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Instructional supervision,its models and school supervision


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Its all about Instructional supervision ,its all models and School Supervision. All authentic data taken from 35 national and international articles and a lots of books.

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Instructional supervision,its models and school supervision

  1. 1. Instructional Supervision and School Supervision 2 0 1 5 - 2 0 7 MAHAM NAVEED 2015-245 M.ED SECONDARY
  2. 2. SUPERVISION • Supervision is the job title of a low level management position that is primarily based on authority over a worker or charge of a workplace • Supervisor, boss, overseer, coach, facilitator, monitor, or area coordinator
  3. 3. SUPERVISION • Supervision is an expert technical service primarily aimed at studying and improving co- operatively all factors which affect the child’s growth and development (According to Barton & Burckner)
  4. 4. SUPERVISION • Supervision creates the awareness of sound education philosophies in teachers and makes them to be aware of educational policies and reforms in schools (OJOGWA 2001)
  5. 5. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN SUPERVISOR AND MANAGER • A supervisor is responsible for the productivity and actions of a small group of employees • Supervisor does not typically have "hire and fire" authority • Supervisor does not have budget authority
  6. 6. INSTRUCTIONAL SUPERVISION • Instructional supervision is one of the processes by which school administrators attempt to achieve acceptable standards of performance and results (Peretomode, 2001) • According to Jonasson (1993): • To promote student learning in schools, we must invest time, money and energies into the training and development of teachers
  7. 7. INSTRUCTIONAL SUPERVISION • Instructional supervision is the function in educational systems that draws together the discrete elements of instructional effectiveness into a whole educational action (Glickman, Gordon, & Ross-Gordon) (1995, p. 15)
  8. 8. THE HISTORY OF INSTRUCTIONAL SUPERVISION • In colonial New England, supervision of instruction began as a process of external inspection in 1830 • One or more local citizens were appointed to inspect both what the teachers were teaching and what the students were learning
  9. 9. Roles and responsibilities of instructional supervisor • Lead teachers • Mentors • Curriculum specialists • Project directors • Trainers • Peer coaches and peer supervisors
  10. 10. SUPERVISION IN PRIMARY LEVEL IN PAKISTAN • Teachers • Assistance Education Officers • Deputy District Education Officers • District Education Officers ( Behlol, 2007)
  11. 11. Skills required for instructional supervision • (According to Olowoye, 1989 ) Pedagogical Skills Evaluation skills Displinary skills Motivation Skill Reporting skills Minimum 5 years experienence of primary school teaching
  13. 13. MODELS OF INSTRUCTIONAL SUPERVISION Models of Instructional Supervision Traditional or Clinical Supervision Psychotherapy- Based Supervision Models Supervisee- centered Person-Centered Patient-centered Developmental Models of Supervision Integrated Development Model Ronnestad and Skovholt’s Model
  14. 14. CLINICAL SUPERVISION • Gold hammer and Cogan in the early 1970’s • Acheson and Gall (1987), refined the process by including only three basic processes The planning or pre-conference The observation The feedback conference
  15. 15. CLINICAL SUPERVISION • It is in class support system designed to deliver assistance directly to teachers to bring about changes in classroom operation and teacher’s behavior.” • Advantages: • Provision of objective feedback on instruction • Identify and solving instructional problems, • Assisting teacher in developing strategy to promote learning, • Motivating the students and managing the classroom
  16. 16. PSYCHOTHERAPY-BASED SUPERVISION MODELS • A learning process by providing a coherent approach to therapy in which knowledge, theory and technique derived from a specific orientation inform the conduct of treatment and provide a clear focus of supervision • Frawley-O’Dea and Sarnat (2001) classify into three categories
  17. 17. PATIENT- CENTERED • Focuses the supervision session on the patient’s presentation and behaviors • The supervisor is seen as the uninvolved expert who has the knowledge and skills to assist the supervisee, thus giving the supervisor considerable authority (Frawley-O’Dea & Sarnat, 2001)
  18. 18. SUPERVISEE-CENTERED • Process focuses on the supervisee’s resistances, anxieties, and learning problems • Supervisee-centered supervision can stimulate growth for the supervisee as a result of gaining an understanding of his/her own psychological processes
  19. 19. THE SUPERVISORY-MATRIX- CENTERED • Introduces examination of the relationship between supervisor and supervisee • Supervisor’s role is to “participate in, reflect upon, • To interpret relational themes that arise within either the therapeutic or supervisory
  20. 20. 3. DEVELOPMENTAL MODELS OF SUPERVISION • Focus on how the counselor will change as they gain further training and supervised experience • Encourages the supervisee to use prior knowledge and skills to produce new learning
  21. 21. THE STOLTENBERG MODEL IDENTIFIED FOUR STAGES OR LEVELS: Supervisee is dependent on the supervisor, by they lack in self-confidence Supervisee a striving for independence Becoming more insightful and motivated Supervisee confident with their interpersonal and Communication skills
  22. 22. 4. INTEGRATED DEVELOPMENT MODEL (IDM) • Developed by Stoltenberg (1981) and Stolt enberg and Delworth (1987) • IDM describes three levels of supervisee Entry-level students who are high in motivation At mid-level and experience fluctuating confidence Stable in motivation, have accurate empathy tempered by objectivity
  24. 24. TEACHERS' PERCEPTION OF SUPERVISORY PROCESSES • In Ethiopia, many teachers resent or even fear being supervised due to biased towards evaluation or inspection (Haileselassie, 1997) • For less experienced teachers supervision is viewed as a meaningless exercise (Starratt,1998) • Potential to improve schools will not be fully realized by supervisors (Sergiovanni & Starratt, 2007)
  26. 26. Any institution at which instruction is given in a particular discipline School is administered, managed and leads in an effective manner to achieve the educational objectives SCHOOL
  27. 27. SCHOOL SUPERVISION • A whole mechanism systematically designed to accomplish the educational objectives efficiently so that internal structure of the school is determined by the functions which are carried on towards those ends Eregie and Ogiamen (2007)
  28. 28. PURPOSE OF SCHOOL SUPERVISION • According to Universal Basic Education (UBE) programmes manual (2002) • Ensuring that teachers do their work affectively • Cost-Benefit Analysis • Providing technical assistance and sources of instructional material to teachers • For the approval of opening of new schools
  29. 29. BASIC PRINCIPLES OF SCHOOL SUPERVISION Constructive Criticism Plan Networking Dialectical RelationCode of Conduct Create healthy environment Adequate Information for Employees
  30. 30. TASK AREAS OF SUPERVISION Developing Curriculum Organizing for Instruction Providing Materials and Staff Arranging for In-service Education Developing Public Relations Evaluating Instruction
  31. 31. Research on instructional supervision in the world • Strategies For Improving Supervisory Skills For Effective Primary Education In Nigeria (Edo Journal of Counseling Vol. 2, No. 2, 2009) • A comparative study was carried out of selected government, private‐aided and private senior secondary schools in India • Teachers’ Perceptions towards Classroom Instructional Supervision: A Case Study of Nkayi District in Zimbabwe (International J. Soc. Sci. & Education 2013 Vol.4, No. 1) • The Relationship Between Principals Supervisory Strategies and Teacher’s Instructional Performance in Delta North Senatorial District, Nigeria 2010
  32. 32. INSTRUCTIONAL SUPERVISION PRACTICE IN PAKISTAN • Ahmed and Ali (cited in Ali, 2000) have mentioned that appointments of teachers is a political process • Supervisors in Government Primary Schools in Karachi, Pakistan by Nilofar Vazir (2008) works reveals teachers are not appointed for primary schools • Supervision and Supervisory Practices at Primary Level in Pakistan reveals that the supervisors don’t visit schools to find out the problems of teachers
  33. 33. CHALLENGES OF SCHOOL SUPERVISION DEVELOPING NATIONS Staff Inadequacy Political Instability Payment of Teachers Poor Human Relations Lack of Adequate Training Fiscal Inadequacy Shortage of External Supervisor Teachers Who Resist Supervision
  34. 34. RECOMMENDATIONS • The supervisors should behave and function as teachers’ friends, adviser, guide and consultant • Recruitment of instructional supervisors should be based purely on academic qualification • The senior teacher should be trained to provide supervisory facilities to the beginning teachers
  35. 35. RECOMMENDATIONS • Need of the training programme for the supervisors to improve their knowledge, skills and attitude to perform their duties • Supervisors that excel in their assignment should be rewarded • Supervisors should be empowered with human resources and funds
  36. 36. REFERENCES • Bernard, J. M. (1979). Supervisor training: A discrimination model. Counselor Education and Supervision, 19, 60-68 • Oliva,P.F and Pawlas,E.G. (2004), Supervison for today’s schools (7th Ed). Wiley Publishing,Inc • Samuel.C.C (2008). Supervision concept and skill building.(6th Ed). McgrawHill, Boston • Tshabalala. T (2013) Teachers’Perceptions towards Classroom Instructional Supervision: A Case Study of Nkayi District in Zimbabwe. International J. Soc. Sci. & Education 4 (1) • Nolan,J and Hoover, L.A. (2005). Teacher supervision and Evaluation theory into practice. JohnWiley & Sons,Inc
  37. 37. THANK YOU