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  • Attitudes are highly influenced by environment. If you are in the wrong environment, it might be wise to consider changing it.
  • Attitude

    1. 2. 1. Cognitive 2. Affective 3. Behavioral Components of Attitudes
    2. 3. Informational/ Cognitive (i.e. beliefs) Affective (i.e. emotions) Attitude Behavior genetics socialization observable learning
    3. 5. <ul><li>An attitude is a predisposition to respond in a certain way to people and things. </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive dissonance occurs when a person’s attitude and behavior are inconsistent. </li></ul>
    4. 6. <ul><li>Job Satisfaction </li></ul><ul><li>Job Involvement </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational Commitment </li></ul>Job satisfaction Job satisfaction refers to an individual’s general attitude toward his or her job. A person with a high level of job satisfaction holds positive attitudes toward the job, while a person who is dissatisfied with his or her job holds negative attitudes about the job.
    5. 8. <ul><li>Desire to reduce dissonance </li></ul><ul><li>Importance of elements creating dissonance </li></ul><ul><li>Degree of individual influence over elements </li></ul><ul><li>Rewards involved in dissonance </li></ul>
    6. 9. • Any form of inconsistency is uncomfortable and that individuals will attempt to reduce the dissonance and, hence, the discomfort. • Therefore, individuals will seek a stable state in which there is a minimum of dissonance. E.g., Mrs Smith is a corporate managers. She strongly believes that no company should pollute the air or water. Unfortunately, Mrs. Smith, because of the requirements of her job, is placed in the position of having to make decisions that would trade off her company’s profitability against her attitudes on pollution. She knows that dumping the company’s sewage into the local river (which she assume is legal) is in the best economic interest of her firm. What she will do? Clearly, she is experiencing a high degree of cognitive dissonance.
    7. 10. <ul><li>Recent research indicates that the attitudes (A) significantly predict behaviors (B) when moderating variables are taken into account. </li></ul><ul><li>Moderating Variables </li></ul><ul><li>Importance of the attitude </li></ul><ul><li>Specificity of the attitude </li></ul><ul><li>Accessibility of the attitude </li></ul><ul><li>Social pressures on the individual </li></ul><ul><li>Direct experience with the attitude </li></ul>
    8. 11. When asked about an attitude toward some object, individuals recall their behavior relevant to that object and then infer their attitude from their past behavior.
    9. 12. The preceding review indicates that a knowledge of employee attitudes can be helpful to managers in attempting to predict employee behavior.
    10. 13. <ul><li>Based in history of Job Satisfaction </li></ul><ul><li>Formal research began in mid-1930’s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1932 I/O textbooks had no mention of job satisfaction or organizational commitment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By 1972 over 3000 articles published specifically exploring worker attitudes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why interest developed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Methodological breakthroughs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Survey methods </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Statistical techniques </li></ul></ul>
    11. 14. <ul><li>Most Indians like their jobs overall </li></ul><ul><li>People are relatively satisfied with the nature of the work itself: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How interesting it is </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Having lots of contact with people </li></ul></ul><ul><li>People still feel happy with rewards like: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pay </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Benefits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chances for promotion </li></ul></ul>
    12. 15. Determinants of Job Satisfaction
    13. 16. <ul><li>Influences on Job Satisfaction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mental challenge in the work itself </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pay </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Promotions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supervision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Work Group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Working Conditions </li></ul></ul>
    14. 17. <ul><li>Outcomes of Job Satisfaction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Satisfaction and Performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Satisfaction and Turnover </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Satisfaction and Absenteeism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other Effects and Ways to Enhance Satisfaction </li></ul></ul>
    15. 18. <ul><li>Satisfaction and Productivity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Satisfied workers aren’t necessarily more productive. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Worker productivity is higher in organizations with more satisfied workers. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Satisfaction and Absenteeism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Satisfied employees have fewer avoidable absences. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Satisfaction and Turnover </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Satisfied employees are less likely to quit. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizations take actions to cultivate high performers and to weed out lower performers. </li></ul></ul>
    16. 19. <ul><li>Is a happy worker a productive worker? </li></ul><ul><li>Correlations positive and low to moderate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>.16 with overall satisfaction in individual studies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.30 with overall satisfaction in meta-analytic studies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.10 with specific facets </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why is the association not larger? </li></ul>
    17. 22. <ul><li>The Meaning of Organizational Commitment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Affective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continuance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Normative </li></ul></ul>
    18. 23. <ul><li>Guidelines to Enhance Organizational Commitment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People-first </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication Mission </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Org. Justice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create a community </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support employee development </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Organizational Citizenship Behaviors (OCBs) </li></ul>
    19. 24. <ul><li>Satisfaction and Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Satisfied employees who feel fairly treated by and are trusting of the organization are more willing to engage in behaviors that go beyond the normal expectations of their job. </li></ul></ul>