDemonstration: Silver mirror testConcepts:Reducing sugarsReactions of monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharidesReactions of aldehydesSafety:Safety glasses and gloves MUST be worn at all timesCheck MSDS forms for safety information for concentrated ammonia – DO NOT breathe in the fumesEquipment:150 mL of 0.1 M AgNO32-4 mL of conc. ammonia solution4g of glucose250 mL round bottom flaskstopper and pipettePreparation:No prior preparation.Demonstration instructions:Place 150mL of 0.1M AgNO3 into 250mL round bottom flask, add 2-4mL of conc. ammonia solution and thenadd 4g of glucose. Stopper the round bottom flask and swirl solution for about 30min. You can speed upthe formation of the mirror by placing the flaks in a hot water bath (70 0C).Observations:As the solution is swirled around the flask theinside of the flask is covered with a reflectivematerial, which looks like mirror.Learning outcomes:Students should be able to explain what is a reducing sugar.Disposal of chemicals:Place any left over silver nitrate into a specialsilver collection bottle for correct disposal. 41Chemical Demonstrations Booklet © 2008
  44. 44. TOPIC: AMINO ACIDSDemonstration: Iodine fuming – fingerprintingConcepts:Amino acidsSafety:Safety glasses and gloves MUST be worn at all timesCheck MSDS forms for safety information for iodine – DO NOT breathe in the fumesEquipment:Iodine crystals1 L beaker or chromatography development tankclean A4 sheet of papervaselinePreparation:Place some solid iodine at the bottom of a chromatography developing plastic tank (cylinder like) and cover, allow the iodine fumes to develop.Demonstration instructions:Get a clean sheet of white paper, ask student to place his/her palm on the sheet of paper and then place paper inside the developing tank (sweaty palm gives best results), finger and palm print develops in few minutes.Observations:After a few minutes the imprint of the hand appears as a dark brown stain on the paper.Iodine fuming is based on electron-donor- acceptor complexes, basically the complex is formed between iodine and the amino acids found in the sweat.Learning outcomes:Students should be able to understand that sweat contains amino acids.Disposal of chemicals:Place any left over iodine back into the iodine bottle.42 Chemical Demonstrations Booklet © 2008
  45. 45. ReferencesSources of demonstrations1. Ammon, D., Clarke, D., Farrell, F., Schibeci, R., Webb, J., 1982, Interesting Chemistry Demonstrations, Murdoch University Publications, WA, Australia.2. Boyce, M., and Wajrak, M.,2003, Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory Manual, ECU Publications, WA, Australia.3. Carlson, R., Lewis, S., Lim, K., 2000, Seeing the light: Using Chemiluminescence to Demonstrate Chemical Fundamentals, Deakon University, Victoria, Australia.4. Dr Janet Scott from Monash University, Centre for Green Chemistry, Victoria, Australia5. ‘Chemistry Demonstrations Video’, University of Leads, UK6. Dr Trent Dickeson, University of Newcastle, NSW, Australia 43Chemical Demonstrations Booklet © 2008
  46. 46. Chemical Demonstrations Booklet © 2008