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Biochemistry

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Biochemistry

  1. 1. Biochemistry Lysozyme – a protein
  2. 2. Carbohydrates There are two types of carbohydrates: The simple sugars  Glucose, sucrose, fructose (and many others) The complex carbohydrates.  Carbohydrates that are made of long chains of sugars  Starches, cellulose
  3. 3. Simple Sugars All carbohydrates are made up of units of sugar (also called saccharide units). Carbohydrates that contain only one sugar unit are called Glucose Fructose monosaccharides.
  4. 4. Simple Sugars Disaccharides have two sugar units bonded together. For example, common table sugar is sucrose (below), a disaccharide that consists of a glucose unit bonded to a fructose unit.
  5. 5. Complex Carbohydrates Complex carbohydrates are polymers of the simple sugars. In other words, the complex carbohydrates are long chains of simple sugar units bonded together. For this reason the complex carbohydrates are often referred to as polysaccharides.
  6. 6. Complex CarbohydratesStarch (below) is a polymer of the monosaccharideglucose (n is the number of repeating glucoseunits and ranges in the 1,000s).Starches and cellulose are complex carbohydratesused by plants for energy storage and structuralintegrity.
  7. 7. Complex CarbohydratesGlycogen, another polymer of glucose, is the polysaccharide used by animals to store energy.Both starch and glycogen are polymers of glucose.Starch is a long, straight chain of glucose units, whereas glycogen is a branched chain of glucose units.
  8. 8. Structure of Glycogen
  9. 9. Proteinso Proteins are polymers of amino acids.o Amino acids all have the general structure:o The R in the diagram represents a functional group that varies depending on the specific amino acid in question.
  10. 10. Twenty amino acids in human metabolism
  11. 11. Proteins When 2 amino acids bond together, water is released as the carboxyl end of one amino acid bonds to the amine end of the adjacent one forming a peptide bond, as illustrated at the left.Because water is lost, the process is called: Condensation synthesis, or… Condensation polymerization
  12. 12. Proteins When many amino acids bond together to create long chains, the structure is called a protein (it is also called a polypeptide because it contains many peptide bonds).
  13. 13. Proteins Proteins are large molecules that may consist of hundreds, or even thousands of amino acids. While there are hundreds of thousands of different proteins that exist in nature, they are all made up of different combinations of amino acids.
  14. 14. Insulin
  15. 15. FatsFats are a sub-group of compoundsknown as lipids that are found in thebody and have the general property ofbeing hydrophobic (meaning they areinsoluble in water).Other lipids include waxes, andsteroids, such as cholesterol.
  16. 16. FatsFats are also known as triglycerides, moleculesmade from the combination of one molecule ofglycerol with three fatty acids. “R” is a long chain of carbon and hydrogenGlycerol Fatty Triglyceride acids
  17. 17. FatsThe type of fatty acid in the molecule determines the type of fat: Saturated fats  All single bonds in the carbon chain  Solids at room temperature Mono-unsaturated fats  One double bond in the carbon chain, the remainder single  Liquids at room temperature Polyunsaturated fats  Two or more double bonds in the carbon chain  Liquids at room temperature
  18. 18. Saturated FatsAll of the carbon – carbon bonds aresingle bonds.
  19. 19. Mono-Unsaturated Fats
  20. 20. Poly-Unsaturated Fats

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