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Cpwf gbdc combined presentation for policy meeting_bangladesh


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Cpwf gbdc combined presentation for policy meeting_bangladesh

  1. 1. The Ganges Basin Development Challenge (GBDC) Increasing the resilience of agricultural and aquaculture systems in the coastal areas of the Ganges Delta
  2. 2. Tasks • Who work in GBDC • Why GBDC • What GBDC is • How it works • Where it works • Your supportAndes • Ganges • Limpopo • Mekong • Nile • Volta Water for a food-secure world
  3. 3. THE BD GANGES TEAM BAU BUET BFRI BRAC BWDB LGED IRRI IWM IWMI PS&TU SRDI Shushilan WFCAndes • Ganges • Limpopo • Mekong • Nile • Volta Water for a food-secure world
  4. 4. Why? Poverty in Coastal Zone of Bangladesh• Among world’s poorest, most food insecure, vulnerable• 75% of households (HH) with 0.2-0.6 ha; HH income ~70000 BDT• 80% of population income < national poverty line• Too much water in rainy season• Salinity and lack of fresh water in dry season BBS / WorldBank / WFP (2009) Andes • Ganges • Limpopo • Mekong • Nile • Volta
  5. 5. With advances in sciences, innovation and improved understanding of socio economic issues ….There are opportunities for livelihood improvements. GBDC is optimistic about a more productive and prosperous BD coastal zoneReducing poverty, improving resilience, through improved water GBDC governance and management and intensified and diversified agricultural and aquaculture systems in brackish water of the coastal Ganges.
  6. 6. We envision that after 10 years of GBDC……..• Livelihood – Reduce food insecure HHs by 50%; increase HH income by $100/year – Disadvantaged groups and women are empowered – Increase resilience (farmers ability to cope with effects of vulnerability)• Production – Annual agricultural/aquaculture outputs increased by 50% – 50% of HHs have 2 crops/year, diversified with high value non-rice crops and/or aquaculture – Income from “homestead” increased by 50%• Policy – Enabling crop diversification and intensification – Coherent policies and institutions on water management
  7. 7. How?River • Develop improved, intensified and diversified agric and aqua systems andInlet to sluice gate homestead • Better water governance and management Polder 31 • Quantify salinity and water dynamics: present andriver side Sluice gate on future • Identify extrapolation domains and propose Sluice gate inside the land use maps polder • Enhance impact through coordination, Polder 30 stakeholder participation and policy advocacy
  8. 8. Where?Barisal: Patuakhali, BargunaKhulna: Khulna & Satkhiraexcept the Sundarbans Andes • Ganges • Limpopo • Mekong • Nile • Volta
  9. 9. Land use 2000To serve you better, we need yoursupport You are policy makers Critical feedbacks Guidance & collaboration Policy uptake Frequent interactions 6 3 1S or 3R/U Land use zoning 1S-1R proposed by Land use 2005 project in 2000 2 1S or 1S-1R 5 1 4 3R/U S+C - F 2R/U xS: No. of shrimp crops Andes • Ganges • xR: No.of • Mekong • Nile • Volta Limpopo rice crop xR/U: No. of rice or upland crop S+C-F: Shrimp+Crab - Fish
  10. 10. Andes • Ganges • Limpopo • Mekong • Nile • Volta
  11. 11. Ganges Basin Development ChallengeAdoption of new technologies- Salinity and External Drivers
  12. 12. Salinity Dynamics in the Peripheral river of Polder-43/2F POLDER-43/2f Kharif-2 Rabi Kharif-1
  13. 13. Salinity Dynamics in the Peripheral river of Polder-30 Kharif-2 Rabi Kharif-1 POLDER-30
  14. 14. Salinity Dynamics in the Peripheral river of Polder-3 POLDER-3 Salinity Level remain below 2 ppt form end of July to Early December
  15. 15. Road Network and Change of Drainage PatternPolder-30
  16. 16. Water flow Models Water Flow at Pussur River Q Q Q Water Flow boundaryWater Flow Model ofSouth-West Region Q QQ WL Water Level at Pussur River WL WL 2 Dimensional Model (Bay of Bengal Model) WL WL Water flow boundary from SWRM Water level from Global Tide Model WL
  17. 17. Average of Peak water level during kharif-2
  18. 18. Drivers and ScenariosFinal List of Key External Drivers Scenarios Single or combination of the external drivers 2030 and 2050
  19. 19. Participants• Experts,• service providers, practitioners and academicians• Policy planners• representatives from other G’s• Stakeholders and community representatives
  20. 20. Scenarios from the workshop1. Change in transboundary flow +Population growth+Land use change+Climate change (including ppt,temp & SLR)A2+ Urbanization2. Change in transboundary flow +Population growth+Land use change+Climate change (including pptn,temp & SLR)A1B+ Urbanization
  21. 21. Effects of External drivers on Salinity intrusion and Fresh water availability  2 PPT Salinity line moves 10-15 km upwards  2 PPT Salinity line moves 12-18 km upwards  800 Sqkm more area is likely to be affected  1050 Sqkm more area is likely to be affected 15 Km
  22. 22. Key Findings• In the low saline zone freshwater is available for the whole year at present and future and three crops can be established instead of one crop at present;• Gravity irrigation is feasible during Aman Crop;• Costal polder needs improved water management with additional drainage and flushing sluices and ensuring proper operation of gates;• Internal road network needs adequate number of cross-drainage structure for drainage improvement;• Excavation of internal drainage khal for drainage improvement and water storage for agriculture;• In the high saline zone, unauthorized pipes/structure are used for saline water supply can be replaced by few number of flushing sluices for better water and conflict management and safety of the embankment ;• The effects of external drivers on water resources is significant and needs to be considered in future plannning.
  23. 23. THANK YOU
  24. 24. Adoption of improved technologiesrequires improved watermanagement in coastal polders
  25. 25. The opportunity• Tremendous potential to improve food security & livelihoods in the coastal zone through – improved crop & aquaculture technologies – cropping system intensification & diversification• CPWF Ganges program has demonstrated that with – new varieties – timely crop establishment – improved crop & water management, cropping system intensity & the productivity of the coastal lands can be greatly increased - in all seasons.
  26. 26. The opportunity: low saline area• where freshwater is available in the rivers for 10- 11 months a year, such as parts of Barguna District – Aman-Grasspea (rice: 3 t/ha, grasspea: 0.5 t/ha) – Aus-Aman (rice: 6 t/ha) can be replaced by – Aus-Aman-Boro (rice: 16 t/ha) – Aus-Aman-Rabi (rice: 10 t/ha, sunflower: 3 t/ha, maize: 8 t/ha)
  27. 27. Aus-Aman-Rabi Cropping System A M J J A S O N D J F M A 30 June 15 Nov 05Apr Aus (100-105 d) T. Aman (130-140 d) Rabi (130-140 d)10 Apr 10 July 1 Dec
  28. 28. The opportunity: moderately saline area• Where freshwater is limited during the dry season, such as parts of Khulna District, – Productivity of the traditional Aman-Sesame or single Aman systems (rice: 2 t/ha, sesame: 0.5 t/ha) can be increased several-fold through – Aman-Rabi (rice: 4 t/ha, maize: 8 t/ha, sunflower: 3 t/ha) – Aman-Boro (rice: 9 t/ha)
  29. 29. Aman-Rabi Cropping SystemM J J A S O N D J F M A M 15 Nov 30 Apr Aman (140 d) Rabi (120-140 d) 15 July Dec/Jan Terminal Drainage
  30. 30. The opportunity: high saline area• where water salinity too high for dry season agriculture, e.g. parts of Satkhira District, productivity of shrimp culture can be greatly enhanced by new technologies for higher aquaculture production & reduced risk• Shrimp culture (shrimp: 200 kg/ha) can be replaced by more resilient systems of [Shrimp+Fish]-[Rice+Fish] (shrimp: 200 kg/ha, rice: 3 t/ha, fish: 700-1200 kg/ha)• Win-win-win: greater food security + cash income without damaging the environment.
  31. 31. Improved aquaculture-rice system Dry season Wet seasonGherpreparation Bagda Rice+Fish SeedlingJan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Drain out saline water, expose gher soil to rainfall to leach down soil salinity Poorly-drained gher in polder 3 Well-drained gher
  32. 32. Realising the opportunityRequires ability to: – drain fields – intake water of the desired quality – store fresh water for irrigationThis is NOT the current situation………
  33. 33. Aman rice field in Patuakhali
  34. 34. Aman rice field in Patuakhali
  35. 35. Aman rice field in Patuakhali
  36. 36. Aman rice field in Patuakhali
  37. 37. Rice-Fish cultivation in Ghers in Satkhira(inundated due to rainfall during 3-5 September 2012)
  38. 38. How to realise the opportunity?• Successful large-scale implementation of the opportunities requires – a change in mind set & investments in agriculture, aquaculture, & water management. – Need to focus on polder level water management; a pre-requisite• Effective investment in water management requires fundamental changes in thinking about the roles of the polders, polder design & infrastructure, & the institutional set up to manage the water of the polders
  39. 39. Re-defining the roles of polders• Each polder needs to be considered as an integrated water management unit, serving the production systems• The original role of the polders was to enable one crop of tall, long duration traditional aman rice (HYVs did not exist)• HYVs & improved cropping system technologies now available, but with different requirements from traditional aman
  40. 40. How will good drainage help?• Improved drainage will – enable adoption of HYV in rainy season (aman) – timely establishment of rabi crops – ability to grow higher yield/value rabi crops – adequate leaching of salt from shrimp ghers prior to transplanting the aman crop – cropping system intensification
  41. 41. How to increase storage volume inside polders? • Increased fresh water storage capacity during the dry season requires re-excavation of existing canal networks (will also improve drainage!)
  42. 42. Effective water management at polder level requireseparation of lands on the basis of land topography toform a small water management unit by about 50 cmhigh farm levee
  43. 43. Changing institutional set ups• Treating the polders as unified water management units also requires fundamental changes in institutional set up to govern and manage water in the polders.• The present set up is too fragmented and disjoint – BWDB is in charge of embankment and sluices – BADC for small scale irrigation systems in/out-side polders – LGED for structures outside the polders• There should be one single entity in charge of each whole polder, servicing the people living within the polder and their production systems.
  44. 44. Key messages for policy makers• Invest in polder water management• Consider polder as a single integrated water management unit servicing the production systems• Create small water management units with provision of drainage and water storage• One single entity in charge of each whole polder
  45. 45. Thank You
  46. 46. Adoption of improved technologies improved spatial data availability
  47. 47. 1/12 Why do we need improved spatial data? The challenge is to identify where and when each improved technology can be successful in the coastal polder zone  Technology targetting The coastal zone is complex, it faces multiple challenges, and situations change quickly over small distances and from season to season  A high resolution spatial database and multidisciplinary partnerships are paramount for targetting at village level.
  48. 48. 2/12 Study sites for improved technologies Polder 3 Polder 30 Rice/Aquaculture & Intensification from one to Shrimp/Shrimp two crops Polder 43/2f Intensification from one/two to three crops
  49. 49. 3/12 Increasing area affected by soil salinity Soil salinity None Very slight Slight Strong Very strong
  50. 50. 4/12 Large changes in salinity through the year Movement of the 4ppt water salinity boundary in early 2011
  51. 51. 5/12 Improving livelihoods and profitability Opportunity for rice Aug-Nov and shrimp Feb-Jun Current practice – shrimp farming in Feb-Jun Daily water salinity Lower threshold limit of salinity - Shrimp Upper threshold limit of salinity - Rice Water salinity (ppt) Rice Shrimp Date Opportunities for targetting additional crop in fallow lands (Polder 3)
  52. 52. 6/12 Spatial land use patterns are complex! Boro rice Aus rice Aman rice Nov – Apr Apr – Jul Jul – Nov 5m hectares 1.1m hectares 5.8m hectares There is scope for intensification & diversification in the coastal zone
  53. 53. 7/12 Cropping systems are complex! Aman - Boro Water quality and availability in dry season Difference Internal Aman - Boro Fresh (< 4dS/m), Month when and availability in wet season (m) in high Description of Water quality river water storage Proximity to water level in ground water capacity in Land use still remain river, canal, Mar and land availability and relation to land Difference (m) in land Description of Land type(technology) fresh Maximum inundation ponds (m) surface for Maximum inundation depth pumping depth area surface and low water use (<4 dS/m) depth (m) for more than gravity (m) in August (ML/ha) level in Sep/Oct for type(technology) one week in Sep/Oct irrigation (m) drainage Aman HYV rice is Yes, < 6 m S1 March S1 >5 S1 <50 S1 >1 S1 Boro rice is seeded < 0.1 S1 < 0.2 S1 >1 S1 transplanted in July- around 15 Nov. (MS) August, to be Yes, 7 -20 to 15 Dec (LS). Boro 0.1 – 0.2 S2 FebS2 S2 – 0.5 - 5 0.2 2.5 S2 S2 50-100 - 1 S2 0.5 0.5 - 1 S2 S2 harvested by the end m rice is irrigated with of November 0.2 – 0.3 S3 0.5 – 0.8 S3 0.2 – 0.5 S3 river water (when yes, > 20 S3 Jan S3 1 - 2.5 S3 100-300 S3 0.2 - 0.5 S3 (Moderate Salinity fresh) or with water zone) or December stored in canal (low saline zone). No 0.3 > SN SN Dec SN0.8 <1 > SN >300 0.2 SN < SN < 0.2 SN SN networks S1 = Most Suitable S2 = Suitable S3 = Least Suitable SN = Not Suitable Detailed data & multi disciplinary expertise needed to define requirements
  54. 54. 8/12 Cropping systems are complex Groundwater Surface water Depth of Month when Storage Proximity to Suitability for Fresh GW Tubewell? prehatic river water capacity fresh SW dry season (< 4dS/m) surface (m) (< 3 dS/m) (ML/ha) source (m) rice crop Yes Shallow S1 <6 S1 Deep 7 - 20 S2 > 20 S3 No Mar S1 Feb 2.5 - 5 < 100 S1 > 100 S2 1- 2.5 < 100 S2 > 100 S3 Jan 2.5 - 5 < 100 S2 > 100 S3 1 – 2.5 < 100 S3 > 100 SN Dec SN
  55. 55. 9/12 Coastal ecosystems are complex! Social BWDB Demographic IRRI Economic Infrastructure IWM Water Climate LGED Soil SRDI Land cover Topography Basin partners Open sharing of GIS data and expertise across institutes in Bangladesh
  56. 56. 10/12 Data held by many different institutes We need a coordinated approach to facilitate data sharing/access
  57. 57. 11/12 Detailed and specific information is needed Location and time specific constraints like appropriate sluice gate operation (community level water management), and canal siltation (infrastructure maintenance), need to be incorporated into the suitability analysis as critical requirements for innovative cropping systems. Incorporating socio economic constraints to the usual “climate+soils+topography” approach is paramount for realistic suitability maps
  58. 58. 12/12 Key messages on spatial data A framework that encourages institutes in Bangladesh to openly share GIS data in consistent standards will greatly enhance the ability to respond to policy makers needs  A Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI) for Bangladesh Socioeconomic, infrastructure and management information need to included in the targetting approach. They are as important as biophysical constraints.
  59. 59. Thank you
  60. 60. Adoption of improved technologiesrequires better investments in water management Some policy suggestions
  61. 61. We studied institutional arrangements in5 BWDB polders and 4 LGED sub-projects
  62. 62. To understand the actors, communities and institutions Which institutions, What are the How is the organizations and problems and for community involved individuals are which groups? How in water involved in water are they managed? management? management? How? POLICY CHANGE FOR BETTER WATER MANAGEMENT
  63. 63. Over 3000 people were interviewed
  64. 64. Polders and sub-projects vary widely – Salinity and fresh water availability – Cropping systems and livelihoods – Procedures for closing and opening of gates – Role of Water Management Organizations
  65. 65. Diverse cropping pattern depending on salinity levels
  66. 66. Institutional Arrangements of Water Management varies across and within polders (e.g. who opens gates?)Polder/Sub- WMO Gher UP Gate LocalProject owners Chairman committee elites and appointed by Members UP or BWDBPolder 3 - × × × ×Polder 31 × × × × ×Polder 30 × - × - ×Polder 43-2F × - × - ×Latabunia × × - - ×Jabusha × × × -Jainkathi - - × - ×Bagarchra × × × - ×
  67. 67. But all sites have three things in common• Poor condition of embankments, khals and gates due to poor maintenance• Conflicts surrounding water management and land use• UP Chairman and Members are de-facto decision makers, but do not necessarily have a formal role
  68. 68. Why are water infrastructures not maintained?• WMOs were created for solving ‘deferred maintenance’• Why communities don’t maintain? – Public goods dilemma – Even so called ‘minor’ repair and maintenance may be beyond the capacity of communities – Incentive problems: if communities don’t fix it in time, government or donor will in a few years time
  69. 69. ‘Deferred maintenance’ as an incentive problem• Why can’t the governments do regular repair and maintenance? Field evidence shows communities – Allocation from Non- cannot do Revenue Development maintenance expected of less than 10% of Budget is them. total requirement – Belongs to communities, they must do it• Why don’t donors pitch in? – Belongs to GOB and communities, they must do it
  70. 70. How can we help communities to better maintenance?• Give WMOs access to income generating But communities can not assets like lease of do it alone! common land or micro- credit• Devise fair rules for collection of maintenance funds• Coordination between existing WMOs and UP
  71. 71. Solutions beyond community levels• Use existing social safety net funds of UP, like 40 days work, KABHIKA for polder maintenance• Twin benefits of employment creation (LCS) and infrastructure maintenance• Coordination between UP, BWDB, LGED and Central Government
  72. 72. Solutions by donors and central government• Create of Donor- Government Trust Fund for Maintenance of Water related Development partner infrastructure in GoB Bangladesh• All polder/sub-projects get allocations for repair and maintenance every year from interest amount of Trust Fund Donor Government Trust Fund
  73. 73. Trust fund money is allocated to every polder each year for Repair and Maintenance
  74. 74. How to reduce drainage problems and conflicts? Divide polders into smaller hydrological units (SHU). Use LGED rural roads as hydrological boundaries For even smaller boundaries, use UP social safety funds for ail construction
  75. 75. Some of these are already happening…• Constitution of Union Parishad Coordination (UPCC) launched under Local Government Support Project to oversee all developmental activities.• Using rural roads as hydrological boundaries for forming smaller hydrological units. LGED is already doing it in SSWDRP III and IV phases• Delineating smaller hydrological units within BWDB polder with help of LGED: Already happening in Narail Chenchury Bil project where LGED is doing 30 sub-projects within BWDB polder
  76. 76. So, what can policy makers do?Devise better ways ofmaintaining existinginfrastructure: – Through Donor- Government Joint Maintenance Trust Fund – Use social safety net programs for construction of rural roads, small ails, and repair of internal canals and embankments
  77. 77. So, what can policy makers do?Devise ways to reducewater conflicts: – Divide larger polders into smaller hydrological units by using rural roads and ails as hydrological boundaries – Formal involvement of UP’s and WMOs
  78. 78. Thank you