Gr. 9 Landscape Art History


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Impressionism, Post-Impressionism, & Group of Seven

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Gr. 9 Landscape Art History

  1. 1. Unit 3:Painted Landscapes
  2. 2. Impressionism1. Began in the 1870s2. Named after a critic’s insult of Monet’s painting. The critic called the work a mere “impression”.3. Happened in France. Artists painted landscapes & people.4. Artists used short, thick brushstrokes5. Artists also used optical mixing – placing primary colours next to each other (mixing on the painting)
  3. 3. Impressionism: Claude Monet
  4. 4. Impressionism: Claude Monet1. Father of the Impressionist movement2. Subject matter – he painted outside; known for painting lily pads & ponds3. Style:  Used optical mixing (mixed colours on the canvas)  Form is undefined, fuzzy; created by changes in colour, no outlines  Thick, textured paint  Shadows were created by adding blue.
  5. 5. Impressionism: Edgar Degas
  6. 6. Impressionism: Edgar Degas1. Subject matter: women doing everyday activities (like bathing), and dancers2. Style:  Thick, textured brushstrokes  Off-centre compositions  Sometimes used pastel instead of paint  His paintings look like snap-shots
  7. 7. Impressionism: Mary Cassatt
  8. 8. Impressionism: Mary Cassatt1. American Impressionist2. Subject matter: social and private lives of women; often painted mothers with their children.3. Style:  Highly influenced by Degas use of pastels  Loose, textured brushstrokes  Showed women doing everyday activities, like reading.
  9. 9. Post-Impressionism Post-Impressionist artists were influenced by Impressionists, but developed their style in different directions. They continued to use vivid colours, thick application of paint, and real-life subject matter like the Impressionists. Unlike the Impressionists, they emphasized geometric forms, distorted form for expressive effect, and used unnatural colour for expression.
  10. 10. Post-Impressionism: Pointillism (Seurat)
  11. 11. Post-Impressionism: Pointillism1) Subject Matter: They painted landscapes and people2) Style:  Named because the painters used lots of dots  No outlines1) Georges Seurat was a major Pointillist painter.
  12. 12. Post-Impressionism: V. Van Gogh
  13. 13. Post-Impressionism: Van Gogh1) Subject matter: scenes that showed emotion; painted landscapes and people;regarded as the father of Expressionism (art that focused on expressing emotion)1) Style:  thick, patterned brushstrokes  non-realistic colour; often used complementary colours (like violet and yellow)
  14. 14. Post-Impressionism: Cezanne
  15. 15. Post-Impressionism: Cezanne1. Subject matter: landscapes, people, still lives2. Style:  he simplified nature into geometric forms (for example, a tree trunk looks like a cylinder, an apple or orange is a sphere)  He applied paint in square-like shapes.
  16. 16. Post-Impressionism: Gauguin
  17. 17. Post-Impressionism: Gauguin1. Subject Matter: landscapes and people in Tahiti2. Style:  experimental use of colour  flat areas of colour (not as much shading)  bold outlines  He was inspired by the simplicity of African art and Native American art.
  18. 18. Group of Seven1. Began in the 1920s in Canada2. Influenced by the bold colours and loose brushwork of Post- Impressionism.3. Lawren Harris named them. They were a group of 7 painters.4. Inspired by Tom Thomson, they painted Canadian landscapes.5. Key feature of the style: slightly abstract views of nature
  19. 19. Group of Seven: Tom Thomson
  20. 20. Group of Seven: Tom Thomson1. Subject matter: landscapes of Algonquin Park2. Style:  thick, textured brushstrokes  simplified forms (sometimes outlined)  mixed colour on the canvas  usually had trees in the scene  Inspiration for the Group of Seven (died before its formation)
  21. 21. Group of Seven: Lawren Harris
  22. 22. Group of Seven: Lawren Harris1. Subject matter: mostly wintery mountain scenes2. Style:  Very simplified forms  Geometric, controlled lines  Smooth brushwork  Founder of the Group of Seven
  23. 23. Group of Seven: Emily Carr
  24. 24. Group of Seven: Emily Carr1. Subject matter: aboriginal (native) culture, and landscapes of British Columbia2. Style:  Simplified, elongated form (super tall trees)  Used rhythmic brushstrokes; the brushstrokes form patterns.  Often painted totem poles  Carr was an honorary member of the Group of Seven, even though the Group was based in Toronto and she was in B.C.
  25. 25. Landscape1 You will create a landscape that has three sections: A background (more than 10 steps away) A middle-ground (about 5 steps away) A foreground (objects that are the closest) You will use watercolour. You will use cool colours in the background and middle- ground and warm colours in the foreground.
  26. 26. Landscape1: Design Process We will go outside to practice different styles of drawing:gesture drawing (basic shapes)contour drawing (outlines only)naturalistic drawing (as detailed and realistic as possible) Yo will also practice different watercolour techniques.
  27. 27. Experiments with Paint1. Practice mixing different colours, including shades and tints of each colour. To make a colour darker, add blue – NOT black. To make a colour lighter, add water.2. Practice the wet-on-wet technique. Place water on the paper first; then add colour.3. Practice the graded wash technique. Place a stroke of paint. Add water to your brush, and place another stroke down that slightly overlaps your first stroke.4. Practice showing value on a sphere, cylinder, and a cone. To darken a colour, add blue. To lighten a colour, add water. (Draw the shapes lightly with pencil first).5. Practice painting the objects you will place in the foreground of your painting. Practice the fine details (like leaves and thin branches) with a thin brush. Remember the foreground will be in warm colours.
  28. 28. Landscape2 Youwill create a representational abstract landscape. Yourlandscape will be based on real-life observation (i.e. we will work outside). You will use watercolour, and after painting you will accent key areas with black ink (fine pt. marker).
  29. 29. Landscape2: Abstraction Some of the best abstract work is based on real life (representational abstract). You will start your landscapes by drawing realistically. In order to abstract your landscape, you will identify its key characteristics and emphasize them. You will use warm colours for bright areas/closer areas, and cool colour for areas that are dark or further away.
  30. 30. Landscape2: Design Process Like the Impressionist painters, we will work outside. Dress for the weather! (jackets, footwear, gloves) Practice: 1. gesture drawing, 2. contour drawing, 3. finished drawings, 4. abstracted drawings, 5. painted studies
  31. 31. Artist’s Statement: Landscape1. How did you abstract your image? Your answer should include an analysis of the key characteristics of your image.1. Describe how you used 3 elements of art in your artwork.1. Describe how you achieved emphasis on a particular area in your landscape.
  32. 32. Activism Definition: taking an active role in society’s issues/concerns “Taking an active role” can mean many things: - talking about the issues - appealing to governments - making artwork that presents different aspects of the issues
  33. 33. Contemporary Artists Christo (new ways of seeing familiar landscapes)
  34. 34. Contemporary Artists Maya Lin (Vietnam War Veterans Memorial)The viewer sees him/herself as part of the artwork.
  35. 35. Contemporary Artists Mona Hatoum (Continental Drift - stainless steel, glass, iron filings, electric motor, timer) Passing of time.
  36. 36. Contemporary Artists Robert Smithson (Spiral Jetty – studying how things break down)
  37. 37. Citizenship What are the rights & responsibilities of an artist?
  38. 38. Activist Artists Andy Goldsworthy (impermanence of nature)
  39. 39. Activist Artists Joseph Beuys “Only from art can a new concept of economics be formed, in terms of human need, not in the sense of use and consumption, politics and property, but above all in terms of the production of spiritual goods…”
  40. 40. Activist Artists Ana Mendieta Permanent Link (violence against women)
  41. 41. Activist Artists Nancy Holt (“re-orient the viewers eye and to cause them to notice settings that would have otherwise have gone unrecognized”)
  42. 42. Citizenship – what is it?A. Being a good citizen means being a member of a community, and benefiting from rights & responsibilities in that communityA. Community Issues 1. Physical (outside) 2. Mental (inside) environments 3. Work with a partner (the person next to you) to list examples of the different levels of issues. Think about personal concerns, local concerns, & global concerns. Personal Local National Global Stress/anxiety Homelessness Civil war Poverty Bullying Gangs Assassinations Wars
  43. 43. Activist ProjectA. You will create a poster/T-shirt design that makes a persuasive statement about a social concern.A. This project focuses on developing graphic design. Sketchbook assignment: 1. Identify the statement you want to make. 2. Complete 3 thumbnail sketches. 3. Use colour & word design.
  44. 44. Activist Project Requirements1. Should GRAB the viewer’s attention. (use contrast & emphasis)2. Must have a clear message. (symbolic images, text)3. It must focus on ONE principle of art: emphasis, balance, contrast, rhythm/ movement, etc.
  45. 45. Women from WW2
  46. 46. Using Word DesignA. It should be neat & legible.A. It should match the mood in the rest of the poster (angry, sad, happy, hopeful…)A. It should have correct spelling & grammar (make sure to check & double- check this).
  47. 47. Activist Project Using graphic design, you must create an artwork that makes a persuasive statement about a cultural concern. Focus on incorporating one principle of art, either unity OR contrast. Identifyyour message before designing your artwork. Your project must convey that message!
  48. 48. Artist’s Statement: Graphic Design Project Whatstatement did you make? Why is it important? Describe how you focused on one principle of design. Describetwo aspects you like about your design. Describe one aspect that could be better.
  49. 49. Site-specific/ Installation Art Work that is intended for a specific location This kind of artwork sometimes involves 3-dimensional forms that are sometimes a part of their setting (found objects). Installation artwork can also be 2-dimensional. Strong relationships are needed between the sculptural form, the artist’s message, and the setting in which the artwork is located. You will design a hanging sea creature using plaster & wire.
  50. 50. Examples of Installation ArtRichard Serra
  51. 51. Examples of Installation Art Rachel Whitread
  52. 52. Examples of Installation Art Tara Donovan
  53. 53. Examples of Installation ArtAntony Gormley
  54. 54. Examples of Installation ArtSadashi Inuzuka
  55. 55. Examples of Installation Art Isamu Noguchi
  56. 56. Examples of Installation Art Barbara Hepworth
  57. 57. Installation ProjectRemember: The installation piece must relate to its surroundings; it has to complement its environment. Consider the materials we have available.
  58. 58. Installation Project: Design Process Create 5 thumbnail sketches. Once you have selected the best idea, draw it in fine detail. Your design must fill the space of the paper provided to you. You may use watercolour or oil pastels. Experiment with both materials, and plan how you will colour your design.
  59. 59. Results of the Installation ProjectI will select the best five designs/proposals. Youwill vote for your first choice. Of course, your choice will be anonymous.I will present your proposal to the Principal, and discover whether it is possible to actually make the artwork full scale.
  60. 60. Installation Project Proposal(Artist’s Statement)1. What does your installation mean? What message are you trying to convey?1. How does your installation convey that message? What elements & principles of art helped you to communicate through this artwork?1. How does your artwork relate to its environment? First describe the courtyard; then talk about how the installation relates to those characteristics.
  61. 61. Examples of Mixed Media Art Marcel Duchamp (Dada artist, the art of nonsense)
  62. 62. Examples of Mixed Media Art Lucas Samaras
  63. 63. Examples of Mixed Media Art Betye Saar
  64. 64. Examples of Mixed Media Art Louise Nevelson (using recycled parts)
  65. 65. Edgar Degas
  66. 66. Van Gogh
  67. 67. Harris