Management & leadership


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Management & leadership

  1. 1. Leadership and Management Styles Rachael Graham 13k
  2. 2. What is the difference between leadership and management?  Management  LeadershipThis is the process of setting objectives and making the Influencing others to most efficient use of achieve certain aims or financial, human and objectives. Effective physical resources to leadership skills can achieve these objectives. help a manager to carry Key tasks include planning, control and co-ordination. out their duties
  3. 3. What do Leaders do?• Decide upon objectives for the organisation• Provide expertise and set standards fort the organisation• Decide upon company structure and shape the culture of the business
  4. 4. What makes a good leader? A good leader will be informed and knowledgeable about matters relating to the business A good leader should be self-motivated and desire to achieve great things A good leader should possess an air for authority A good leader would have the ability to think creatively and to solve problems
  5. 5. Styles of Leadership…There are three basic categories of leadership style… Autocratic or authoritarian leadership Paternalistic leadership Democratic leadership
  6. 6. Authoritarian or Autocratic Leadership Such leaders would have considerable sympathy with the views expressed by Taylor.Such leaders…• Take decisions with little involvement of junior employees• Allocate tasks• Set objectives• Will contain total control throughout
  7. 7. Authoritarian Ctd… Such leaders, use a one-way communication system, downwards from leader to subordinate. This style of leadership may be appropriate when quick decisions are required, or when large numbers of un-skilled employees are involved.
  8. 8. Paternalistic LeadershipThis is a leadership style which is quite dictatorial, yet decisions are taken in the best interests of the employees.This style’s key features include…• This form of leadership explains decisions• It also ensures employees’ social and leisure needs are met.
  9. 9. Democratic LeadershipThis form of leadership involves running a business on the basis on the majority of decisions.This methods main features include… This form of leadership encourages employees to take part in decision-making This method also uses delegation
  10. 10. Democratic Leadership Ctd…There is a two-way communication between senior and junior employees.• Bill Gates was a man, famous for his democratic management style at Microsoft.• He has actively involved employees in key management and strategic decisions.• Most of his time is devoted to meeting with customers and staying in contact with Microsoft employees around the world via e-mail.
  11. 11. Douglas McGregor’sTheory X and Yo In 1964, Douglas published ‘The Human Side of Enterprise.’o This book is famous for discovering how leaders’ attitudes may influence their behaviour.o The book is noted for its comparison of two types of leader that McGregor called ‘TheoryX’ and ‘TheoryY’ leaders.
  12. 12. Theory X Leaders Believe… The average employee dislike work and will avoid it if at all possible People must be controlled and directed and punished, if necessary, to put in a real effort at work The typical worker wants to avoid responsibility and has little ambition Employees look for security above all else at work
  13. 13. Theory Y Leaders Believe…• Working is as natural as play or rest for the average employee• The typical worker does not have an in-built dislike for work• Other means exist to motivate workers rather than control and punishment• In the right circumstances, workers seek responsibility• Most employees have imagination and creativity that may be used to help organisations achieve their goals
  14. 14. Management by Objectives Peter Drucker published ‘The Practice of Management,’ which included his theory of Management by Objectives.
  15. 15. Drucker’s theory of ManagementAccording to Drucker’s theory of management, managers should; Identify and agree targets for achievement with sub-ordinates Negotiate the support that will be required to achieve these targets Evaluate over time the extent to which these objectives are met
  16. 16. Advantages of MBO It can improve the communication within the organisation as the target-setting and evaluation process takes place Employees may be motivated by understanding what they are trying to achieve, and how it helps the business achieve its overall goal. MBO can highlight training needs for managers and sub-ordinates, improving their performance and productivity
  17. 17. Disadvantages of MBO Some employees may see the setting of targets as threatening. A manager might set targets that the subordinate considers unachievable All employees within the organisation must be committed to the technique if it is to succeed and benefit the business Modern businesses operate in a business environment that changes rapidly. Objectives can quickly become out of date.
  18. 18. Issues in LeadershipThere are a number of important factors which influence the day-to-day leadership approach used by managers
  19. 19. Team-based leadership• Teamworking occurs when production is organised into substantial units of work.• Teamworking is common within organisations and often companies delayering• Businesses may assemble teams to solve problems and propose new working methods• A correct balance of people within the team is essential
  20. 20. Team-based leadership Individuals must not only be multi-skilled, but their skills and personalities must blend together and be complimentary Successful teams need people with drive and motivation, as well as people with administrative skills to ensure all tasks are completedQuality Circles: teams of employees drawn from all levels in the organisation to solve operational problems
  21. 21. Problems with teams It is important for leaders to make sure that teams are all pursuing the organisation’s objectives Teams may become too competitive Teams may become confident to their own success, an unaware of changes taking place out side the team. This may result in failure to meet targets
  22. 22. Single Status Team-based leadership may also require the implementation of single status into the workplace This leads to the removal of all barriers distinguishing between different grades of staff within the organisation
  23. 23. Under single status all employeeswithin an organisation… Use the same canteen and other facilities Work similar hours Are entitled to similar holiday arrangements Wear the same clothingThe only distinction remaining should be the level of pay received by various grades of employees
  24. 24. Delegation and ConsultationImportant elements of an individuals style of leadershipDelegation: Managers give junior employees the authority to carry out particular tasksConsultation: occurs when managers ask for, and take into account, views of subordinates
  25. 25. Advantages of Delegation Frees senior managers for other matters May breed a sense of responsibility and help to motivate Controlling subordinates is expensive and supervisors may be required Individuals may develop skills and careers
  26. 26. Disadvantages of Delegation Trusting subordinates can be risky and responsibility remains with the senior manager Delegation may involve expensive training for subordinates Once trust is given, it is impossible to remove it without loss of face Some managers may be reluctant to use delegation as they have to relinquish control