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Natural pesticide &
insecticides
RCPIPER, SHIRPUR
Second year B pharm
By- D R MAHAJAN
Pest- it is any animal, plant or microorganism that
trouble, injuries or cause destruction of crop.
Methods of pest control-
They have two types- natural and artificial pest
control.
Natural pest control- they are prepared in nature due
to prey- predator relationships.
Beneficial insects are those insects which prey on
harmful insects or their larvae.
Artificial pest control- these are man med methods
to control pest.
They have following types
mechanical- manual or mechanical method for
collection or destruction of pest. Eg.handpicking,
pruning, trapping, burning for destruction of eggs,
larvae, pupae, insects
Agriculture control- these methods are used to
destroy life cycle of pest eg deep ploughing for
eradication of weeds, alternate crop rotation, hybrid
pest resistance crop species
Chemical control- these are chemicals used to kill
pest eg.insecticides, paraciticides
Biological control- Living organisms are used to
control pest. Eg microorganisms may be used to kill
by causing fatal disease in insects
Classification of pesticides
Insecticides,
Herbicides,
fungicides,
rodenticides
Characteristics of ideal pesticide
-should have high margin of safety for
plants and animals
-easy to handle and apply
-should not be toxic for warm blooded
animals
-should not be inflammable or explosive
should be available easily at affordable
cost
Herbicides, also commonly known as weedkillers,
These are pesticides used to kill unwanted plants. Selective
herbicides kill specific targets, while leaving the
desired crop relatively unharmed. Some of these act by
interfering with the growth of the weed and are often
synthetic mimics of natural plant hormones.
Some plants produce natural herbicides, action of natural
herbicides, and other related chemical interactions, is
called allelopathy.
The most frequent application of herbicides occurs in row-
crop farming, where they are applied before or during
planting to maximize crop productivity by minimizing other
vegetation(weed)
Fungicides- they are used to control fungal diseases of
plants and food crops.
Fungi can cause serious damage in agriculture,
resulting in critical losses of yield, quality, and profit
Fungicides can either be contact, translaminar or
systemic. Contact fungicides are not taken up into the
plant tissue, and protect only the plant where the
spray is deposited; translaminar fungicides
redistribute the fungicide from the upper, sprayed leaf
surface to the lower, unsprayed surface; systemic
fungicides are taken up and redistributed through the
xylem vessels. Few fungicides move to all parts of a
plant. Some are locally systemic, and some move
upwardly
Fumigation is a method of pest
control that completely fills an area with
gaseous pesticides—or fumigants—to
suffocate or poison the pests within. It is
used to control pests in buildings
(structural fumigation), soil, grain, and
produce, and is also used during
processing of goods to be imported or
exported to prevent transfer of
exoticorganisms.
Rodenticides, rat poison, are pest control
chemicals intended to kill rodents.
Rodenticides are controversial, due to secondary
poisoning and their risks to children, pets and
wildlife.
Single feed baits are chemicals sufficiently
dangerous that the first dose is sufficient to kill.
rodents will eat a small bit of something and wait,
and if they do not get sick, they continue. An
effective rodenticide must be tasteless and odorless
in lethal concentrations, and have a delayed effect.
Tobacco
Tobacco
Synonym
Tobacco
Biological source
Tobacco consist of dried leaves of
Nicotiona tabacum
Family
Solanaceae
Charectersatics
Tobacco mostly used for preparation of
cigarettes,
bidis,
cigar,
Cheroot,
snuff,
chewing tobacco
Chemical constituents
alkaloid
1-10% nicotine,
nornicotine,
anabasine
Isolation of nicotine from tobacco
Tobacco west material from industry is
used for production of insecticidal
nicotine.
nicotine is isolated by mixing tobacco
waste with lime and extracting it with
water. aqueous extract further extracted
with kerosene and then kerosene extract is
treated with sulphuric acid to obtain
nicotine sulphate
Uses
Insecticidal
free base of nicotine is more toxic than
sulphate,
Mostly effective against minute soft body
insects like aphides, white flies, fruit tree
borers, termites, cabbage butterfly larvae
Nicotine preparations are safer, easier to
handle, less toxic to warm blooded animals
pyrethrum
Pyrethrum
Synonym
Insect flowers, pyrethrum flowers
BS
It consist of dried flower heads of
Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium
family
Compositae
Charecterstic
Open flowers are 9-12 mm diameter. Flower
bears short ,longitudinally striated
penduncle(stem supporting an inflorescence)
Colour- cream or straw colour
odour- slight aromatic,
Taste- bitter acrid
Before drying flower heads are non toxic to
insects
Chemical constituents
Esters
Pyrethrin- I,II,
Jasmolin,- I ,II
cinerin- I,II
triterpine alcohol,
pyrethrol
lactone, pyrethrocin.
other
pyretol,pyrethrotoxic acid,chrysanthemine,
chrysanthemumic acid
Uses
Domestic and agriculture insecticidal
it act on nervous system of insects resulting in muscular
excitation, convulsion, paralysis
Toxic effect of pyrethrum on human are irritation to eyes,
mucosa.
maximum permissible atmospheric concentration is up to 5
mg per cubic meter
Natural allergens and plant toxins.
allergen is a type of antigen that produces an abnormally
vigorous immune response in which the immune system
fights off a perceived threat that would otherwise be
harmless to the body. Such reactions are called allergies.
Hypersensitivity or allergy- when individual develops
abnormal response to substance or condition that is generally
tolerated by others called allergy.
Antigen that induce allergic reaction called allergen.
any substance of biological, chemical or synthetic origin may
prove to be allergen.
Emotional factor, atmospheric factor , chronic infection may
be responsible for allergic reaction.
s.
When body first time get exposed to allergen the condition is
known as primary exposure.
During this , no symptoms of allergy are produced as no
previous antibody formation accour in individual.
During second exposer allergens contact fixed antibodies and
antigen- antibody reaction occurs.
this immune reaction causes liberation of histamine and
other mediators of allergic symptoms.
Allergic reaction can be localized or generalized .
A set of common allergies which can be correlated with
positive skin test of some specific allergens is called atopy.
atopic diseases include allergic rhinitis( hay fever).allergic
asthma, allergic urticaria(kind of skin rash notable for pale
red, raised, itchy bumps), atopic dermatitis
Classification of allergens
Classification is based on there mode of introduction in body
Inhalant plant allergen-
Substances present in atmosphere are inhaled by nose and
mouth. Symptoms are limited to nasal mucosa and
manifested by sneezing, lacrimination, itching , swelling of
nose and eye. E.g. sinusitis ( hay fever)
ingestant allergens-
allergens present in foodstuff are ingestant allergens,
symptomes are gastrointestinal disturbances, skin rash,
migraine.
Injectant allergens-
Allergens in parenteral solution are injectant allergens.
Antibiotic like penicillins, cephalosporins.
Contact allergens-
Allergens come into direct contact with epithelium
are contactant allergens.. E.g. poison ivy, poison oak.
Causes severe dermatitis with watery blisters witch
burst and spread across skin
Infestant allergen-
parasitic microorganisms in or on the body are this
type of allergens
Physical allergy-
allergy caused by heat or cold
Environmental allergy-
Cause due to change in climate conditions
Inhalant allergens
These are airborne substances as chemicals witch causes
respiratory disease, inflammation in nose and lung.
nasal inflammation causes sneezing, lacrimation, itching,
swelling of nose and eyes. this condition is called sinusitis or
hay fever. Inflammation of lung causes asthma.
Allergens when lands on mucous membrane of nose chain
reaction occurs that leads mast cells in these tissues to
release histamine and other chemicals. These chemicals
contract certain cells of some blood vessels in nose witch
allows fluid to escape causing nasal passage to swell resulting
nasal congestion.
E.g. of airborne allergens are pollens, dust, mites, mould
spores, animal allergy ( epidermis, dander)
Pollen allergens
Pollens are male cells of flowering plants.
They required for plant fertilization.
Average pollen particle size is less than the
width of average human hair.
Pollens are further classified in to two
types
1anemophilous( wind pollinated)
2entomophilous( insect pollinated)
Anemophilous-they are small 15-45 micrometer in
diameter, light, non adhesive and relatively smooth
and are produced by plain looking plants eg. Trees,
grasses and weeds
Entomophilous- thy are larger in size , up to 200
micrometer in diameter, heavier, adhesive and may be
somewhat spiny. Plants are scented with colored
flowers such as clover, hollyhock, rose.
Most common allergic reaction are produced by wind
pollinated pollens ( anemophilous) because thy are
light Wight , dry and easily carried for long distance.
Ingestant allergens
These allergens present in food stuff and swallowed called
ingestant ( food allergy).
food allergy is immune system response to food. Once
immune system decides that particular food is harmful, it
creates specific antibody to it.
Effect of food allergy are not localized to one organ or area
of body but it may transfer to other organs by blood hence
its symptoms are multiple like gastrointestinal or skin
related.
common food allergens are milk, egg, peanut, tree nut, fish,
, soy, wheat, orange juice, code liver oil, food additives and
many other foodstuffs.
Method to combat food allergy is elimination of offending
substances from diet
Injectant allergens
Natural source of injectant allergens are produced by
sting of bees, hornets and wasps. Allergens are
injected by sting of such insects can induce severe
local and constitutional reaction sometimes causing
death.
Artificial source is injection of various antibiotics in
body e.g. penicillin, cephalosporin's. Liver extract,
antitoxins.
symptoms are itching of palms of hands and soles of
feet , erythema, peeling of skin, and in severe case
anaphylactic shock may occur.
Contact allergens
Contact allergy is caused by number of plants and
their products e.g.. Poison ivy, oak, asparagus,
ornamental dumb cane, catapla leaves, ginkgo leaves,
lobelia.
Infectant allergens
Allergy caused by metabolic products of living
microorganism in human body like continual
presence of bacteria, protozoa's, moulds, helminthes
and other parasites in human body are responsible
to cause chronic infection.
Plant toxins
These are toxic secondary plant metabolites which naturally occur in
food, weeds and ornamental plants. The chemical diversity is
tremendous.
Toxic constituents of plants
Plant toxins are produced by metabolic activity in plant, especially
secondary metabolites can be toxic to humans and animals. Like
alkaloids, glycosides, toxic proteins, bitter principles.
plants containing toxic substances which are capable to produce
harmful effects are known as poisonous plants
following are toxic constituents of plants
Vegetable base- nitrogenous vegetable bases like amines,
purines, alkaloids.
E.g. of toxic alkaloids are aconitine ( aconite root),morphine( poppy
capsule), emetine( ipecacuanha roots), strychnine( nux vomica),
nicotine ( tobacco), curarine ( curare).
Glycosides-glycosides are combination of glycone and aglycone
parts.
Cyanogenic glycosides are harmless but gives rise to toxic acids eg
amygdalin found in bitter almonds, prunasin found in wild cherry
some glycosides produce harmful compounds on hydrolysis e.g. sinigrin
in black mustard seeds, sinalbin in white mustard seeds
some glycosides have direct toxic action like digitoxine in digitalis,
thevetin in thevetia, antiarin in antiaris.
Saponins- they are particularly toxic to cold blooded animals such
as fishes, frogs, insects.
Poisonous saponins are called sapotoxines
Bitter principles-they have bitter taste and found in many plants.eg
aloe bitter found in thicken juice of several species of aloe. These
poisons have purgative action eg picrotoxin from anamirta cocculus
toxic protiens- they are also called toxalbumines
found in leguminosae and euphorbiaceae. E.g. abrin
from Abrus precatorius, ricin from Ricinus communis,
cortin from Croton tiglium. They are blood poisons
and are characterized by their property of
agglutinating and precipitating RBCs
Fixed oils- some oils when heated gives rise to
acrid acrolein vapors. Thy generally have laxative
property. Croton oil from seeds of Croton tiglium
produces irritation to skin, vesicant action of croton is
due to resin dissolved in it
Essential oils- these are odorous volatile
principles of plants many of them have sharp burning
taste and locally have irritating action. Large dose
causes irritation to GIT with diarrhea, vomiting , pain.
They may cause hemorrhage and abortion e.g. oil of
juniper, rue, parsley
Organic acids- oxalic acid.
Protoplasmic poison occurring in large number of
plants in form of oxalates. Formic acid is irritant found
in plants of utricaceae family.
Argemone toxin- epidemic dropsy
Epidemic dropsy is a form of edema of extremities due to
intoxication with Argemone mexicana (Mexican prickly
poppy) hindi- satyanashi
Epidemic dropsy is a clinical state resulting from use of edible
oils adulterated with Argemone mexicana seed oil.
Sanguinarine and dihydrosanguinarine are two major toxic
alkaloids of argemone oil, which cause widespread capillary
dilatation, proliferation and increased capillary permeability.
When mustard oil is adulterated deliberately (as in most
cases) or accidentally with argemone
oil, protienurea (specifically loss of albumin) occurs, with a
resultant edema as would occur in nephrotic syndrom.
.
Leakage of the protein-rich plasma component into
the extracellular compartment leads to the
formation of edema.
Illness begins with gastroenteric symptoms
followed by cutaneous erythema and
pigmentation. Respiratory symptoms such as
cough, shortness of breath and shortness of
breath, progressing to frank right-sided congestive
cardiac failure, are seen.
Removal of the adulterated oil and symptomatic
treatment of congestive cardiac failure and
respiratory symptoms, along with administration of
antioxidants and multivitamins, remain the
mainstay of treatment
Epidemic dropsy
patients with the
characteristic
bilateral
pitting edema of
the extremities
(indicated by
arrows)
Castor toxin
Ricin is a highly toxic, naturally occurring lectin (a
carbohydrate-binding protien) produced in the seeds of
the castor oil plant, Ricinus communis.
. Oral exposure to ricin is far less toxic, and an estimated
lethal dose in humans is approximately 1 milligram per
kilogram.
It acts as a toxin by inhibiting protein synthesis.
By ingestion, the pathology of ricin is largely restricted to the
gastrointestinal tract, where it may cause mucosal injuries.
With appropriate treatment, most patients will make a full
recovery. Because the symptoms are caused by failure to
make protein, they emerge only after a variable delay from a
few hours to a full day after exposure.
Symptomatic and supportive treatments are
available.
Survivors often develop long-term organ damage.
Ricin causes severe diarrhea, and victims can
die of circulatory shock. Death typically occurs
within 3–5 days of exposure.
Deaths from ingesting castor plant seeds are rare,
partly because of their indigestible capsule, and
because the body can, only with difficulty, digest
ricin.
The pulp from eight beans is considered dangerous
to an adult
Lathyrus toxins- lathyrism( paralysis in legs)
Lathyrism or neurolathyrism is a neurological disease of
humans and domestic animals, caused by eating
certain legumes of the genus lathyrus. This problem is mainly
associated with Lathyrus sativus (also known as Grass
pea, Kesari Dhal, Khesari Dhal orAlmorta
The consumption of large quantities of Lathyrus grain
containing high concentrations of the glutamate analogue
neurotoxin β-oxalyl-L-α,β-diaminopropionic acid (ODAP, also
known as β-N-oxalyl-amino-L-alanine, or BOAA) causes
paralysis, characterized by lack of strength in or inability to
move the lower limbs,.. A unique symptom of lathyrism is
the atrophy of glutealmuscles (buttocks). ODAP is a poison
of mitochondria leading to excess cell death, especially
in motor neurons
Prevalence
This disease is prevalent in some areas of
Bangladesh,Ethiopia, Iindia and Nepal
Causes
The toxicological cause of the disease has been attributed to
the neurotoxin ODAP which acts as a structural analogue of
the neurotransmitter glutamate. Ingestion of legumes
containing the toxin results mostly from ignorance of their
toxicity and usually occurs where the despair
of poverty and malnutrition leaves few other food options.
Lathyrism can also be caused by food adulteration.
Cycad toxins- lytico-bodig
Cycads have been a source of food and medicine for many people who
live in proximity to these plants. These plants are well-known to be
highly poisonous and must be carefully processed to remove toxins,
before they are edible. If they are not properly processed they can cause
vomiting, liver damage and even death, there is also evidence they have
neurotoxic effects.
To remove the toxins, different methods of processing are used by
different cultures. Cycads contain characteristic chemicals, which are
unique to their order of plants.
Two compounds: BMAA, and Cycasin are found universally in all genera
of cycad .
Cassava toxins-konzo
Cassava roots,peels and leaves should not be
consumed raw because they contain two cyanogenic
glucosides,linamarin and lotaustralin. These are
decomposed by linamarase, a naturally
occurring enzyme in cassava, liberating hydrogen
cyanide (HCN).
Cassava varieties are often categorized as either
sweet or bitter, signifying the absence or presence of
toxic levels of cyanogenic glucosides, respectively. The
so-called sweet (actually not bitter) cultivars can
produce as little as 20 milligrams of cyanide (CN) per
kilogram of fresh roots, whereas bitter ones may
produce more than 50 times as much (1 g/kg)
Societies that traditionally eat cassava generally understand some
processing (soaking, cooking, fermentation, etc.) is necessary to avoid
getting sick
Cassava , Brazilian arrowroot, manioc, and tapioca, a woody SHRUB of
the Euphorbiaceae (spurge) family native to SOUTH AMERICA, is
extensively cultivated as an
annual crop in tropical and subtropical regions for its edible starchy
tuberous roots, a major source of carbohydrate.
Symptoms of acute cyanide intoxication appear four or more hours after
ingesting raw or poorly processed cassava: vertigo, vomiting, and
collapse. In some cases, death may result within one or two hours.
It can be treated easily with an injection of thiosulfate (which makes
sulfur available for the patient's body to detoxify by converting the
poisonous cyanide into thiocyanate).
Unprocessed roots Leaf
Ackee toxins-hypoglycaemia
The ackee, also known as achee, ackee apple or akee (Blighia sapida)
Ackee is the national fruit of jamaica,
The unripened or inedible portions of the fruit contain the toxins
hypoglycin A and hypoglycin B. Hypoglycin A is found in both the seeds
and the arils, while hypoglycin B is found only in the seeds.
hypoglycin is converted in the body to methylenecyclopropyl acetic
acid(MCPA). Hypoglycin and MCPA are both toxic. MCPA inhibits
several enzymes involved in the breakdown of acyl CoA compounds.
consequently inhibiting beta oxidation of fatty acids. Beta oxidation
normally provides the body with ATP,NADH, and acetyl CoA which is
used to supplement the energy produced by glycolysis.
Glucose stores are consequently depleted leading to HYPOGLYCEMIA. ill
effects occur only when the immature fruit is consumed.
Ackee pods should be allowed to ripen on the tree before picking. Prior
to cooking, the ackee arils are cleaned and washed. The arils are then
boiled for approximately 5 minutes and the water discarded.
Fruit as it splits upon ripening. Showing ripe fruit and seeds with their
arils
Chemotaxonomy of medicinal plants
Defination-It is the method of biologicsl classification based on
similarities in the chemical structure of certain compounds among the
organisms being classified.
It utilize chemical information to improve classification of plants.
Taxonomy-a branch of science that encompasses the description,
identification, nomenclature, and classification of organisms
Plant taxonomy is fundamental to all biological sciences.
Chemotaxonomy is developed due to sophisticated techniques in
chemical analysis which can detect even trace of chemical compounds
Identification-plants can be identified by using information from books
or papers on given subject. then correct name of plant has to identified
. Botanical nomenclature is based on Latin names of plants.
Classification- classification is grouping together plants
whose similarity are grater than their differences. Simple
system is dividing plants in to groups like trees, shrubs
and herbs. another way to divide them in to ferns,
conifers, dicots and monocots
Herbarium is Taxonomist record of flora .
The specimen is collected, pressed and dried to form
herbarium.
Flora -Data about kind of plants are assembled in to
books and articles known as floras or manuals.
Flora briefly describes the plant of region and manual
helps user in identifying plant of that area.
Monograph is comprehensive particular
treatise ( written work)on taxonomy of
natural group such as genus atropa..
as documented knowledge of flora is
accumulates, the taxonomist can understand
better the interrelationship of plants..
Other botanists like physiologist, ecologist,
anatomist, cytogenesist, morphologist,
chemo taxonomist depends on taxonomic
finding to identify and name the plants with
which they work.
Compounds used for chemotaxonomy
Mentzer proposed biogenetic classification and recognize three classes
of chemical compounds in plants
1 primary metabolite
2 secondary metabolite
3miscellaneous substances
Primary metabolite- metabolite that is directly involved in normal
growth, development, and reproduction. It usually performs a
physiological function in the organism (i.e. an intrinsic function).they are
part of vital metabolic pathways e.g. sconitic acid or citric acid in Krebs
cycle are present in all aerobic organisms
Secondary metabolites are organic compounds that are not directly
involved in the normal growth, development, or reproduction of an
organism. Secondary metabolites often play an important role in plant
defense against herbivore. Humans use secondary metabolites as
medicines, flavorings, and recreational drugs.
semantides- these are information carrying
molecules. DNA is primary semantide, RNA is
secondary semantide, and protiens are tertiary
semantides. Semantides with large
polysaccharides are known as macromolecules
and with primary , secondary metabolites as
micromolecules.
Maximum chemicals which have been found
very useful in taxonomy are secondary
metabolites or semantides.
The red, purple, and blue colors found in many
plants are due to two classes of water soluble
pigments,
anthocyanins and betacyanins. The anthocyanins
are flavonoids, a class of phenolic molecules, and
are synthesized via the shikimic acid pathway.
They are widespread in the plant kingdom, even
occasionally being found in mosses and
gymnosperms, as well as the angiosperms
Biological classification or scientific classification,
it is a method by which taxonomists group and
categorize plants by biological type, such as genus or
species.
The classification of plants by grouping data
according to morphological similarities
is probably the oldest and most widely-used of all
the approaches .
However many approaches evolved over time
towards the taxonomy of plants
CHEMOTAXONOMY
The science of chemical taxonomy is used on the
classification of plants on the basis of their chemical
constituents which are deeply concerned with the molecular
characteristics.
The method of chemical taxonomy is simple in principal and
is based
on the investigations of the distribution of chemical
compounds or groups of biosynthetically related compounds
in series of related plants.
Different plants sometimes contain substances which
although belong to different chemical compounds appear to
be biosynthetically analogous.
it is possible to identify many plants by their starch grains.
enzyme systems, and the compounds produced
by such enzymes are indicative of the
relationships that exist between the plants.
However, the chemotaxonomic studies include
the investigation of the patterns of the
compounds existing in plant.
Climatic conditions have a major influence on
the distribution of plants containing certain
substances e.g. fats, volatile oils, alkaloids,
flavonoids etc.
The other chemicals are also found specifically
in particular orders or families of flowering
plants e.g. Isoquinoline (Alkaloids) is found in
the families of Ranales;
retanone in the families of leguminales,
biflavonoils in casuarinas equisetifolia
(casuarinaceae).
The presence of such chemicals in different
groups of plants has great taxonomic
significance.
FLAVONOIDS
The term flavonoids refer to a class of plant secondary
metabolite.
They are the largest group of naturally occurring
phenolic compounds, which occur in different plants
parts both in the free state and as glycosides .
The term flavonoids has been derived from a Latin
word ―FLAVUS meaning yellow as a large no of
flavonoids are yellow in color.
Flavonoids are also known as plant pigment or co
pigment.
The presence of these pigments is responsible for
color and combination of colors exhibited by bark,
leaves, flower, fruits and seeds of plants.
Flavonoids are commonly referred to as
bioflavonoid in the media;
the terms are largely equivalent and
interchangeable for most flavonoids are
biological in origin .
They are polyphenolic compounds with
general structure possessing 15 carbon
atoms, two benzene rings joined by a linear
three carbon chain.
The major classes of Flavonoids are
Flavone
Flavonol
Flavanone
Isoflavone
Anthocyanin
Studies on Flavonoids
Flavonoids first came into the spotlight in the 1930‘s
when Szent-Gyorgyi and his colleagues extracted two
flavonoids from citrus fruit.
They discovered that a crude form of vitamin C which
contained a flavonoids fraction worked better for
treating bleeding gums than did a more refined form
of vitamin C.
They investigated the effects of the flavonoids and
found they decreased the fragility and permeability of
human capillaries.
This is why flavonoids were then called "vitamin P" [P
for permeability] .
Solanum Flavonoids
Many glycosides of quercetin, kaempferol and myricetin
had been reported from various Solanum species .
Schilling (1984) isolated 10 flavonoids from leaf extract of
11 species belonging to the section Solanum;
including coumarins (such as scopolrtin).
Flavonols and Anthocyanidins for S. scabrum in Nigeria
and the anthocyanin pigments were also found in
European samples of this species .
Quercetin is the most commonly occurring flavonol
aglycone detected in S. nigrum Complex.
It forms many glycosides like quercitrin, isoquercitrin and
rutin
together with rhamnose and glucose as sugar moieties
attached in different patterns.
Bioactive Properties of Flavonoids
flavonoids may have diverse benefits including
antioxidant,
antiviral,
anti-allergic
antimicrobial,
anti-platelet,
anti-inflammatory,
and anti-tumor effects.
Flavonoids are some of the most powerful and effective
antioxidant compounds available to humans and since we are
unable to produce flavonoids ourselves, we must get them
from the food we eat and from supplements.
Flavonoids exert these antioxidant effects by neutralizing all
types of oxidizing radicals including the superoxide and
hydroxyl and by chelation.
Most flavonoids have antigerm activity.
While they are not considered essential nutrients, some
flavonoids support health by strengthening capillaries and
other connective tissue, and some function as antihistaminic
and antiviral agents.
Rutin and several other flavonoids may also protect blood
vessels.
Flavonoids have been referred to as ―nature‘s
biological response modifiers because of strong
experimental evidence of their inherent ability to
modify the body‘s reaction to allergens, viruses and
carcinogens.
They show antimicrobial and anticancer activity .
Quercetin is found to be the most active of the
Flavonoids and many medicinal plants have high
quercetin content.
It has demonstrated significant anti-inflammatory
activity because of direct inhibition of several initial
processes of inflammation.
For example, Quercetin inhibits both the production
and release of histamine and other allergic,
inflammatory mediators.
Terpenoids
An enormous range of plant substances are covered by the word
‘terpenoid’, a term which is used to indicate that all such substances
have a common origin. They have units of isoprene( CH₂=CCH=CH₂.).
They range from the essential oil components the volatile
monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes (C10 and C15) through less volatile
diterpenes (C20) to in volatile triterpenoids and sterols (C30) and
carotenoid pigments (C40).
No. of isoprene units Carbon No. Name/Class Main Types andOccurrence
1 C5 Isoprene Detected in Hamamelis japonicaleaf
2 C10 Monoterpene Menthol from mint
3 C15 Sesquiterpene In essential oils
4 C20 Diterpene In plant resins
6 C30 Triterpene Sterols (Sitosterol)
8 C40 Tetraterpene Carotenoids(Beta-carotene)
N Cn Polyisoprene Rubber,
Classification of volatile oils on the basis of number of isoprene
units:
Properties of terpenoids
They are present in all volatile oils
they are colorless liquids or solids.
They have a characteristic smell and most
of them are optically active.
 They easily get oxidized.
 They are soluble in alcohol, chloroform,
ether, acetone and carbon disulphide and
insoluble in water
Uses
analgesic,
carminatives,
anthelmintics,
antiseptic,
counter irritant.
They are also used in soaps, cosmetics,
incense sticks, perfumery and food articles.
They also play a major part in pesticides
and insecticides industries
.
Terpenoids in Chemotaxonomy:
Terpenoids occur mostly in higher plants.
they are mostly found in
Myrtaceae,
Lauraceae,
Rutaceae,
Lamiaceae
, Asteraceae,
Apiaceae,
Poaceae,
and Cupressaceae.
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Natural pesticide & insecticides

  • 1. Natural pesticide & insecticides RCPIPER, SHIRPUR Second year B pharm By- D R MAHAJAN
  • 2. Pest- it is any animal, plant or microorganism that trouble, injuries or cause destruction of crop. Methods of pest control- They have two types- natural and artificial pest control. Natural pest control- they are prepared in nature due to prey- predator relationships. Beneficial insects are those insects which prey on harmful insects or their larvae. Artificial pest control- these are man med methods to control pest. They have following types
  • 3. mechanical- manual or mechanical method for collection or destruction of pest. Eg.handpicking, pruning, trapping, burning for destruction of eggs, larvae, pupae, insects Agriculture control- these methods are used to destroy life cycle of pest eg deep ploughing for eradication of weeds, alternate crop rotation, hybrid pest resistance crop species Chemical control- these are chemicals used to kill pest eg.insecticides, paraciticides Biological control- Living organisms are used to control pest. Eg microorganisms may be used to kill by causing fatal disease in insects
  • 5. Characteristics of ideal pesticide -should have high margin of safety for plants and animals -easy to handle and apply -should not be toxic for warm blooded animals -should not be inflammable or explosive should be available easily at affordable cost
  • 6. Herbicides, also commonly known as weedkillers, These are pesticides used to kill unwanted plants. Selective herbicides kill specific targets, while leaving the desired crop relatively unharmed. Some of these act by interfering with the growth of the weed and are often synthetic mimics of natural plant hormones. Some plants produce natural herbicides, action of natural herbicides, and other related chemical interactions, is called allelopathy. The most frequent application of herbicides occurs in row- crop farming, where they are applied before or during planting to maximize crop productivity by minimizing other vegetation(weed)
  • 7. Fungicides- they are used to control fungal diseases of plants and food crops. Fungi can cause serious damage in agriculture, resulting in critical losses of yield, quality, and profit Fungicides can either be contact, translaminar or systemic. Contact fungicides are not taken up into the plant tissue, and protect only the plant where the spray is deposited; translaminar fungicides redistribute the fungicide from the upper, sprayed leaf surface to the lower, unsprayed surface; systemic fungicides are taken up and redistributed through the xylem vessels. Few fungicides move to all parts of a plant. Some are locally systemic, and some move upwardly
  • 8. Fumigation is a method of pest control that completely fills an area with gaseous pesticides—or fumigants—to suffocate or poison the pests within. It is used to control pests in buildings (structural fumigation), soil, grain, and produce, and is also used during processing of goods to be imported or exported to prevent transfer of exoticorganisms.
  • 9. Rodenticides, rat poison, are pest control chemicals intended to kill rodents. Rodenticides are controversial, due to secondary poisoning and their risks to children, pets and wildlife. Single feed baits are chemicals sufficiently dangerous that the first dose is sufficient to kill. rodents will eat a small bit of something and wait, and if they do not get sick, they continue. An effective rodenticide must be tasteless and odorless in lethal concentrations, and have a delayed effect.
  • 11. Tobacco Synonym Tobacco Biological source Tobacco consist of dried leaves of Nicotiona tabacum Family Solanaceae
  • 12. Charectersatics Tobacco mostly used for preparation of cigarettes, bidis, cigar, Cheroot, snuff, chewing tobacco
  • 14. Isolation of nicotine from tobacco Tobacco west material from industry is used for production of insecticidal nicotine. nicotine is isolated by mixing tobacco waste with lime and extracting it with water. aqueous extract further extracted with kerosene and then kerosene extract is treated with sulphuric acid to obtain nicotine sulphate
  • 15. Uses Insecticidal free base of nicotine is more toxic than sulphate, Mostly effective against minute soft body insects like aphides, white flies, fruit tree borers, termites, cabbage butterfly larvae Nicotine preparations are safer, easier to handle, less toxic to warm blooded animals
  • 17. Pyrethrum Synonym Insect flowers, pyrethrum flowers BS It consist of dried flower heads of Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium family Compositae
  • 18. Charecterstic Open flowers are 9-12 mm diameter. Flower bears short ,longitudinally striated penduncle(stem supporting an inflorescence) Colour- cream or straw colour odour- slight aromatic, Taste- bitter acrid Before drying flower heads are non toxic to insects
  • 19. Chemical constituents Esters Pyrethrin- I,II, Jasmolin,- I ,II cinerin- I,II triterpine alcohol, pyrethrol lactone, pyrethrocin. other pyretol,pyrethrotoxic acid,chrysanthemine, chrysanthemumic acid
  • 20. Uses Domestic and agriculture insecticidal it act on nervous system of insects resulting in muscular excitation, convulsion, paralysis Toxic effect of pyrethrum on human are irritation to eyes, mucosa. maximum permissible atmospheric concentration is up to 5 mg per cubic meter
  • 21. Natural allergens and plant toxins. allergen is a type of antigen that produces an abnormally vigorous immune response in which the immune system fights off a perceived threat that would otherwise be harmless to the body. Such reactions are called allergies. Hypersensitivity or allergy- when individual develops abnormal response to substance or condition that is generally tolerated by others called allergy. Antigen that induce allergic reaction called allergen. any substance of biological, chemical or synthetic origin may prove to be allergen. Emotional factor, atmospheric factor , chronic infection may be responsible for allergic reaction. s.
  • 22. When body first time get exposed to allergen the condition is known as primary exposure. During this , no symptoms of allergy are produced as no previous antibody formation accour in individual. During second exposer allergens contact fixed antibodies and antigen- antibody reaction occurs. this immune reaction causes liberation of histamine and other mediators of allergic symptoms. Allergic reaction can be localized or generalized . A set of common allergies which can be correlated with positive skin test of some specific allergens is called atopy. atopic diseases include allergic rhinitis( hay fever).allergic asthma, allergic urticaria(kind of skin rash notable for pale red, raised, itchy bumps), atopic dermatitis
  • 23. Classification of allergens Classification is based on there mode of introduction in body Inhalant plant allergen- Substances present in atmosphere are inhaled by nose and mouth. Symptoms are limited to nasal mucosa and manifested by sneezing, lacrimination, itching , swelling of nose and eye. E.g. sinusitis ( hay fever) ingestant allergens- allergens present in foodstuff are ingestant allergens, symptomes are gastrointestinal disturbances, skin rash, migraine. Injectant allergens- Allergens in parenteral solution are injectant allergens. Antibiotic like penicillins, cephalosporins.
  • 24. Contact allergens- Allergens come into direct contact with epithelium are contactant allergens.. E.g. poison ivy, poison oak. Causes severe dermatitis with watery blisters witch burst and spread across skin Infestant allergen- parasitic microorganisms in or on the body are this type of allergens Physical allergy- allergy caused by heat or cold Environmental allergy- Cause due to change in climate conditions
  • 25. Inhalant allergens These are airborne substances as chemicals witch causes respiratory disease, inflammation in nose and lung. nasal inflammation causes sneezing, lacrimation, itching, swelling of nose and eyes. this condition is called sinusitis or hay fever. Inflammation of lung causes asthma. Allergens when lands on mucous membrane of nose chain reaction occurs that leads mast cells in these tissues to release histamine and other chemicals. These chemicals contract certain cells of some blood vessels in nose witch allows fluid to escape causing nasal passage to swell resulting nasal congestion. E.g. of airborne allergens are pollens, dust, mites, mould spores, animal allergy ( epidermis, dander)
  • 26. Pollen allergens Pollens are male cells of flowering plants. They required for plant fertilization. Average pollen particle size is less than the width of average human hair. Pollens are further classified in to two types 1anemophilous( wind pollinated) 2entomophilous( insect pollinated)
  • 27. Anemophilous-they are small 15-45 micrometer in diameter, light, non adhesive and relatively smooth and are produced by plain looking plants eg. Trees, grasses and weeds Entomophilous- thy are larger in size , up to 200 micrometer in diameter, heavier, adhesive and may be somewhat spiny. Plants are scented with colored flowers such as clover, hollyhock, rose. Most common allergic reaction are produced by wind pollinated pollens ( anemophilous) because thy are light Wight , dry and easily carried for long distance.
  • 28. Ingestant allergens These allergens present in food stuff and swallowed called ingestant ( food allergy). food allergy is immune system response to food. Once immune system decides that particular food is harmful, it creates specific antibody to it. Effect of food allergy are not localized to one organ or area of body but it may transfer to other organs by blood hence its symptoms are multiple like gastrointestinal or skin related. common food allergens are milk, egg, peanut, tree nut, fish, , soy, wheat, orange juice, code liver oil, food additives and many other foodstuffs. Method to combat food allergy is elimination of offending substances from diet
  • 29. Injectant allergens Natural source of injectant allergens are produced by sting of bees, hornets and wasps. Allergens are injected by sting of such insects can induce severe local and constitutional reaction sometimes causing death. Artificial source is injection of various antibiotics in body e.g. penicillin, cephalosporin's. Liver extract, antitoxins. symptoms are itching of palms of hands and soles of feet , erythema, peeling of skin, and in severe case anaphylactic shock may occur.
  • 30. Contact allergens Contact allergy is caused by number of plants and their products e.g.. Poison ivy, oak, asparagus, ornamental dumb cane, catapla leaves, ginkgo leaves, lobelia. Infectant allergens Allergy caused by metabolic products of living microorganism in human body like continual presence of bacteria, protozoa's, moulds, helminthes and other parasites in human body are responsible to cause chronic infection.
  • 31. Plant toxins These are toxic secondary plant metabolites which naturally occur in food, weeds and ornamental plants. The chemical diversity is tremendous. Toxic constituents of plants Plant toxins are produced by metabolic activity in plant, especially secondary metabolites can be toxic to humans and animals. Like alkaloids, glycosides, toxic proteins, bitter principles. plants containing toxic substances which are capable to produce harmful effects are known as poisonous plants following are toxic constituents of plants Vegetable base- nitrogenous vegetable bases like amines, purines, alkaloids. E.g. of toxic alkaloids are aconitine ( aconite root),morphine( poppy capsule), emetine( ipecacuanha roots), strychnine( nux vomica), nicotine ( tobacco), curarine ( curare).
  • 32. Glycosides-glycosides are combination of glycone and aglycone parts. Cyanogenic glycosides are harmless but gives rise to toxic acids eg amygdalin found in bitter almonds, prunasin found in wild cherry some glycosides produce harmful compounds on hydrolysis e.g. sinigrin in black mustard seeds, sinalbin in white mustard seeds some glycosides have direct toxic action like digitoxine in digitalis, thevetin in thevetia, antiarin in antiaris. Saponins- they are particularly toxic to cold blooded animals such as fishes, frogs, insects. Poisonous saponins are called sapotoxines Bitter principles-they have bitter taste and found in many plants.eg aloe bitter found in thicken juice of several species of aloe. These poisons have purgative action eg picrotoxin from anamirta cocculus
  • 33. toxic protiens- they are also called toxalbumines found in leguminosae and euphorbiaceae. E.g. abrin from Abrus precatorius, ricin from Ricinus communis, cortin from Croton tiglium. They are blood poisons and are characterized by their property of agglutinating and precipitating RBCs Fixed oils- some oils when heated gives rise to acrid acrolein vapors. Thy generally have laxative property. Croton oil from seeds of Croton tiglium produces irritation to skin, vesicant action of croton is due to resin dissolved in it
  • 34. Essential oils- these are odorous volatile principles of plants many of them have sharp burning taste and locally have irritating action. Large dose causes irritation to GIT with diarrhea, vomiting , pain. They may cause hemorrhage and abortion e.g. oil of juniper, rue, parsley Organic acids- oxalic acid. Protoplasmic poison occurring in large number of plants in form of oxalates. Formic acid is irritant found in plants of utricaceae family.
  • 35. Argemone toxin- epidemic dropsy Epidemic dropsy is a form of edema of extremities due to intoxication with Argemone mexicana (Mexican prickly poppy) hindi- satyanashi Epidemic dropsy is a clinical state resulting from use of edible oils adulterated with Argemone mexicana seed oil. Sanguinarine and dihydrosanguinarine are two major toxic alkaloids of argemone oil, which cause widespread capillary dilatation, proliferation and increased capillary permeability. When mustard oil is adulterated deliberately (as in most cases) or accidentally with argemone oil, protienurea (specifically loss of albumin) occurs, with a resultant edema as would occur in nephrotic syndrom. .
  • 36. Leakage of the protein-rich plasma component into the extracellular compartment leads to the formation of edema. Illness begins with gastroenteric symptoms followed by cutaneous erythema and pigmentation. Respiratory symptoms such as cough, shortness of breath and shortness of breath, progressing to frank right-sided congestive cardiac failure, are seen. Removal of the adulterated oil and symptomatic treatment of congestive cardiac failure and respiratory symptoms, along with administration of antioxidants and multivitamins, remain the mainstay of treatment
  • 37. Epidemic dropsy patients with the characteristic bilateral pitting edema of the extremities (indicated by arrows)
  • 38. Castor toxin Ricin is a highly toxic, naturally occurring lectin (a carbohydrate-binding protien) produced in the seeds of the castor oil plant, Ricinus communis. . Oral exposure to ricin is far less toxic, and an estimated lethal dose in humans is approximately 1 milligram per kilogram. It acts as a toxin by inhibiting protein synthesis. By ingestion, the pathology of ricin is largely restricted to the gastrointestinal tract, where it may cause mucosal injuries. With appropriate treatment, most patients will make a full recovery. Because the symptoms are caused by failure to make protein, they emerge only after a variable delay from a few hours to a full day after exposure.
  • 39. Symptomatic and supportive treatments are available. Survivors often develop long-term organ damage. Ricin causes severe diarrhea, and victims can die of circulatory shock. Death typically occurs within 3–5 days of exposure. Deaths from ingesting castor plant seeds are rare, partly because of their indigestible capsule, and because the body can, only with difficulty, digest ricin. The pulp from eight beans is considered dangerous to an adult
  • 40. Lathyrus toxins- lathyrism( paralysis in legs) Lathyrism or neurolathyrism is a neurological disease of humans and domestic animals, caused by eating certain legumes of the genus lathyrus. This problem is mainly associated with Lathyrus sativus (also known as Grass pea, Kesari Dhal, Khesari Dhal orAlmorta The consumption of large quantities of Lathyrus grain containing high concentrations of the glutamate analogue neurotoxin β-oxalyl-L-α,β-diaminopropionic acid (ODAP, also known as β-N-oxalyl-amino-L-alanine, or BOAA) causes paralysis, characterized by lack of strength in or inability to move the lower limbs,.. A unique symptom of lathyrism is the atrophy of glutealmuscles (buttocks). ODAP is a poison of mitochondria leading to excess cell death, especially in motor neurons
  • 41. Prevalence This disease is prevalent in some areas of Bangladesh,Ethiopia, Iindia and Nepal Causes The toxicological cause of the disease has been attributed to the neurotoxin ODAP which acts as a structural analogue of the neurotransmitter glutamate. Ingestion of legumes containing the toxin results mostly from ignorance of their toxicity and usually occurs where the despair of poverty and malnutrition leaves few other food options. Lathyrism can also be caused by food adulteration.
  • 42. Cycad toxins- lytico-bodig Cycads have been a source of food and medicine for many people who live in proximity to these plants. These plants are well-known to be highly poisonous and must be carefully processed to remove toxins, before they are edible. If they are not properly processed they can cause vomiting, liver damage and even death, there is also evidence they have neurotoxic effects. To remove the toxins, different methods of processing are used by different cultures. Cycads contain characteristic chemicals, which are unique to their order of plants. Two compounds: BMAA, and Cycasin are found universally in all genera of cycad .
  • 43. Cassava toxins-konzo Cassava roots,peels and leaves should not be consumed raw because they contain two cyanogenic glucosides,linamarin and lotaustralin. These are decomposed by linamarase, a naturally occurring enzyme in cassava, liberating hydrogen cyanide (HCN). Cassava varieties are often categorized as either sweet or bitter, signifying the absence or presence of toxic levels of cyanogenic glucosides, respectively. The so-called sweet (actually not bitter) cultivars can produce as little as 20 milligrams of cyanide (CN) per kilogram of fresh roots, whereas bitter ones may produce more than 50 times as much (1 g/kg)
  • 44. Societies that traditionally eat cassava generally understand some processing (soaking, cooking, fermentation, etc.) is necessary to avoid getting sick Cassava , Brazilian arrowroot, manioc, and tapioca, a woody SHRUB of the Euphorbiaceae (spurge) family native to SOUTH AMERICA, is extensively cultivated as an annual crop in tropical and subtropical regions for its edible starchy tuberous roots, a major source of carbohydrate. Symptoms of acute cyanide intoxication appear four or more hours after ingesting raw or poorly processed cassava: vertigo, vomiting, and collapse. In some cases, death may result within one or two hours. It can be treated easily with an injection of thiosulfate (which makes sulfur available for the patient's body to detoxify by converting the poisonous cyanide into thiocyanate).
  • 46. Ackee toxins-hypoglycaemia The ackee, also known as achee, ackee apple or akee (Blighia sapida) Ackee is the national fruit of jamaica, The unripened or inedible portions of the fruit contain the toxins hypoglycin A and hypoglycin B. Hypoglycin A is found in both the seeds and the arils, while hypoglycin B is found only in the seeds. hypoglycin is converted in the body to methylenecyclopropyl acetic acid(MCPA). Hypoglycin and MCPA are both toxic. MCPA inhibits several enzymes involved in the breakdown of acyl CoA compounds. consequently inhibiting beta oxidation of fatty acids. Beta oxidation normally provides the body with ATP,NADH, and acetyl CoA which is used to supplement the energy produced by glycolysis. Glucose stores are consequently depleted leading to HYPOGLYCEMIA. ill effects occur only when the immature fruit is consumed. Ackee pods should be allowed to ripen on the tree before picking. Prior to cooking, the ackee arils are cleaned and washed. The arils are then boiled for approximately 5 minutes and the water discarded.
  • 47. Fruit as it splits upon ripening. Showing ripe fruit and seeds with their arils
  • 48. Chemotaxonomy of medicinal plants Defination-It is the method of biologicsl classification based on similarities in the chemical structure of certain compounds among the organisms being classified. It utilize chemical information to improve classification of plants. Taxonomy-a branch of science that encompasses the description, identification, nomenclature, and classification of organisms Plant taxonomy is fundamental to all biological sciences. Chemotaxonomy is developed due to sophisticated techniques in chemical analysis which can detect even trace of chemical compounds Identification-plants can be identified by using information from books or papers on given subject. then correct name of plant has to identified . Botanical nomenclature is based on Latin names of plants.
  • 49. Classification- classification is grouping together plants whose similarity are grater than their differences. Simple system is dividing plants in to groups like trees, shrubs and herbs. another way to divide them in to ferns, conifers, dicots and monocots Herbarium is Taxonomist record of flora . The specimen is collected, pressed and dried to form herbarium. Flora -Data about kind of plants are assembled in to books and articles known as floras or manuals. Flora briefly describes the plant of region and manual helps user in identifying plant of that area.
  • 50. Monograph is comprehensive particular treatise ( written work)on taxonomy of natural group such as genus atropa.. as documented knowledge of flora is accumulates, the taxonomist can understand better the interrelationship of plants.. Other botanists like physiologist, ecologist, anatomist, cytogenesist, morphologist, chemo taxonomist depends on taxonomic finding to identify and name the plants with which they work.
  • 51. Compounds used for chemotaxonomy Mentzer proposed biogenetic classification and recognize three classes of chemical compounds in plants 1 primary metabolite 2 secondary metabolite 3miscellaneous substances Primary metabolite- metabolite that is directly involved in normal growth, development, and reproduction. It usually performs a physiological function in the organism (i.e. an intrinsic function).they are part of vital metabolic pathways e.g. sconitic acid or citric acid in Krebs cycle are present in all aerobic organisms Secondary metabolites are organic compounds that are not directly involved in the normal growth, development, or reproduction of an organism. Secondary metabolites often play an important role in plant defense against herbivore. Humans use secondary metabolites as medicines, flavorings, and recreational drugs.
  • 52. semantides- these are information carrying molecules. DNA is primary semantide, RNA is secondary semantide, and protiens are tertiary semantides. Semantides with large polysaccharides are known as macromolecules and with primary , secondary metabolites as micromolecules. Maximum chemicals which have been found very useful in taxonomy are secondary metabolites or semantides.
  • 53. The red, purple, and blue colors found in many plants are due to two classes of water soluble pigments, anthocyanins and betacyanins. The anthocyanins are flavonoids, a class of phenolic molecules, and are synthesized via the shikimic acid pathway. They are widespread in the plant kingdom, even occasionally being found in mosses and gymnosperms, as well as the angiosperms
  • 54. Biological classification or scientific classification, it is a method by which taxonomists group and categorize plants by biological type, such as genus or species. The classification of plants by grouping data according to morphological similarities is probably the oldest and most widely-used of all the approaches . However many approaches evolved over time towards the taxonomy of plants
  • 55. CHEMOTAXONOMY The science of chemical taxonomy is used on the classification of plants on the basis of their chemical constituents which are deeply concerned with the molecular characteristics. The method of chemical taxonomy is simple in principal and is based on the investigations of the distribution of chemical compounds or groups of biosynthetically related compounds in series of related plants. Different plants sometimes contain substances which although belong to different chemical compounds appear to be biosynthetically analogous. it is possible to identify many plants by their starch grains.
  • 56. enzyme systems, and the compounds produced by such enzymes are indicative of the relationships that exist between the plants. However, the chemotaxonomic studies include the investigation of the patterns of the compounds existing in plant. Climatic conditions have a major influence on the distribution of plants containing certain substances e.g. fats, volatile oils, alkaloids, flavonoids etc.
  • 57. The other chemicals are also found specifically in particular orders or families of flowering plants e.g. Isoquinoline (Alkaloids) is found in the families of Ranales; retanone in the families of leguminales, biflavonoils in casuarinas equisetifolia (casuarinaceae). The presence of such chemicals in different groups of plants has great taxonomic significance.
  • 58. FLAVONOIDS The term flavonoids refer to a class of plant secondary metabolite. They are the largest group of naturally occurring phenolic compounds, which occur in different plants parts both in the free state and as glycosides . The term flavonoids has been derived from a Latin word ―FLAVUS meaning yellow as a large no of flavonoids are yellow in color. Flavonoids are also known as plant pigment or co pigment. The presence of these pigments is responsible for color and combination of colors exhibited by bark, leaves, flower, fruits and seeds of plants.
  • 59. Flavonoids are commonly referred to as bioflavonoid in the media; the terms are largely equivalent and interchangeable for most flavonoids are biological in origin . They are polyphenolic compounds with general structure possessing 15 carbon atoms, two benzene rings joined by a linear three carbon chain.
  • 60.
  • 61. The major classes of Flavonoids are Flavone Flavonol Flavanone Isoflavone Anthocyanin
  • 62. Studies on Flavonoids Flavonoids first came into the spotlight in the 1930‘s when Szent-Gyorgyi and his colleagues extracted two flavonoids from citrus fruit. They discovered that a crude form of vitamin C which contained a flavonoids fraction worked better for treating bleeding gums than did a more refined form of vitamin C. They investigated the effects of the flavonoids and found they decreased the fragility and permeability of human capillaries. This is why flavonoids were then called "vitamin P" [P for permeability] .
  • 63. Solanum Flavonoids Many glycosides of quercetin, kaempferol and myricetin had been reported from various Solanum species . Schilling (1984) isolated 10 flavonoids from leaf extract of 11 species belonging to the section Solanum; including coumarins (such as scopolrtin). Flavonols and Anthocyanidins for S. scabrum in Nigeria and the anthocyanin pigments were also found in European samples of this species . Quercetin is the most commonly occurring flavonol aglycone detected in S. nigrum Complex. It forms many glycosides like quercitrin, isoquercitrin and rutin together with rhamnose and glucose as sugar moieties attached in different patterns.
  • 64. Bioactive Properties of Flavonoids flavonoids may have diverse benefits including antioxidant, antiviral, anti-allergic antimicrobial, anti-platelet, anti-inflammatory, and anti-tumor effects.
  • 65. Flavonoids are some of the most powerful and effective antioxidant compounds available to humans and since we are unable to produce flavonoids ourselves, we must get them from the food we eat and from supplements. Flavonoids exert these antioxidant effects by neutralizing all types of oxidizing radicals including the superoxide and hydroxyl and by chelation. Most flavonoids have antigerm activity. While they are not considered essential nutrients, some flavonoids support health by strengthening capillaries and other connective tissue, and some function as antihistaminic and antiviral agents. Rutin and several other flavonoids may also protect blood vessels.
  • 66. Flavonoids have been referred to as ―nature‘s biological response modifiers because of strong experimental evidence of their inherent ability to modify the body‘s reaction to allergens, viruses and carcinogens. They show antimicrobial and anticancer activity . Quercetin is found to be the most active of the Flavonoids and many medicinal plants have high quercetin content. It has demonstrated significant anti-inflammatory activity because of direct inhibition of several initial processes of inflammation. For example, Quercetin inhibits both the production and release of histamine and other allergic, inflammatory mediators.
  • 67. Terpenoids An enormous range of plant substances are covered by the word ‘terpenoid’, a term which is used to indicate that all such substances have a common origin. They have units of isoprene( CH₂=CCH=CH₂.). They range from the essential oil components the volatile monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes (C10 and C15) through less volatile diterpenes (C20) to in volatile triterpenoids and sterols (C30) and carotenoid pigments (C40). No. of isoprene units Carbon No. Name/Class Main Types andOccurrence 1 C5 Isoprene Detected in Hamamelis japonicaleaf 2 C10 Monoterpene Menthol from mint 3 C15 Sesquiterpene In essential oils 4 C20 Diterpene In plant resins 6 C30 Triterpene Sterols (Sitosterol) 8 C40 Tetraterpene Carotenoids(Beta-carotene) N Cn Polyisoprene Rubber, Classification of volatile oils on the basis of number of isoprene units:
  • 68. Properties of terpenoids They are present in all volatile oils they are colorless liquids or solids. They have a characteristic smell and most of them are optically active.  They easily get oxidized.  They are soluble in alcohol, chloroform, ether, acetone and carbon disulphide and insoluble in water
  • 69. Uses analgesic, carminatives, anthelmintics, antiseptic, counter irritant. They are also used in soaps, cosmetics, incense sticks, perfumery and food articles. They also play a major part in pesticides and insecticides industries .
  • 70. Terpenoids in Chemotaxonomy: Terpenoids occur mostly in higher plants. they are mostly found in Myrtaceae, Lauraceae, Rutaceae, Lamiaceae , Asteraceae, Apiaceae, Poaceae, and Cupressaceae.