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Estrut form palavras

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Estrut form palavras

  1. 1. ESTRUTURA E FORMAÇÃO DE PALAVRAS
  2. 2. Por que estudar estrutura e formação de palavras? <ul><li>Observe: </li></ul><ul><li>Cert – a </li></ul><ul><li>Cert – o </li></ul><ul><li>Cert – a – mente </li></ul><ul><li>Cert – eza </li></ul><ul><li>A – cert – ar </li></ul><ul><li>In – cert – eza </li></ul><ul><li>A – cert – o </li></ul><ul><li>Cada um desses elementos formadores constitui uma unidade mínima de significação, a que damos o nome de morfemas. </li></ul>
  3. 3. CLASSIFICAÇÃO DE MORFEMAS <ul><li>Radical </li></ul><ul><li>Afixos </li></ul><ul><li>Desinências </li></ul><ul><li>Vogal temática </li></ul><ul><li>Desinências x Afixos </li></ul>prefixos sufixos nominais verbais nominal verbal são usados para formar novas palavras. Ex: re por, cruel dade . indicam flexões de uma mesma palavra. Ex: gat o , gat a
  4. 4. Definições: <ul><li>Radical é o elemento básico e significativo, comum a todas as palavras da mesma família (cognatas). </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: gat o/ gat ão/ gat inha/ gat ona. </li></ul><ul><li>conhec ido/ des conhec ido/ conhec er/ des conhec er. </li></ul><ul><li>Afixos são elementos que juntamos ao radical, para lhe diversificar o significado. </li></ul><ul><li>ANTEPOSTOS ao radical, são chamados de prefixos . </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: bis neto/ re por/ in tranqüilo. </li></ul><ul><li>POSPOSTOS ao radical, são chamados de sufixos . </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: altiv ez / civil izar </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>DESINÊNCIAS são elementos mórficos que servem para indicar as flexões de gênero e número nos nomes. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: menin o / menin a </li></ul><ul><li>menin os / menin as </li></ul><ul><li>Nos verbos indicam flexões de pessoa/ número/ modo e tempo. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: can to / cant a mos </li></ul><ul><li>Cant a va / cant á vamos </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>VOGAL TEMÁTICA é o elemento que se interpõe entre o radical e a desinência de uma palavra. </li></ul><ul><li>Nos nomes as vogais temáticas não são trocadas. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: Livro/ Carro </li></ul><ul><li>Nos verbos, vogal temática indica a conjugação a que o verbo pertence. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: Cantar/ Correr/ Partir </li></ul><ul><li>ATENÇÃO </li></ul><ul><li>R + VT = tema </li></ul>
  7. 7. Qual é a diferença entre vogais temáticas nominais e desinências? <ul><li>As vogais temáticas nominais não são trocadas. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: mesa </li></ul><ul><li> caneta </li></ul><ul><li>As desinências podem ser trocadas. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: garot a / garot o </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Vogal ou consoante de ligação: morfemas que surgem por motivos eufônicos , ou seja, para facilitar a leitura de uma determinada palavra. </li></ul><ul><li>Gás + metro – gasmetro – gasômetro </li></ul><ul><li>Alvo + negro – alvonegro – alvinegro </li></ul><ul><li>Pau + ada – pauada – paulada </li></ul><ul><li>Café + eira – cafeeira – cafeteira </li></ul><ul><li>Chá + eira – chaeira – chaleira </li></ul>
  9. 9. PROCESSOS DE FORMAÇÃO DE PALAVRAS <ul><li>Há dois processos básicos: </li></ul><ul><li>- a derivação </li></ul><ul><li>- a composição </li></ul>
  10. 10. TIPOS DE DERIVAÇÃO <ul><li>prefixal ou prefixação </li></ul><ul><li>sufixal ou sufixação </li></ul><ul><li>prefixal/ sufixal ou prefixação/ sufixação </li></ul><ul><li>parassintética </li></ul><ul><li>regressiva </li></ul><ul><li>imprópria </li></ul><ul><li>abreviação/ redução </li></ul><ul><li>hibridismo </li></ul>
  11. 11. TIPOS DE COMPOSIÇÃO <ul><li>aglutinação </li></ul><ul><li>justaposição </li></ul>

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