Many experts argue that people do their best work when they are motivated by a sense of purpose rather then the pursuit of money
Many experts argue that people do their best work when they are motivated by a sense of purposerather then the pursuit of money. Do you agree? Critically evaluate and explain your position.Student Name: …Student No: ….Lecturer:….TABLE OF CONTENTS1.0 Introduction2.0 Theories2.1 Maslow’s Needs Hierarchy2.2 Herzberg’s two-factor Theory2.3 David McClelland’s theory3.0 Survey of job satisfaction4.0 Money and Motivation5.0 ConclusionMany experts argue that people do their best work when they are motivated by a sense of purposerather then the pursuit of money. Do you agree? Critically evaluate and explain your position.“Can’t buy me love” (Filipczak & Bob, 1996, p. 29)This statement was mentioned in the magazine “Training”, which is related to the thoughts of themotivation. People look for job and want to work in satisfaction. Some people believe that the factor ofthe job satisfaction is money, which means employees are motivated to do their work by money and dotheir best work. However, through money, we cannot buy a motivated, committed, productive,enthusiastic, and creative work force (Filipczak & Bob, 1996, p. 29). Researchers who study ofmotivation for job satisfaction introduced the theories like Herzberg’s two-factor Theory, Alderfer’s ERGTheory, Equity Theory McClelland’s Theory, Expectancy Theory, McGregor’s theory X and Y,. All thetheories, which were mentioned above, have been used to prove that employees are motivated otherfactors not money and factors of motivation (Sarin, 2009, p. 237). According to the studies of experts,people made the best performance in their job when they are motivated by intrinsic matters which aremaking job satisfaction, rather then extrinsic matters. (Filipczak & Bob, 1996, p. 29). I strongly agree withthis notion regarding relationship between money and motivation for job. This article will provide thereasons why money is neither a factor of motivation nor a factor making good performance. The articleshows what the function of money in organization is.According to the Maslow’s Needs Hierarchy, human basic needs are divided into five levels, and arearranged in a hierarchy. First is the physiological need; basic physical needs or drive, such as hunger,
thirst, and sex. Second is The safety need; the need to feel secure, to feel free from threats, to feel thatthe world has some order so that one can cope with events. Third is the belongingness need; to belong,to be accepted, to give and receive love. Forth is the esteem need; the need for respect and esteem, inthe eyes of both oneself and others. Needs for self-respect includes a desire for achievement,confidence, and independence. Finally, the self-actualization need; need to fulfill one’s potential (Rolfeet al. 1983). Among these levels of needs, Maslow regards the money as a lowest level, which is justbasic physical need. Once it is satisfied, it does not give influence to motivate person’s behavior anymore (Sarin, 2009, p. 237).Herzbug suggests and argues that there are tow factors those are motivating factor and hygiene factor.Herzbug’s tow-factor theory was drawn from Maslow but focuses on the question of job motivation.Motivators, intrinsic reward produces job satisfaction while hygiene factors, or extrinsic rewardsproduce job dissatisfaction. Motivators are Personal Growth, Advancement, Recognition, Achievement,nature of the work itself, and Responsibility. The hygiene factors, the extrinsic, are company policy andadministration, salary, supervision, job security, working conditions, and interpersonal relationship. Inother words, extrinsic factors indicate the two highest needs in Maslow’s hierarchy (Rolfe et al. 1983).As mentioned, salary is included in the hygiene factors, which causes job dissatisfaction. Herzberg(1968)said, “Money is not a motivator”. However, there is a misinterpretation of which Herzberg’s opinion that“Do not use money to motivate employees” (Herzberg, 1968). In fact, it did not mean that. He offersthree warnings of using the hygiene factors to their employees. First, do not expect that employees maybe excited by using the hygiene factors for job motivation. Second, the manager who uses hygiene,extrinsic factors must be rich because employees would want more and higher rewards to be satisfied.Third, the manager who uses the hygiene factors should be aware of that employees might believe theycan find their job satisfaction with only extrinsic factors such as good bonuses, company cars, and niceoffices (Daniel & Sachau 2007). Herzbug emphasize that offer of hygiene factors such as money just getrid of worries on absent of hygiene factors. However, it does not give satisfaction and motivation toemployees. Satisfaction will be given to them only with motivators increasing responsibility,achievement, and advancement (Baldonado & Janice, 2009)David McClelland argued, in his theory, that people experience three dimensions such as the need forachievement, the need for power, and the need for affiliation. Managers need to put some efforts tofind out what employees regards as the important in their work to motivate staffs. If authority andpower is the person’s goal, he may do his work best when the reward is to higher his position like apromotion in the fields. Unlikely this, to those ho seek affiliation are suit to be a team player who canunite the group members. However, achievement-oriented person needs feedback and the sense thatprogress is being made (Stern, 2008, p. 12). If managers who want to motivate staffs just simply thinkthat staffs make high performance when they are rewarded with good salary or more bones, they couldmake great mistake.What really motivates people at work? Is it simply the size of their paycheck? Is it another promotion?Or is it something else? Many contrasting views of motivation exist. However, most experts agree thatmotivation energizes, maintains and guides behavior. (John, 1992, pg. 63)
Money is not a factor that gives people motivation to perform most efficiently for their goal. There aremore specific factors that motive people in organizations. managers have to motive employees to makegood performance. John (1992) introduces, in his article “The motivation trap”, Herbert Meyer’s survey,the surveys of managerial-level employees, with the subtitle “The Paradox of Pay”. Even thoughcompanies and management pay employees for their performance, Meyer found surprising result, thehigh levels of dissatisfaction. According to the Meyer’s research shows that motivating with moneyresults even opposite outcome. To motivate people by money decreases their intrinsic interest in thejob. When the goal to achieve is high salary or bonus, people focus their mind on extrinsic factor, moneyrather than performance itself. If managers really want to use money as a motivator, this payment mustbe as high as employees may beaccepted.There is another survey about job satisfaction, which was conducted by G. Lance Matheny MD, MPH,MBA, CPE that is a medical consultant. The survey shows that people feel satisfied with their job notbecause of money. They asked 104 people to make the survey. As a result, 46 percent responded thatimproving communication and personal relationship is important. Nine percent stated improvingleadership is the point, but only 3 percent said bonus is making high job satisfaction (Matheny & Lance,2008, pp. 14-15). Bonus and rewards may improve little of job satisfaction. However, as the result of thesurvey shows, it is not too helpful to give motivation to perform best. It is not a good motivator foremployees.This is a Bob Nelson’s experience showing money is not a main factor of motivator. After hispresentation regarding “Do you think money is the best reward? Many people do”, managers and CEOs,told him that they had disagreed with what he explained about money it is managers own view. Theystill believe money is most important motivator. However, bob emphasize money is not main reason fortheir work (Nelson, 2002, p. 12). It does not mean money has no value of motivation. Money providesfunctions for the standard of living as Frederick Herzberg (1967) mentioned in his hygiene Tow-factorstheory. An addition, salary itself cannot become a motivator. When it works with extra factor of howthey are treated in his fields, the money take some of functions. Nelson (2002) said that to make peopledo their best work is to provide more functions of motivator including praise and recognition,development of opportunity and challenging work.The notion of Motivation can be divided into two groups, external motivation and inner motivation(Rewards to Motivate (Why its not the whole story), 2006, p. 24). External motivation involves basicneeds just like that of hygiene factors whereas the inner motivation is the same as the motivators inHerzberg’s theory. (Herzberg, 1967). Among these factors, inner motivation is the one that motivatesemployees to do work without expecting any rewards. Therefore, the job of managers who want to givemotivation to people for high performance is to find what creates inner motivation. The authors of thearticle “Rewards to Motivate (Why its not the whole story)“ suggest that pride of work, working withgood colleagues, sense of growth, and a sense of accomplishment are able to make inner motivation,motivators that effect people to work with willingness (Rewards to Motivate (Why its not the whole
story), 2006, p. 24). Furthermore, recommend to create such an environment that can promote innermotivation. There are five factors, which provide the environment. “Goals” is a sense of what peoplewant to accomplish, vision. “Challenge” is the ability of own improvement. In order to achieve and reachto certain point, people strive to get there though people have not enough ability, yet. While doing it,self-motivation is created. Daniel and Sachau (2007) said “Moderate level of challenge make a taskenjoyable”. “Achievement” is a sense of which they are doing is very important. After achieve the task,people are satisfied. Mark Wardell (2008) also supports this opinion. Employees are motivatedthemselves when they feel they are including in bigger picture and plans which means they are regardedas one and important part of it, employees do their work best. If they do not have this sense, they maywork hard only when the owner is around (Wardell, 2008 p. 87). “Ownership” is including empoweringleadership. It gives a responsibility to make good performance. Lastly, “Community” is making themotivation by having communication and teamwork, which promotes natural accountability. Bettercommunication is used to improve job satisfaction (Matheny & Lance, 2008, pp. 14-15).McClelland’s theory still applies well to organizations in order to make motivation. Managers need tofind what types of person employees are and what their preferences are. First, preferences have to beidentified to what type of task person suit and what person prefers in projects and then what role theperson favored in the group of workers. Next, finding what person hope to get something from oneanother helps to know person’s wants. Finally, knowing what skill person has and prefers to use givesclues to make decision what position the person suits (John, 1992, p. 63). When the person does whathe likes to do and role by using his best skill with helpful colleagues at right position, there is no doubtthat he will do his best work with willingness.The argument that whether or not money is a factor of the motivation for the job is still a controversialmatter. Each person has his or her own opinion on relation between money and the work performance.However, as many experts and researchers have found, money itself is neither a motivator, whichencourage people to work, nor the main reason of which people have their job. Moreover, surveys andstudies prove that employees make good and high performance not motivated by money. Rather, theypursuit their own sense of purpose and people regards this as more valuable reason of their working. Itdoes not mean that people may work without salary and any rewards. As long as people have enoughexpenses, money only takes a little part of their motivation factor. Herzberg (1967) said, “Kick n the ass”and Stefan added his opinion to Herzberg’s word.If I kick my dog, he will move. And when I want him to move again what must I do? I must kick himagain. Similarly, I can change a persons battery, and then recharge it, and recharge it again. But it is onlywhen one has a generator of ones own that we can talk about motivation. One then needs no outsidestimulation. One wants to do it (Stern, 2008, p. 12).Motivating by will last soon and reveal the limited power of money. Money is necessary. However, it isnot a good motivator.