Intercultural Understanding using Hofstede


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Intercultural Understanding using Hofstede

  1. 1. by Margaret Treanor24.06.13 1
  2. 2. Culture Defined“Culture is the collective programming of the human mind thatdistinguishes the members of one human group from those ofanother. Culture in this sense is a system of collectively held values.”• Geert Hofstede“Culture is the deeper level of basic assumptions and beliefs that areshared by members of an organization, that operate unconsciouslyand define in a basic ‘taken for granted’ fashion an organizationsview of its self and its environment.”• Edgar Schein24.06.13 2
  3. 3. Why is Culture Important?Impacts the way strategic moves are presentedInfluences management, decision making, negotiationsCulture makes international business difficult or easy24.06.13 3
  4. 4. Main Features of Culture:Culture is sharedCulture is intangibleCulture is confirmed by others24.06.13 4
  5. 5. 24.06.13 5Cultural Etiquette – the manners and behaviours thatare expected in a given situationCultural Stereotypes – our beliefs about others, theirattitudes & behavioursEthnocentrism – looking at the world from aperspective shaped by our own cultureRelativism - all cultures are good/ cultural sensitivity
  6. 6. Hofstedes Cultural DimensionsProf. Gert HofstedeBorn: October 2, 1928, Haarlem, NetherlandsEducation: Delft University of Technology,University of GroningenConducted a comprehensive study of how values in the workplace areinfluenced by culture.Analyzed a large data of employee values scores collected by IBM (1967 –1973)Developed a model that identifies 4 primary dimensions to assist indifferentiating cultures:Power/Distance, Uncertainty Avoidance, Individualism, MasculinityA fifth was added later:Long-term Orientation24.06.13 6
  7. 7. Hofstede‘s Cultural Dimensions•Individualism / Collectivism•Masculinity / Femininity•Power / Distance•Uncertainty / Avoidance•Long-term Orientation24.06.13 7
  8. 8. Individualism /Collectivsim (IDV)IndividualismI consciousnessPrivate opinionsFulfil obligations to selfPenalty applies loss ofself-respect & guiltCollectivismWe consciousnessRelationships have priorityover tasksFulfil obligations to family,in-group,societyPenalty implies loss offace and shame24.06.13 8
  9. 9. Masculinity /Femininity (MAS)Low MasculinityQuality of life, servingothersStriving for consensusWork in order to liveSmall and slow arebeautifulSympathy for theunfortunateIntuitionHigh MasculinityPerformance, ambition, aneed to excelTendancy to polariseLive in order to workBig and fast are beautifulAdmiration for thesuccessful achieverDecisiveness24.06.13 9
  10. 10. Power / Distance (PDI)Low CharacteristicsLow dependence needsInequality minimisedHierarchy for convenienceSuperiors accessibleAll should have equalrightsChange by evolutionHigh CharacteristicsHigh dependanceInequality acceptedHierarchy neededSuperiors ofteninaccessiblePower holders haveprivilegesChange by revolution24.06.13 10
  11. 11. UncertaintyAvoidance (UAI)Low CharacteristicsRelaxed, less stressHard work is not a virtueper seEmotions not shownConflict and competitionseen as fair playAcceptance of dissentFlexibilityLess need for rulesHigh CharacteristicsAnxiety, greater stressInner urge to work hardShowing of emotionsacceptedConflict is threateningNeed for agreementNeed to avoid failureNeed for laws and rules24.06.13 11
  12. 12. Long-TermOrientationLow CharacteristicsAbsolute truthConventional/traditionalConcern for stabilityQuick results expectedHigh CharacteristicsMany truthsPragmaticAcceptance of changePerseverance24.06.13 12
  13. 13. ‫شكرا‬DankeMerci GraciasGrazieDank Je谢谢спасибоDziękujęObrigadaKiitosk メルシーTesekür EderimTesséThank YouMul umescţDěkujiTack24.06.13 13