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# Equilibrium

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### Equilibrium

1. 1. Equilibrium andLe Chatelier’s Principle
2. 2. CA StandardsStudents know how to use LeChatelier’sprinciple to predict the effect ofchanges inconcentration, temperature, andpressure.Students know equilibrium isestablished when forward and reversereaction rates are equal.
3. 3. Chemical EquilibriumReversible Reactions: A chemical reaction in which the products can react to re-form the reactantsChemical Equilibrium: When the rate of the forward reaction equals the rate of the reverse reaction and the concentration of products and reactants remains unchanged 2HgO(s)  2Hg(l) + O2(g) Arrows going both directions (  ) indicates equilibrium in a chemical equation
4. 4. LeChatelier’s PrincipleWhen a system at Henry Le Chatelierequilibrium is placed understress, the system willundergo a change in sucha way as to relieve thatstress.
5. 5. Le Chatelier Translated:When you take something away from a system at equilibrium, the system shifts in such a way as to replace what you’ve taken away.When you add something to a system at equilibrium, the system shifts in such a way as to use up what you’ve added.
6. 6. LeChatelier Example #1A closed container of ice and water atequilibrium. The temperature is raised. Ice + Energy  WaterThe equilibrium of the system shifts to rightthe _______ to use up the added energy.
7. 7. LeChatelier Example #2A closed container of N2O4 and NO2 atequilibrium. NO2 is added to the container. N2O4 (g) + Energy  2 NO2 (g)The equilibrium of the system shifts to leftthe _______ to use up the added NO2.
8. 8. LeChatelier Example #3A closed container of water and its vapor atequilibrium. Vapor is removed from the system. water + Energy  vapor The equilibrium of the system shifts to right the _______ to replace the vapor.
9. 9. LeChatelier Example #4A closed container of N2O4 and NO2 atequilibrium. The pressure is increased. N2O4 (g) + Energy  2 NO2 (g)The equilibrium of the system shifts to leftthe _______ to lower thepressure, because there are fewermoles of gas on that side of theequation.