Divisionofsciences

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Divisionofsciences

  1. 1. Science and Philosophy A Roadmap for the Division of the Sciences
  2. 2. I. Definition of “Science” ( Scientia ) <ul><li>Nominal Definition </li></ul><ul><li>The term “science” is derived form the Latin scientia , which means “knowledge.” </li></ul><ul><li>Scientia is an abstract noun derived from the verb scio, “ to know.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Science,” therefore, nominally means “knowledge.” </li></ul>
  3. 3. I. Definition of “Science” ( Scientia ) <ul><li>B. The Nominal Definition: Not Enough </li></ul><ul><li>But nominal definitions only tell us what the word means , i.e., they only allow us to identify the referent of the word, what the word refers to. </li></ul><ul><li>Nominal definitions do not tell us what the essence of the referent is. </li></ul><ul><li>Obviously, science is not just any kind of knowledge… </li></ul><ul><li>So, what exactly is the essence of this knowledge that we call “science”? </li></ul><ul><li>In other words, what is the real definition of “science”? </li></ul>
  4. 4. I. Definition of “Science” ( Scientia ) <ul><li>C. Real Definition </li></ul><ul><li>Aristotle and Aquinas define “science” ( scientia ) as “knowledge through causes” ( cognitio per causas ). </li></ul><ul><li>That is, for knowledge to be scientific, it must be a knowledge of why something is, and not just of the mere fact that it is . </li></ul><ul><li>Science gives reasons for things. </li></ul>
  5. 5. II. “Science” Taken Objectively and Subjectively <ul><li>All knowledge implies a knowing subject and a known object. </li></ul><ul><li>Science, because it is a kind of knowledge, may be thought of objectively , or subjectively . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Objectively , “science” refers to the concepts that are known scientifically: the body of knowledge which is handed down from scientist to scientist. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subjectively , “science” refers to an intellectual virtue, a good habit in the intellect of the scientist. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. III. Science as a Virtue <ul><li>Taken subjectively, science is a virtue. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Virtues are divided into intellectual and moral . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intellectual virtues into speculative and practical . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speculative Intellectual Virtues into understanding , science and wisdom . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Virtues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intellectual Moral </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Speculative Practical </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding Science Wisdom </li></ul>
  7. 7. IV. Division of the Sciences <ul><li>A. Speculative Sciences </li></ul><ul><li>1. Metaphysics : The science of beings in general. </li></ul><ul><li>Integral parts: epistemology, ontology, natural theology. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Mathematics : The science of quantified beings. </li></ul><ul><li>Integral parts: arithmetic and geometry. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Natural Science : The science of mobile (natural or physical) beings. </li></ul><ul><li>Integral parts: physics, chemistry, biology, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>B. Practical Sciences </li></ul><ul><li>1. Politics : The science that orders the acts of the state. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Economics : The science that orders domestic acts. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Ethics : The science that orders individual human acts. </li></ul>
  8. 8. V. “Science” and the Sciences <ul><li>Our modern popular concept of “science” is (almost) coextensive concept of natural science. </li></ul><ul><li>So, as you can see, our modern popular concept of “science” is too narrow. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Science” is broader than natural science. </li></ul><ul><li>There are sciences that are not part of natural science. </li></ul><ul><li>One obvious case is mathematics, which is a science, yet not natural science. </li></ul><ul><li>And there are other sciences (knowledge through causes), which are neither empirical nor mathematical. </li></ul>
  9. 9. VI. Science and Philosophy <ul><li>Questions at this Point: </li></ul><ul><li>But what does all this have to do with philosophy? </li></ul><ul><li>How exactly does ‘philosophy’ fit into all of this? </li></ul><ul><li>You may be Thinking: </li></ul><ul><li>Philosophy is not listed: it belongs to the humanities, not to the sciences. </li></ul><ul><li>Philosophy is not listed: it belongs to the arts, not to the sciences. </li></ul><ul><li>But the Truth of the Matter Is: </li></ul><ul><li>Philosophy is not listed because it is coextensive with science…. </li></ul>
  10. 10. VI. Science and Philosophy <ul><li>Nominal Definition of “ Philosophy” ( φιλοσοφια ) </li></ul><ul><li>1. Philo ( φιλο ) = Greek term for “love.” </li></ul><ul><li>2. Sophia ( σοφια ) = Greek term for “wisdom.” </li></ul><ul><li>3. So “philosophy” means “love of wisdom,” because it is a search or pursuit for wisdom. </li></ul>
  11. 11. VI. Science and Philosophy <ul><li>The Story of Pythagoras (St Thomas Aquinas, Commentary on Aristotle’s Metaphysics Bk. I, L. 3, n. 56.): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>While the ancients who pursued the study of wisdom were called sophists ( sophoi ) , i.e., wise men, Pythagoras, when asked what he professed himself to be, refused to call himself a wise man ( sophos ) as his predecessors had done, because he thought this was presumptuous, but called himself a philosopher ( philosophos ) , i.e., a lover of wisdom . And from that time the name “wise man” was changed to “philosopher,” and “wisdom” to “philosophy. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. VI. Science and Philosophy <ul><li>Three Senses of “ Philosophy” </li></ul><ul><li>The term “philosophy,” as a search for wisdom, can have at least three meanings or usages. The term can be used: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. As coextensive with Science in general, and especially those elements of each science that are most directly a search for wisdom ––this is St Thomas’s usage and this is how we will understand it in this course. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. As coextensive with Metaphysics (which is the science that most directly searches wisdom)– this is the Aristotle’s special usage. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. As referring to a study of reality that is separate and independent from the sciences — this is the modern-day usage: and we will reject this usage in this course . </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. VII. Division of the Sciences, Revisited <ul><li>A. Speculative Philosophy </li></ul><ul><li>1. Metaphysics : The science of beings in general. </li></ul><ul><li>Integral parts: epistemology, ontology, natural theology. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Mathematics : The science of quantified beings. </li></ul><ul><li>Integral parts: arithmetic and geometry. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Natural Philosophy : The science of mobile (natural or physical) beings. </li></ul><ul><li>Integral parts: physics, chemistry, biology, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>B. Practical Philosophy </li></ul><ul><li>1. Political Philosophy : The science that orders the acts of the state. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Economics : The science that orders domestic acts. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Moral Philosophy : The science that orders individual human acts. </li></ul>

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