Great war


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Presentation created by junior IB history students in 2011 about the Great War.

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Great war

  1. 1. The Great War IB History HL
  2. 2. Nationalism <ul><ul><li>There were emerging nations in the Balkans.  This led to strong nationalism in the region. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In the context of WWI, the two most important were Austria-Hungary and Serbia. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Archduke Franz Ferdinand was assassinated 'for the good of Serbia.' </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Serbia's goal was to gain as much as possible from Austria-Hungary in reparations. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Their impossible demands could not be met; this led to war. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Nationalism <ul><ul><li>The United States had a less significant sense of nationalism at this time than did most European nations. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The U.S. pursued its best interests through maintaining trade with Europe, and demanding that its &quot;neutral&quot; ships not be attacked. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  The U.S. eventually joined the war because its wellbeing was threatened (Zimmermann telegram, Germany sinking ships). </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Nationalism <ul><ul><li>Russia and Serbia both had Slavic roots. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Russian nationalism thus included a desire to support Serbia, which they did. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Russia declared war on Austria-Hungary not long after the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This was the start of a chain reaction in which most of the European nations declared war on each other. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Militarism <ul><li>• Policy of glorifying military power and keeping  a standing army always prepared from war </li></ul><ul><li>• One of the major forces that shaped what would become World War I during the early 20th century was the idea of military dominance </li></ul><ul><li>• Among the majority of European nations, and even those that did not chose to openly participate in the war, more value became placed on establishing strong and prominent military </li></ul><ul><li>        - after dealing with neighboring invasions since </li></ul><ul><li>          the previous century </li></ul><ul><li>        - as the major battles of the “Great War” began to prove the </li></ul><ul><li>          vulnerability of each country, neutral or allied </li></ul><ul><li>        - in correspondence with the difficulties associated with </li></ul><ul><li>           Imperialism </li></ul><ul><li>        - Canada was declared a neutral country during the war, </li></ul><ul><li>          limited involvement/ the U.S. was involved directly in war </li></ul>
  6. 6. Militarism (Continued) <ul><li>  - rise of dangerous and </li></ul><ul><li>   quickly developing </li></ul><ul><li>   European arms race </li></ul><ul><li>-  national greatness = </li></ul><ul><li>    powerful military </li></ul><ul><li>By 1914: </li></ul><ul><li>-  all Great Powers </li></ul><ul><li>   (except Great Britain) </li></ul><ul><li>   have large standing armies </li></ul><ul><li>- Fr édéric Passy = prominent </li></ul><ul><li>     peace activist against arms </li></ul><ul><li>    race/idea of further chaos </li></ul><ul><li>  - possession of strong </li></ul><ul><li>   military: </li></ul><ul><li>  - citizens feel very </li></ul><ul><li>     patriotic </li></ul><ul><li>            vs. </li></ul><ul><li>   - frightened majority </li></ul><ul><li>     - for their lives, if they </li></ul><ul><li>       were soldiers and for </li></ul><ul><li>       their country's welfare, </li></ul><ul><li>       if uninvolved citizens </li></ul><ul><li>  - however almost all </li></ul><ul><li>    citizens had part in WWI </li></ul>
  7. 7. 1915 military parade in Toronto, example of militarism   Militarism (Continued)
  8. 8. Imperialism <ul><ul><li>Imperialism is a policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries politically, economically, or socially. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The nations of Europe competed fiercely for colonies in Africa and Asia, and sometimes pushed them to the brink of war; the   sense of rivalry and mistrust of one another deepened. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Colonies supplied the European nations with raw materials and markets for manufacturing goods. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The United States had begun to acquire lands in the Pacific and parts of Africa during the late 19th century and early 20th century. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  “ Scramble for Africa” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>o    American Imperialist tried to gain land in Africa and join the European powers </li></ul><ul><li>o    Also to expand American influence </li></ul>
  9. 9. Imperialism <ul><li>           Americans wanted to gain Hawaii to gain naval base in the Pacific to protect the Panama Canal, and protect from an attack from the Pacific countries </li></ul><ul><li>         Spanish-American War was possibly an attempt to gain colonies </li></ul><ul><li>         Rush of Americans to join the army and navy in the Spanish-American War </li></ul><ul><li>o     This was during a depression in the 1890s, because American manhood was threatened </li></ul><ul><li>         Congress stated that they would not annex Cuba during the war </li></ul><ul><li>        Imperialists insist that Americans must control territories in the Philippines because they were conveniently  located </li></ul><ul><li>         “ White Man’s Burden” – some thought it was the job of whites to civilized people in the Philippines </li></ul><ul><li>o       Americans wanted to modernized Cuba </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  10. 10. Alliances <ul><li>Triple Entente </li></ul><ul><li>  (allied powers) </li></ul><ul><li>France  </li></ul><ul><li>Great Britain  </li></ul><ul><li>Russia </li></ul><ul><li>USA </li></ul><ul><li>Triple Alliance  </li></ul><ul><li>(central powers) </li></ul><ul><li>Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Austria-Hungary </li></ul><ul><li>Italy (later switched) </li></ul>
  11. 11. Alliances <ul><li>1879: The Dual Alliance </li></ul><ul><li>This alliance was made in order for Germany and Austria- Hungary to protect themselves from Russia. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>1881: Austro-Serbian Alliance </li></ul><ul><li>This alliance was made in order to stop Russia from gaining control of Serbia. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>1882: The Triple Alliance </li></ul><ul><li>This alliance was made by Germany and Austria Hungary in order to stop Itlay from taking sides with Russia. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>1894: Franco Russia Alliance </li></ul><ul><li>This alliance was made between France and Russia in order to protect Russia against Germany and Austria-Hungary. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>1904: Entente Cordiale </li></ul><ul><li>This was an agreement between Britain and France (not a formal alliance). </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>1907: Anglo Russian Entente </li></ul><ul><li>This was an agreement between Russia and Britain. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>1907: Triple Entente </li></ul><ul><li>This was between France, Britain and Russia as a result to the threat imposed by Germany. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>1914: Triple Entente </li></ul><ul><li>This agreement was between Britain, Russia, and France that stated that none would sign for peace separately. </li></ul>
  12. 12. The Powder Keg of Europe <ul><ul><li>The &quot;Powder Keg of Europe&quot; refers to the Balkan region of Europe (specifically in the early 20th century). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Balkans (Balkan Peninsula)- between Adriatic, Mediterranean, Black, and Aegean Seas, referred to but not limited to: Serbia, Austria-Hungary, Montenegro, Albania, Romania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Slovenia, Bulgaria, Greece, the Ottoman Empire. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Powder Keg- defined as &quot;something liable to explode&quot;, term for a war/conflict prone area. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. The Powder Keg of Europe Cont'd <ul><ul><li>The Balkans were called the Powder Keg because of the ongoing and abundant wars, conflicts and crises in the developing area. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This region was further complicated by multiple claims on territories and by spheres of influence of major European powers, most notably: Russia, Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  The First Balkan War, fought between the Balkan League and the Ottoman Empire, lead to the commencement of an Albanian state as well as altered many territories (1912-1913). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The 33-day Second Balkan War involved Bulgaria losing the majority of Macedonia upon attacking Serbia and Greece. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These wars contributed to the destabilization of the region (1913). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Great War was first catalyzed (exploded) in this area, with the assassination of Franz Ferdinand (the spark) serving as ignition to the longstanding tensions (the powder) between Austria-Hungary and Serbia. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Neutral Nations <ul><ul><li>Before the war, Belgium was neutral. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Germany asked Belgium to allow German troops through the country on their way to France. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This is because &quot;in Schlieffen's view, the quickest way to defeat France was through Belgium&quot; (Tucker 12) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  Belgium rejected this agreement, prompting a German invasion. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  15. 15. Neutral Nations con. <ul><ul><li>This caused Great Britain to enter the war against Germany </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Great Britain felt that &quot; felt that German troops directly across the Channel were too close for comfort&quot; (BBC) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>  They also felt strongly that Belgian neutrality be respected. They relied on Belgium as an avenue of trade with Europe. When Germany refused to deny this neutrality, Britain relied on an 1839 agreement with Belgium that Britain would enforce Belgium's neutrality to enter the war. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Total War <ul><ul><li>Total war is warfare in which all aspects of a society, military and civilian, are involved in the war effort.  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>World War I was the first total war. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This left the the countries that were involved in the war devastated in many areas instead of just one after the war was over.  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some areas that were affected were population, economy, social life, and politics.  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Propaganda was one was that the war affected society, making it a total war.  </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Effects of Total War <ul><li>Canada </li></ul><ul><ul><li>  Canada, like other countries, suffered military casualties, which greatly hurt their already small population. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The war led to major reforms such as taxes and railways. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>French Canadians and ethnic minorities became increasingly isolated.  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rapid agricultural growth led to economic instability.  </li></ul></ul><ul><li>United States </li></ul><ul><ul><li>  Unlike Canada, military casualties were relatively small compared to population, and an economic boom follows the war. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As a result of the war many African Americans moved into northern cites, this however led to race riots.  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The American people also began to search for &quot;social unity&quot;. A concept that was not supported by World War I or the events following the wa r. </li></ul></ul>Canada and the United States were both affected by the total war on the home front as well as in their military.
  18. 18. The Role of Women <ul><ul><li>Mainly helped cure for the wounded </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>After hospitals were organized by the Red Cross many women wanted to join the Allies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most went on their own, some went through relief organizations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They served as nurses, doctors, and ambulance drivers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  A woman from Chicago named Mary Borden started her own hospital which she described as the second battlefield </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. The Role of Women continued... <ul><ul><li>When the Great War began women also helped to document the war by keeping journals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mildred Aldrich, a retired journalist, took many notes during the Great War about her personal experiences and her observations of war, she later turned these notes into several books </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frances Huard turned her château into a hospital to treat wounded soldiers  </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Role of Blacks <ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>African Americans saw the beginning of World War I as an opportunity to gain acceptance and respect from the white American society; however, although there were many blacks willing to serve, they were usually turned away from military service initially.  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>African Americans saw the Great War also as a chance to prove their loyalty, patriotism, and worthiness for equal treatment in America.  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>With the end of the Civil War, the disbandment of &quot;colored&quot; regiments was no longer effective.  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Six regular regiments were established consisting of black soldiers and white officers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At the start of World War I, the 9th, 10th, 24th, and 25th regiments included all black soldiers, who were considered to be heroes in their communities.  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inevitably, there was still constant discrimination directed towards African Americans, such as during the draft period. Black were told to tear off the corner of their registration cards so that they could be identified and separated from white soldiers easily.  </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Role of Blacks Continued <ul><ul><li>The Army, although still filled with some discrimination, dealt with race relation in a much more progressive way than any other branch in the military. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For example, blacks were restricted from the Marines and could only serve minor positions in the Navy and Coast Guard.  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>However, by the end of the war, African Americans served in numerous positions such as infantry, cavalry, engineer and medical as well as truck drivers, chaplains, intelligent officers and chemists.  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>African American soldiers soon began to demand black officers to lead them in combat and war. Therefore, thinking that a black officer would be more effective and essentially to avoid any kind of uprising, the War Department decided to establish segregated but equal regiments.  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Although there were black officers, the discrimination did not cease. For example, there are many reports stating that black soldiers were forced to sleep outside in tents and were not well equipped with proper clothing. Some were even forced to eat outside in the cold months of winter.  </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Role of Blacks Continued <ul><li>Results of Black involvement in the Great War  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>On November 11th, 1918, an armistice was created between the Allies and Central Powers.  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>African Americans felt great pride that they were able to aid the victory and celebrated as did other white Americans.  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>However; rather than the expected acknowledgement from the white society, returning soldiers felt hostility and an increase in racial tension. The number of lynching previous to the war increased as well.  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many white Americans feared that with the victory of the war, blacks would demand equal treatment once again.  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Even though blacks were faced with ungrateful Americans and bitterness, they remained faithful to the nation by continuing to enlist in the army.  </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Start of Trenches <ul><ul><li>Trenches started out as simple fox holes, cover from fire, but they were connected then the connecting pathways were deepened. (So men could walk without being exposed) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Falkenhayn (German Army Chief) decided that the trenches needed to be reinforced. (Germany) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>British and French were reluctant to reinforce trenches. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each country had their own way of building trenches. </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Main Way of Fighting <ul><li>-At the end of 1914, the trenches in Western Europe were more than 475 miles long. </li></ul><ul><li>-They stretched from the North Sea to the Alps.  </li></ul><ul><li>-Between the trenches laid &quot;no man’s </li></ul><ul><li>  land”. </li></ul><ul><li>-&quot;No man's land&quot; became a symbol of </li></ul><ul><li>  the hopelessness of war. </li></ul><ul><li>-German's became more effective at </li></ul><ul><li>  trench fighting and came up with </li></ul><ul><li>  new ways to adapt to the trenches. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  25. 25. Life in Trenches <ul><ul><li>&quot;Rarely in the history of warfare have conditions for the regular fighting man been so terrible as they were in the trenches of WWI&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;When will the war end?&quot;;a captured German officer was asked this by his guards and replied, &quot;I don't know when the war will end, but I know where, and that is here. You cannot drive us back, nor can we drive you back&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drills of shooting occurred at dawn and dusk, but the real work was digging, which occurred after dark. </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Machine Guns <ul><ul><li>Most machine guns were based on the Maxim gun. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hiram Maxim patented the machine gun in the United States in 1884. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ The Maxim” weighed about 100 pounds and was water cooled. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long belts of bullets were loaded automatically into the gun one by one. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It could be fired at the rate of 450-600 rounds per minute. </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Machine Guns Continued <ul><ul><li>The race to create the perfect killing machine became the primary concern for both sides of the war. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In trenches, machine gunners would hold their position and shoot enemy soldiers who went above the safety of the trench wall. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lighter machine guns, including America’s Marlin 0.30, the German Maschinengewer 08/15, and a modified British Vickers, could be attached to airplanes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At the beginning of the war, planes were typically used to observe military actions. Later they were mounted with machine guns used to shoot down enemy aircraft in dogfights and enemies on the ground. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  28. 28. Gas Warfare  <ul><ul><li>France was the first country to use vaporized chemicals against enemy troops (tear gas) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fritz Haber, a German chemist, is credited to inventing the modern techniques used in gas warfare in WWI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>His inventions were first used by the Germans on 22 April 1915 against the French at Ypres in Belgium (chlorine gas) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Britain and France followed the new combat techniques by further developing chlorine gas and using it in combat </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  29. 29. Gas Warfare (continued) <ul><ul><li>About 21 different types of poisonous gases were used during WWI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The most commonly used gases were chlorine, yperite (mustard gas), tear gas, and phosgene gas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  Soldiers were told at first to use a urine soaked mask to cover their faces during emergencies  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In 1918, effective gas masks were created with protective filters </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Impacts of Gas Warfare  <ul><ul><li>  Those affected by the poisonous gas rarely died but were sick the rest of their lives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  Gas did not have any dominant affect on the outcome of World War I </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  The use of gas impacted the increased practice of it as a weapon in later wars, such as World War II </li></ul></ul>Above: German chlorine-gas attack
  31. 31. Tanks  <ul><ul><li>speed of 3 to 4 mph  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2-3 men inside  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to get around the trenches  on the Western Front and help end the stalemate  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  Had a hard shell or armor around the outside so that shells would bounce off the tank </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>modern tank was created during the end of the war and could carry 10 men and reached higher speeds  </li></ul></ul> 
  32. 32. Tanks  <ul><ul><li>Lieutenant  Colonel Swinton wanted to propose the idea of the tank for the war in 1914 (British)  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First used during the Battle of Somme in 1916 by the British  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>they failed because it was unable to cross the trenches </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First tank created was called Little Willie but it was a model to create other tanks   </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1917 - British used them to barrel through barded wire in order to clear the path for infantry  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tank production by 1918 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>United Kingdom - 1,391 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>France - 4,000 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Germany - 20  </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>USA - 84  </li></ul></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Airplanes <ul><ul><li>Early airplanes used for reconnaissance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>trench activity increased utility of recon planes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Later, pilots started taking hand-carried bombs, pistols, and firearms to fire at other pilots.   </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fokker Eindecker was the first aircraft designed to be a fighter aircraft </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Airplanes cont'd <ul><ul><li>Aerial combat provided protection for recon planes and prevented enemy planes from getting past trenches. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aerial bombers were also used. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May 1915 - December 1916: German zeppelins bombarded London.  </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Schlieffen Plan <ul><ul><li>Location:   French-German Front and the Russian-German Front </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Designer: General Alfred Graf von Schlieffen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Issue: Germany faced with two enemies on opposite fronts of Germany </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Schlieffen Plan Continued <ul><ul><li>Goal : Attacking and defeating the French in the West and rushing over to the East to fight Russia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Russia lagged behind other countries in rail-road systems which meant war supplies would take longer to reach the Russian-German Front </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Results: September 5 Allies regrouped and attacked German troops in the valley of the Marne River.  After four days, the German forces retreated.  At the same time, Russian troops had already invaded East Germany.  The Schlieffen Plan was shattered. </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Tannenberg (1914) <ul><ul><li>To the Russians, the Battle of Tannenberg was considered to be the worst defeat for the Russian army for it never fully recovered from the war.  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tannenberg was the opening battle for World War I and lasted from the 23rd of August, 1914 to the 3rd of September, 1914.  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>With the fail of the Schliefen Plan, which was Germany's plan to first defeat Britain and France then quickly move troops to Russia to attack, Russia saw their grand opportunity to invade Germany from the east.  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Russian army consisted of two leaders, Paul von Rennenkampf and Alexander Samsonov, and also 416,000 men.  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disadvantages: Poorly equipped (in addition mainly infantry soldiers), Restricted transportation (railway gauge problems) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advantages: Number of soldiers in the army. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The German army consisted of two leaders, Paul von Hindenburg and Erich Ludendorff, and also 166,000 men.  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disadvantages: The East Prussian army was a hastily mobilized army. Not as many soldiers as the Russian army. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advantages: Army was well equipped.  </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Battle of Tannenberg Continued <ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The number of soldiers in the Russian army was reduced significantly. Many soldiers were either killed or captured during the battle.  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Both Russian leaders die during Tannenberg. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Battle of Tannenberg was considered to be the decisive victory of the German Eastern Campaign.  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The German army, especially the generals, Hindenberg and Ludendorff, were recognized and honored as heroes when they returned home. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Historian Orlando Figes comments on the battle saying, &quot;The Russian commanders were trying to stop the German war machine simply by throwing at it a mountain of human bodies.&quot; </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Tannenberg <ul><li>Russia tries to relieve the French who are under attack by the Germans in Eastern Prussia.  </li></ul>
  40. 40. First Battle of the Marne <ul><ul><li>Schlieffen Plan, designed by General </li></ul></ul><ul><li>     Alfred Graf von Schlieffen, called for </li></ul><ul><li>     a hasty German victory in attacking </li></ul><ul><li>     and defeating western France and </li></ul><ul><li>     then rushing east to attack Russia. </li></ul><ul><li>     A quick victory over France was </li></ul><ul><li>     essential in order for this plan </li></ul><ul><li>     to work. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>France predicted a siege and prepared for </li></ul></ul><ul><li>     a German attack. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Initially, French troops continuously retreated from German attacks until they reached the river Marne around September 6, 1914. </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. First Battle of the Marne Continued <ul><ul><li>With aid from other Allied forces, France took Germany by surprise and forced them to retreat and after six days of trench warfare, to abandon the Schlieffen Plan. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First Battle of Marne was the first major clash on the Western Front. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>France and Germany suffered about 250,000 casualties while about 12,000 British troops were killed, wounded, or taken prisoner. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The defeat of the Germans in Paris left the Schlieffen Plan in ruins; an anticipated victory in Russia was no longer possible. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As the war on the Western Front settled into a stalemate, Germany was forced to fight two different wars on both fronts. </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. First Battle of Ypres <ul><ul><li>The First Battle of Ypres took place in western Belgium. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It took place from October 12–November 11, 1914. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Germans were stopped on their march to the sea, however, the Allied forces were quickly surrounded on three sides, causing a month-long battle in the trenches. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This battle was the first of three similar battles near the original battle field. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The First Battle of Ypres is referred to as the last battle in a series of battles called &quot;the race for the sea&quot;. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  43. 43. First Battle of Ypres (cont'd) <ul><ul><li>The battle was a result of a German push towards the Channel ports of Dunkirk and Calais. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The British stopped the German push, but suffered tens of thousands of deaths and casualties in the process. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  44. 44. Second Battle of Ypres <ul><li>Dates: April 22, 1915- May 25, 1915 </li></ul><ul><li>Important Facts: </li></ul><ul><li>     - First time Germans try using chlorine gas (poison gas) as a weapon </li></ul><ul><li>     - Only major attack launched by Germans on the Western Front in 1915 </li></ul><ul><li>     - The battle was to used to divert Allied attention from Eastern Front </li></ul><ul><li>     - Germans gave up on efforts to take the town and decided to  </li></ul><ul><li>       bomb it </li></ul><ul><li>Casualties: </li></ul><ul><li>Allied Troops- 69,000 </li></ul><ul><li>German Troops- 35,000 </li></ul>
  45. 45. The Gallipoli Campaign  <ul><li>-February 19, 1915- January 9, 1916 </li></ul><ul><li>-Attack of the Ottoman Empire </li></ul><ul><li>-The Allies (Britain, Australia, New Zealand, France) believed that taking the Dardanelles strait was the gate way to conquering Constantinople, the Turks and establish a supply line to Russia. </li></ul><ul><li>-Made repeated attacks on the  </li></ul><ul><li>western side of the strait. </li></ul><ul><li>-Turkish troops held off so long </li></ul><ul><li>  that it turned into a “bloody  </li></ul><ul><li>stalemate” by May.  </li></ul>
  46. 46.      The Gallipoli Campaign cont'd....                 <ul><li>                                             -Sir Ian Hamilton     </li></ul><ul><li>                                             was the Commander in Chief at    </li></ul><ul><li>                                             Gallipoli for the Allies. </li></ul><ul><li>                                             -Otto Liman von Sanders was the </li></ul><ul><li>                                             Commander of the Fifth Amry  </li></ul><ul><li>                                             for the Turks. </li></ul><ul><li>                                             -The attack was initiated by </li></ul><ul><li>                                             Winston Churchill, who resigns </li></ul><ul><li>                                              as a consequence. </li></ul><ul><li>-By December the Allies gave up the campaign and suffered 250,000 causalities; while the Turks lost 130,000. </li></ul>
  47. 47. Battle of Verdun <ul><ul><li>Longest single battle of World War I </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>February 21st, 1916- December 18th, 1916 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Over 1,000,500 Germans and French were killed or wounded </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The German Chief of General Staff, von Falkenhayn, launched a massive German attack on Verdun, a city in France protected by forts  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Germans wanted to use Verdun to turn the tide in their favor. Verdun was chosen because of its location: on the Eastern border of France </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The impact of the battle was a primary reason for the Battle of the Somme </li></ul></ul>
  48. 48. Battle of Verdun: French Tactics <ul><ul><li>When Germans attacked, the French retreated to their second line on the trenches and then eventually moved to their third line (located close to Verdun).  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>General Petain called for all extra regiments to assist at Verdun and said no more retreats would be made which halted the German forces a little.  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Germans started a new attack and gained Mort Homme Hill on May 29th and Fort Vaux on June 7th  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fort Vaux was recaptured by the French on November 2nd. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>France defended their city and had a large sense of pride for their nation.     </li></ul></ul>
  49. 49. Battle of Verdun: German Tactics <ul><ul><li>In 1916 Falkenhayn decided that German troops should stop attacking Russia and move to France </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The goal was to knock the French out of the war </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>this would then cause the British to leave the continent </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Falkenhayn decided to attack the fortress city Verdun because it is symbollic to the French </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>would be a death trap </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1 million German soldiers with 2.5 million shells vs. 6,400 shells that the French had </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attack by the Fifth Army </li></ul></ul>
  50. 50. Battle of Verdun: Outcome <ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Germans and French both suffered heavy casualties in the battle. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  The armies were also wounded in a way that would not be overcome. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Despite the losses, no strategic or tactical advantage was obtained. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In the end, it seems that the french trucks beat out the German railways. </li></ul></ul>
  51. 51. Battle of the Somme <ul><ul><li>Battle of Albert : first two weeks of battle; most casualties on the first day </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>British fail to achieve targets for attack </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Battle of Bazentine Ridge : surprise attack on Germans; Allies easily captured their objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Battle of Flers-Courcelette : first tank battle in history </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>objective was to break through German lines, but it was not achieved </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Battle of the Transloy Ridges : last officially acknowledged battle fought by the Fourth Army </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>pushed back the Germans </li></ul></ul></ul>
  52. 52. Objectives & Strategies of Great Britain and France <ul><li>France </li></ul><ul><li>Joffre-battle of attrition, drain the German forces of reserves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>territorial gain was a secondary aim. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>Great Britain Rawlison-bites into German line Haig- five day barrage
  53. 53. The Somme Offensive
  54. 54. Battle of the Somme <ul><ul><li>Casualties: 420,000 British, 200,000 French, 450,000-650,000 Germans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In October 1916, rain transformed the battlefield into a very muddy lake </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each side slowly began exhausting the opponent's resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Battle was called off on November 18 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>British and French had only pushed the Germans back about 8 miles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The main damage done to the Germans was they had difficulty training future troops </li></ul></ul>
  55. 55. The Battle of Jutland - Background <ul><li>- Took place in the May 31st, 1916 in the North Sea near </li></ul><ul><li>   Jutland, Denmark </li></ul><ul><li>- British Royal Navy Grand Fleet vs. German High Seas Fleet </li></ul><ul><li>- Regarded as the greatest naval battle of the First World </li></ul><ul><li>  War </li></ul><ul><li>- Newly-appointed commander of German High Seas Fleet,  </li></ul><ul><li>   Reinhard Scheer creates official sortie policies to </li></ul><ul><li>   attack the British (Scheer Plan) </li></ul><ul><li>- However, British intercept German codes and sends fleet </li></ul><ul><li>   to follow the Germans </li></ul><ul><li>- Both fleets sail in a similar formation and follow Germans </li></ul><ul><li>  south back towards Jutland </li></ul>
  56. 56. The Battle of Jutland - Phases <ul><ul><li>First Phase </li></ul></ul><ul><li>     - Admiral Beatty, commanding the British battle cruisers, </li></ul><ul><li>       and, realizing how much stronger his fleet was, chases </li></ul><ul><li>       Germans south, under British Admiral Hipper </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Second Phase </li></ul></ul><ul><li>     - Beatty flees north, pursued by German Dreadnoughts </li></ul><ul><li>     - Two British ships destroyed due to faulty design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Third Phase </li></ul></ul><ul><li>     - Germans are suprise attacked by British Admiral  </li></ul><ul><li>        Jellicoe, which they thought was too far north for  </li></ul><ul><li>        intervention  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fourth Phase </li></ul></ul><ul><li>      - heavy British guns = Scheer orders retreat </li></ul><ul><li>     - Germans try and escape to the Baltic Sea but are attacked and order a </li></ul><ul><li>       second retreat </li></ul><ul><ul><li>  Fifth Phase     </li></ul></ul><ul><li>      - night of intense fighting/ Germans are defeated </li></ul><ul><li>     - Germans defeated by Jellicoe's lighter ships during a torpedo attack </li></ul>
  57. 57. The Battle of Jutland - Outcomes <ul><li>- considered last and largest of the great battleship battles </li></ul><ul><li>- British win a decisive victory against the Germans </li></ul><ul><li>- British Royal Navy Grand Fleet defeats German High Seas </li></ul><ul><li>   Fleet (June 1, 1916) </li></ul><ul><li>- Germans suffer loss of one battle cruiser, one pre- </li></ul><ul><li>   Dreadnought, four light cruisers and five destroyers </li></ul><ul><li>- British lose three battle cruisers, four armored cruisers, </li></ul><ul><li>   and eight destroyers </li></ul><ul><li>- British success results increases its navy's dominance in </li></ul><ul><li>   heavy ships </li></ul><ul><li>- British suffer more damage, yet rid of German naval threats </li></ul><ul><li>   in North Sea </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  58. 58. The Armenian Massacre <ul><ul><li>In April of 1915, the Ottoman Empire began a systematic killing of its Armenian population. By 1918, one million Armenians had been killed and hundreds of thousands were forced to become refugees. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Armenians were treated as second class citizens before the massacre due to their Christian religion being a minority within the empire. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As the Great War got under way, the Ottoman government began a series of Armenian deportation disguised as concern for their safety. Yet the camps they were headed for were not what they expected. </li></ul></ul>
  59. 59. The Armenian Massacre Cont'd <ul><ul><li>The relocated Armenians were tortured and starved in the desert. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Able-bodied Armenian men were killed first so that travel to the concentration camps could be met with little resistance. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Any Armenian survival is, for the most part, is accredited to humanitarian intervention led by the American Ambassador Henry Morgenthau. </li></ul></ul>An example of cruelty - A starved Armenian woman with her two starved children.
  60. 60. The Armenian Massacre Cont'd <ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many of those responsible for the massacre were condemned by a domestic military tribunal, however most escaped punishment by fleeing abroad. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Turkish Republic denies the accusation of a genocide and maintains that the deportation was not intended to extinguish the Armenian population within the region. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Armenians remember those who were lost in the massacre every year on April 24th, no matter where they ended up throughout the globe. </li></ul></ul>
  61. 61. Russian Revolution <ul><li>- The Revolution is also known as the October Revolution and the Bolshevik Revolution or the &quot;bloodless coup.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>- The Revolution began in 1905, but was reenergized in spring of 1917, and later in the fall of 1917. </li></ul><ul><li>- Lenin returned to Russia from exile and provoked workers with sayings such as &quot;Bread, Peace, and Land&quot; and &quot;Down with the Provisional government- All power to the Soviets!&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>- The Bolsheviks worked with the peasants, workers, and soldiers to gain support for their movement. </li></ul>
  62. 62. Russian Revolution <ul><li>- The main causes leading to the Russian Revolution of 1917 were government corruption, government inefficiency and World War I. </li></ul><ul><li>- Between March 1917 and October 1917, the Provisional government reorganized four times. </li></ul><ul><li>- No one could effectively deal with the major problems facing Russia such as peasant land seizures, a nationalistic independence movement in non-Russian areas and the downfall of the army's morale in fighting WWI. </li></ul><ul><li>- Because of this Lenin's cry of &quot;peace, land and bread&quot; won over the many hungry urban workers and soldiers to the Bolshevik's side.  </li></ul>
  63. 63. Russian Revolution continued <ul><li>October 24-25, 1917 </li></ul><ul><li>     - The Winter Palace in Petrograd was invaded by the Bolsheviks and their supporters. They also took over other government buildings and telegraph stations. </li></ul><ul><li>     - Many members of the Provisional Government were arrested. </li></ul><ul><li>     - On October 25, 1917 elections were held. As a result, the majority of the power was given to the Bolsheviks. The second All-Russian congress then met in Petrograd to approve the new government. </li></ul><ul><li>     - One month later, elections were held again and the Bolsheviks lost their majority, leading to a civil war between the Bolsheviks (red) and the White Guard Volunteer Army (whites). </li></ul>
  64. 64. Sir Robert Borden <ul><li>born: June 26th, 1854 (Grand Pre,  </li></ul><ul><li>                                     Nova Scotia) </li></ul><ul><li>died: June 10th, 1937 (Ottawa) </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He was the eighth prime minister of Canada (1911-20). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He was the leader of the Conservative Party (1901-20). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He insisted that Canada have separate membership in the LON, and thus transformed Canada from a colony to a nation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  He was knighted in 1914. </li></ul></ul>
  65. 65. Borden's Presence and Activity During WWI <ul><ul><li>During the first two years of the war, he frequently referred to the necessity of Canadian participation in British decisions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Canada (by way of Borden) did not get to express its point of view until David Lloyd George created the IWC (Imperial War Cabinet) in 1917. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He supported Wilson's &quot;14 Points.&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He argued that Canada's interests demanded the closest possible alliance between the British Empire and the US. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He reconstructed his Cabinet so that he was surrounded by able colleagues which in turn let him focus on issues discussed in London and Paris. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He supported the intervention of Allied Forces in the Russian Civil War.  </li></ul></ul>
  66. 66. Conscription and French-Canadian Relations <ul><ul><li>Although there were over 1/2 million volunteers who went overseas, Borden utilized conscription to maintain forces. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He also formed a coalition government. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He found success in his policies, although they angered French-Canadians.   </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  His preoccupation with Anglo-Canadian relations is thought to have led to the administration's first problems with domestic affairs. </li></ul></ul>
  67. 67. Lusitania and the Zimmerman Telegram <ul><li>The Lusitania was a Sea Liner headed to Liverpool, Great Britain. </li></ul><ul><li>It departed from New York on May 1st, 1915 </li></ul><ul><li>It was believed by German military that the Ocean Liner was carrying arms to aid the allied forces. </li></ul><ul><li>To prevent the arms from reaching Great Britain, Kapitänleutnant Walther Schwieger of the German submarine division fired upon the ship, sinking it in 18 minutes, and killing 1,195 passengers (123 Americans died in the attack) </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  68. 68. Lusitania and the Zimmerman Telegram con't <ul><li>this attack on an &quot;innocent&quot; cruise liner (the ship was actually carrying arms) caused an outcry of support for the Allied Forces, and a strong anti-German sentiment followed. </li></ul><ul><li>The Zimmerman Telegram was a German attempt to create an alliance with Mexico to pull The United State's attention away from Europe and to their own border conflict.  </li></ul><ul><li>This note was sent by the German Foreign Secretary, Arthur Zimmerman.  </li></ul><ul><li>It was intercepted by The United States, and Mexico had little interest in the plan to begin with. </li></ul><ul><li>These two actions by Germany are important reasons for The United States entering the war. </li></ul>
  69. 69. U.S. Intervention <ul><ul><li>August 4, 1914- President Wilson officially declares the United State's neutral position in the war </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>U.S. still continuously sends supplies to England </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Germany declares British waters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wilson warns Germany by declaring them accountable for any American lives lost on any American supply ships </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Germans sink the Lusitania, killing 128 U.S. citizens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Germany sends the Zimmerman Telegraph to Carranza in Mexico </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wilson addresses Congress about an &quot;undeclared naval war&quot; which Congress declined </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Russian Revolution** </li></ul></ul>
  70. 70. U.S. Intervention Pros: strong alliances, establishment of world power, for the safety of the American people       -Germany provoked the United States into war, and the decision to declare war upon Germany was a decision made by the American People (-Samuel Gompers) Cons: &quot;total war&quot;, severe casualties, weakening military strength, money, and the feelings that WWI was not the United States' war      - For awhile, it seemed as though these and other opponents of America’s involvement in the Europeans’ war had an ally in President Woodrow Wilson. He was berated for his supposed caution by Republicans like Theodore Roosevelt and Henry Cabot Lodge; after their roles in America’s imperialistic adventures with Spain, Cuba, Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines, these men – with evident disregard for the Constitution and the Monroe Doctrine alike – considered it a disgrace for America not to throw its weight into the much-larger fracas of World War I.
  71. 71. Conscientious Objectors <ul><ul><li>A person with a reason not to serve in the military </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>  ideal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>values </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>religion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  Against violence and killing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Three types of conscientious objectors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Absolutists </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Alternativists </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Non-Combatants </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  72. 72. Conscientious Objectors <ul><ul><li>Occurred more frequently after 20,000 people died in the first two weeks of WWI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conscription Act of 1916 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>over 16000 men </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>must attend a tribunal which decided if the men would get out of the war </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>did not have much sympathy </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  Some men were forced to join the arm, and if they refused then they were arrested and sent to prison </li></ul></ul>
  73. 73. Schenck vs. United States <ul><ul><li>Charles T. Schenck, general secretary of the U.S. Socialist Party </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>printed and distributed 15,000 anti-draft leaflets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>military draft constituted  involuntary servitude , which is prohibited by the  Thirteenth Amendment . </li></ul></ul>
  74. 74. Schenck vs. United States <ul><ul><li>arrested for violating the Espionage Act </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>convicted on three counts and sentenced to 10 years in prison </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes stated that the principle that the First Amendment does not protect all forms of speech. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;Falsely shouting fire in a theatre&quot; </li></ul></ul>
  75. 75. Vimy Ridge <ul><ul><li>April 9, 1917 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>150 kilometers from Paris, France </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It included 4 divisions together for the first time. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The attack was carefully planned, for the first time each soldier was issued maps. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The German trenches were blanketed with barbed wire and armed with machine guns. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Massive amounts of explosives were used by both sides. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Canadians had caves and a maze of tunnels. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  76. 76. Vimy Ridge cont. <ul><ul><li>The Canadians had about a 100 yard advance every three minutes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They succeeded in taking and holding Vimy Ridge, which was the greatest Allied offensive since the beginning of the war. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The battle was a source of identity and national pride for Canadians. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Canadian National Vimy Ridge Memorial in France </li></ul>
  77. 77. Third Battle of Ypres <ul><ul><li>July 31st-November 6th, 1917 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also called the Battle of Passchendaele </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At the start of the battle, the British broke the German's left flank </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seasonal rains turned the Flanders countryside into a muddy wasteland. This made troop movements almost impossible. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Despite the difficulties of the terrain, General Douglas Haig persisted in the offensive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Haig’s troops included the Canadian Corps </li></ul></ul>
  78. 78. Third Battle of Ypres (cont'd) <ul><ul><li>On November 6th, Haig's troops were able to take  the ruins of Passchendaele which was barely five miles from the army's starting point </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allied and German casualties = +850,000 people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>325,000 British soldiers died </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This is a classic example of World War I trench warfare </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Numerous deaths were sacrificed for a small amount of territory gained </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  79. 79. Second Battle of the Marne <ul><ul><li>Many German victories gave Germany confidence in the attempt to seize Paris, even though their military force had weakened. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Germany launched its final offensive of World War I, crossing the river of Marne on July 15, 1918. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The U.S. aided in the side of the Allies with 140,000 additional troops. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tanks brought by the U.S. were used, completely surprising the German force. </li></ul></ul>
  80. 80. Second Battle of the Marne Continued
  81. 81. Second Battle of the Marne Continued <ul><ul><li>French troops aided by American, British, and Italian forces stopped the German advance on August 6. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The French suffered 95,000 casualties. German troops lost about 170,000 in the Second Battle of the Marne. About 25,000 of the British and American troops were killed, wounded, or taken prisoner. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Germans fell in Marne once again. </li></ul></ul>
  82. 82. Battle of Meuse-Argonne <ul><ul><li>Considered one of the most important battles of the Great War, the Meuse-Argonne Offensive was a victory of the Allied effort. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One of the final battles, it lasted in three phases from September 26, 1918 and ended with the war on November 11, 1918. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Battle has been called the bloodiest in American history, and it was the most significant of the American efforts during the Great War. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>*pic supposed to be inserted later, tech. problems </li></ul></ul>
  83. 83. Battle of Meuse-Argonne cont'd <ul><ul><li>It took place in Argonne Forest near the Meuse River, France in the Verdun sector. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The objective was to take a train station at Sedan, to block the rail support to the German Army situated in France and Flanders. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The battle was fought by the Allied forces of America's Gen. John J. Pershing, Lt. Gen. Hunter Liggett, and the French under Henri Gourard and Henri Mathias Bertholot.  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The opposition was completely German under Geroge von der Marwitz. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  Of the American Expeditionary Force 26,277 were killed, and another 95,786 were wounded. </li></ul></ul>
  84. 84. African Role <ul><ul><li>In North Africa, Britain and France used their colonies mainly as a base of operation for fighting in Europe, the Middle East, and sub-Saharan Africa. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>During the war Africans participated as soldiers, supply carriers, agricultural producers, and in many other occupations. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some African troops served in Europe and the Middle East with the British and French. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Africans became involved in these campaigns on the side of the Germans or the Allies (Britain, France, and Belgium in Africa), depending on which European powers governed them at the time. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The German colonies of Togoland, Kamerun (present-day CAMEROON), German South-West Africa, and German East Africa were the theater of war </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>An English and French invasion of Togoland in 1914 removed the German administration in a matter of weeks. The campaign in South-West Africa in 1914-1915 was also relatively brief and led to the withdrawal of German troops. The British and French effort to remove the Germans from Kamerun took longer, some 15 months between 1914 and 1916. The most important conflict, in German East Africa, lasted from 1914 to 1918. This campaign, which involved large numbers of troops and modern military equipment such as trucks and airplanes, most nearly resembled the war in Europe. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  85. 85. African Roles Continued
  86. 86. African Role Continued <ul><ul><li>The German army was led by Colonel Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck (1870–1964), who conducted a very effective guerrilla campaign by avoiding direct confrontations and keeping constantly on the move. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>During the war campaigns around 100,000 people died of disease, malnutrition, and overwork. Famine and such diseases as influenza, malaria, and dysentery took their toll, killing large numbers of people in East, West, and Central Africa from 1918 to 1919. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>African soldiers and laborers in the war effort had poor training and equipment and received inadequate medical care. An estimated 250,000 Africans were wounded or killed in the war. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The immediate impact of World War I on Africans was the transfer of German colonial possessions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The war simply meant that Germany lost its former territories to Allied nations. France and Britain divided Togoland and Kamerun. Britain and Belgium split German East Africa, while South Africa took control of German South-West Africa. The former German colonies were all placed under League of Nations mandates, which gave Britain, France, Belgium, and South Africa the right to administer them. The war also led to the absence of any external competition for the control of Africa. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many Europeans feared that the war would change political attitudes in Africa, awakening a desire for independence from colonial rule. While the war did inspire some calls for freedom, the European concern was largely unfounded. </li></ul></ul>
  87. 87. Latin America's Role <ul><ul><li>The first Pan American Financial Conference was held in May of 1915 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The conference covered commerce, finance, and transportation. It also marked the transition of Latin America's economic and financial independence from Europe to the United States. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Latin Americans began to benefit from the war. The war was good for their business. They began to get resources they did not have before the war. </li></ul></ul>
  88. 88. Latin America's Role (Cont'd) <ul><ul><li>After the United States had declared war on Germany, the Mexican president at the time, Venustiano Carranza, said that Mexico would &quot;maintain ' strict and rigorous neutrality.'&quot; This made the United States suspicious of Mexico. They believed that the Germans were giving Mexico money, and that Carranza was a &quot;tool of German interests.&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Zimmerman note ( a letter between the German Foreign Minister, Alfred Zimmerman, and the German Minister, Karl von Luxburg, that made disparaging remarks about the Argentine President, Irigoyen), was used to confirm this suspicion. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  89. 89. Latin America's Role (Cont'd) <ul><ul><li>Most Latin American countries remained neutral during the First World War. Brazil was the only large South American nation to declare war on Germany. Their greatest contribution to the Allies was food. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Argentina wanted to remain neutral because it was away from the &quot;scene of conflict.&quot; When Argentine ships were sunk and the German minister, Karl von Zimmerman, and the German Minister, Luxburg, wrote the Zimmerman note, mobs wrecked German-owned businesses. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chile was neutral. They told Germany that if there was no attack, they would be neutral. They told the United States that they would be as friendly as Brazil and Uruguay. </li></ul></ul>
  90. 90. Death TollInjury Toll <ul><li>Total Mobilized Forces 65,038,810 </li></ul><ul><li>Total Deaths 8.528,831 </li></ul><ul><li>Wounded 21,189,154 </li></ul>
  91. 91. Death TollInjury Toll <ul><li>                                Killed                       Wounded </li></ul><ul><li>Russia                    1,700,000                 4,950,000 </li></ul><ul><li>British Empire          908,371                  2,090,212 </li></ul><ul><li>France                   1,357,800                  4,226,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Italy                         650,000                    947,000 </li></ul><ul><li>United States            116,516                     204,002 </li></ul><ul><li>Japan                              300                            907 </li></ul><ul><li>Romania                    335,706                     120,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Serbia                        45,000                     133,148 </li></ul><ul><li>Belgium                        13,716                      44,686 </li></ul><ul><li>Greece                         5,000                       21,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Portugal                      7,222                        13,751 </li></ul><ul><li>Montenegro                  3,000                       10,000 </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  92. 92. Death TollInjury Toll <ul><li>                                      Killed                          Wounded </li></ul><ul><li>Germany                      1,773,700                     4,216,058 </li></ul><ul><li>Austria-Hungary         1,200,000                    3,620,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Turkey                           325,000                       400,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Bulgaria                       1,200,000                       152,390 </li></ul>
  93. 93. List of Sources <ul><ul><li>Feldman, Ruth T. World War I . Minneaplois: Lerner Publications, 2004. 22-23. Questia School . Cengage Learning, 2011. 19 Apr. 2011. Web. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Schlieffen, Alfred, Graf von . Photograph. Encyclopædia Britannica Online . Web. 19 Apr. 2011 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Beck, Roger B. &quot;The Great War, 1914-1918.&quot; World History: Patterns of Interaction . Evanston, IL: McDougal Littell, 2005. 838-63. Print. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  Litwin, Peter. &quot;The Russian Revolution.&quot; UW Departments Web Server . Web. 19 Apr. 2011. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;1917 Russian Revolution.&quot; St. Petersburg Life | St. Petersburg Travel Guide | St. Petersburg Apartments Hotels Pubs Restaurants and Map | Russia . Web. 19 Apr. 2011. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;Russian Revolution of 1917.&quot; Britannica . 15th ed. Vol. 10. Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica, 1986. 257-58. Print. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;Schenck V. United States.&quot;  The Columbia Encyclopedia . 6th ed. 2009.  Questia . Web. 20 Apr. 2011. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;SCHENCK V. UNITED STATES, 249 U. S. 47 :: Volume 249 :: 1919 :: Full Text.&quot;  US Supreme Court Cases from Justia & Oyez . Web. 20 Apr. 2011. <>. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  Coetzee, Frans.  World War I: A History of Documents . Oxford UP, 2002. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suter, Keith. &quot;The Troubled History of Chemical and Biological Warfare.&quot;  Contemporary Review Sept. 2003: 161.  Gale Group . Web. 19 Apr. 2011. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;Poison Gas.&quot;  The Columbia Encyclopedia . 6th ed. 2009. Print. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gas Warfare. Web. 27 Apr. 2011. <>. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Duffy, Micheal. &quot;First World - Weapons of War: Tanks.&quot;  First World - A Multimedia History of World War One . 22 Aug. 2009. Web. 27 Apr. 2011.  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Willmott, H.P. (2003),  World War I , New York: Dorling Kindersley </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keegan, John (1998),  The First World War , Hutchinson </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chande, Abdin. &quot;World War I, Africa.&quot; Encyclopedia of Western Colonialism since 1450 . Ed. Thomas Benjamin. Vol. </li></ul><ul><li>         3. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2007. 1134-1136. Gale World History In Context . Web. 27 Apr. 2011. </li></ul>
  94. 94. List of Sources Continued <ul><ul><li>C., J. T. &quot;Borden, Sir Robert (Laird).&quot; The New Encyclopaedia Britannica . 15th ed. 1986. Print. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Beck, Roger B. et al. &quot;Chapter 29: The Great War.&quot;  World History: Patterns of Interaction . Evanston, Ill.: McDougal Littell, 2007. 22 Apr. 2001. 841-42. Print. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;Lost Liners: The Lusitania.&quot; PBS Online . PBS, n.d. Web. 25 Apr 2011. . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  Zimmermann Telegram, 1917; Decimal File, 1910-1929, 862.20212/82A (1910-1929), and Decoded Zimmermann Telegram, 1917; Decimal File, 1910-1929, 862.20212/69, General Records of the Department of State; Record Group 59; National Archives. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>O'Neal, Mike. &quot;A History of Fighter Aircraft.&quot;  American Aviators of WWI . 2009. 26 Apr. 2011. Web. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zeinert, Karen. Those Extraordinary Women of World War I. Brookfield: Millbrook, 2001. Questia. Web. 25 Apr. 2011. Web. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hoobler, Dorothy, and Thomas Hoobler.  The Trenches: Fighting on the Western Front in World War I . New York: Putnam, 1978. Print. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Johnson, Herbert A.  Wingless Eagle: U.S. Army Aviation through World War I . Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina, 2001.  Questia . 26 Apr. 2011. Web. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;Somme, Battle of the.&quot;  World Book Advanced . World Book, 2011. 13 May 2011. Web. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trueman, Chris. &quot;Tanks and World War One.&quot;  History Learning Site . 2011. Web. 27 Apr. 2011. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;Ypres, Battles Of.&quot; The Columbia Encyclopedia . 6th ed. 2009. Questia . Web. 11 May 2011. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;Somme, Battle of the.&quot;  World Book Advanced . World Book, 2011. Web.  13 May 2011. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zeinert, Karen. Those Extraordinary Women of World War I. Brookfield: Millbrook, 2001. Questia. Web. 25 Apr. 2011. Web. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hoobler, Dorothy, and Thomas Hoobler.  The Trenches: Fighting on the Western Front in World War I . New York: Putnam, 1978. Print. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Johnson, Herbert A.  Wingless Eagle: U.S. Army Aviation through World War I . Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina, 2001.  Questia . 26 Apr. 2011. Web. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;Somme, Battle of the.&quot;  World Book Advanced . World Book, 2011. 13 May 2011. Web. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trueman, Chris. &quot;Tanks and World War One.&quot;  History Learning Site . 2011. Web. 27 Apr. 2011. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;Ypres, Battles Of.&quot; The Columbia Encyclopedia . 6th ed. 2009. Questia . Web. 11 May 2011. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;Somme, Battle of the.&quot;  World Book Advanced . World Book, 2011. Web.  13 May 2011. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brinkley, Alan. &quot;America and the Great War.&quot; American History: A Survey . 12th ed. McGraw-Hill. 612-39. Print. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bumsted, J. M.. &quot;Becoming Modern, 1885-1918.&quot; A History of the Canadian Peoples. Oxford UP. 2007. Print.  </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  95. 95. List of Sources Cont <ul><li>&quot;World Wars I and II.&quot; Africa: An Encyclopedia for Students . Ed. John Middleton. Vol. 4. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 2002. 156-159. Gale World History In Context . Web. 27 Apr. 2011. </li></ul><ul><li>   </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Bumgardner, Jake. &quot;Marne, Battles of the.&quot; World Book Advanced . World Book, 2011. Web.  13 May 2011. </li></ul><ul><li>Duffy, Michael. &quot;Battles - The Battle of Jutland, 1916.&quot;  First World - A Multimedia History of World War One . 2009. Web. 02 May 2011. <>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;The Battle of Jutland.&quot; Web. 2 May 2011. <,r:4,s:0>. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  96. 96. List of Sources (Images) <ul><ul><li>&quot; Borden-Profiles-First Among Equals.&quot; Library and Archives Canada . Web. 20 Apr. 2011. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>   </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>,r:0,s:0 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1915 Military Parade in Toronto . 1915. Photograph. 2006. Web. 22 Apr. 2011. <,r:4,s:0&tx=33&ty=39>  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;Photographs of the 369th Infantry and African Americans during World War I.&quot;  National Archives and Records Administration . 2011. Web. 29 Apr. 2011. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Battle of Jutland . Photograph. Http:// . Web. 2 May 2011. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>&quot;Africa Maps.&quot; Map. Tech 2 Index . Doss High School. Web. 26 Apr. 2011. . </li></ul>