Organizational behaviour


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Organizational behaviour

  1. 1. 7. INTRODUCTION TO ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAUIOUR Q.1 Define Organizational Behaviour. OR Explain the Elements of Organizational Behaviour. OR Explain the term 'Organizational Behaviour'. State the Elements of Organizational Behaviour. Ans. Organizational Behaviour (Meaning) Organizational Behaviour' (0. B.) is a scientific discipline in which a large number of research studies and conceptual developments are constantly addition to its knowledge base. It is an applied science, where the information about effective practices in one organization are being extended to many other organizations. "Organizational Behaviour is the study and application of knowledge about the human behaviour in the organization as it relates to other system of elements such as structure, technology and external social system." Keith Davis "Organizational Behaviour is a way of thinking, way of conceiving problems and articulating research and action solutions.: Organization behaviour is a field of study that investigates the impact that individual group and structure have on the behaviour within the organization for the purpose of applying such knowledge towards improving an organizational effectiveness. Organizational behaviour helps in analyzing and understanding human behaviour, directing and controlling it, and adapting it to changing environmental conditions so as to improve the effectiveness of the organization towards accomplishing the objectives of a business organization. Features of Organizational Behaviour Following are the features of organizational behaviour (i) Problems and questions are typically formulated within independent variable-dependent variable framework. The models attempts to search for cause and effect. (ii) The field is oriented towards change as a desirable outcome for organizations and persons within organizations.
  2. 2. (iii) The field has a distinctly humanistic tone, reflected in the concern selfdevelopment, personal growth and self-actualization. Another side of th»s 'eld has emphasizes operant learning models and behaviour modification and which reflects a concern with environment determinism rather than with self-actualization, (iv) The field is becoming increasingly performance -oriented. (v) The field is greatly influenced by norms of skepticism, caution, replication and public exposure of knowledge based on facts. That means it follows the scientific method. Scope/Elements of Organizational Behaviour In an organization, people join together in some form (i.e. formal structure* to achieve an objective and in order to achieve the objectives, they use some sort of technology. So, there is an interaction of people, technology and structure. All these three elements (people, technology and structure) influence the external social systems and in turn, they are influenced by it. A mix of these four elements are the scope of organizationa, oehaviour and each one of these is discussed in brief below (a) People The people constitute the internal social system of the organization. They consist of individuals and groups. Groups may be large or small, formal or informal, official or unofficial. They are dynamic. They form, change and descent. Human organization changes everyday. Today, it is not the same as it was yesterday. It may change further in the coming days. People are living, thinking and humanbeings, who created the organization and try to achieve the objectives and goals. Thus, organization exist to serve the people and not the people exist to serve the organization. (b) Structure Structure defines the sole relationship of individuals, people in an organization. Different people in an organization are given different roles and they have certain relationship with others. It leads to division of labour so that individuals can perform their duties or work to accomplish the organizations goal. Thus, everybody cannot be an accountant or a clerk. Work is complex and different duties are to be performed by different individuals. Some may be accountants, other may be managers, clerks, peons or workers. All are so related to each other to accomplish the goal in a co-ordinated manner. Thus, structure relates to powers and duties. One has the authority and the other have a duty to obey him. (c) Technology Technology imparts the physical and economic conditions within which an individual work. With their bare-hands, individuals can do nothing so they are given assistance of building, machineries, tools, processes and resources. The nature of technology depends very much
  3. 3. on the nature of the organization and influences the work or working conditions. Thus, technology brings effectiveness and at the same time, restricts people in various ways. (d) Social system Social system provides external environment within which the organization operates. A single organization cannot exist also. It is a part of the whole. One organization cannot give everything and therefore, there are many other organizations. All these organizations influence each other. It influences the attitudes of people, their working conditions and above all, provides competitions for resources and power. Q.2 Explain the Historical Development of Organizational Behaviour. OR Describe the Evolution of Organizational Behaviour. Ans. Historical Development/ Evolution of Organizational Behaviour (a) During the period of Industrial Revolution (year - 1800), Robert Owen, who was regarded as the 'Father of Personnel Administration' emphasized the human needs of employee. He was a factory owner. He taught his workers about cleanliness and improved their working conditions. (b) 'Andrew Ure' published his work "The Philosophy of Manufacturers in 1935". In his work, he recognized the value of human factor in manufacturing. He gave facilities of tea, medical treatment, sickness payments and ventilation to workers. (c) "William Gilbreth", published his work titled The Psychology of Management' in the year 1914. His work emphasized the human side of work. (d) In the 1920's and 30s, Elton Mayo studied human behaviour at work at Harvard University. The Study was conducted at Western Electric Company, Hawthrone Plant. The study points out that the worker is not a simple tool but a very complex personality interacting in a group situation. (e) In the 1940's and 1950's, major research projects on the subject of human relations were developed at university of Michigan and Ohio State University. In the year 1957, Douglas McGregor presented Theory X and Theory Y. According to these theories, management's personnel practices, decision making, operating practices and even organizational design flow from assumptions about human behaviour. (f) In the late 1970's and 80's, Organizational Behaviour research study gained momentum and established itself as a separate branch or management with Vast potential. Q.3 Define Organizational Behaviour? Explain in detail the historical background of
  4. 4. Organizational Behaviour? Ans. Refer to Q. No. 1 and 2 of this Chapter. Q.4 Explain the Importance of Organizational Behaviour. OR Why is it necessary to study Organizational Behaviour? Ans. Importance (of the study) of Organizational Behaviour The importance/significance of Organizational Behaviour is outlined with the help of following points (a) Organizational Behaviour (O.B.) with its vast knowledge is affecting the interest of the people from all walks of life. It enhances people's awareness and effectiveness. It improves their ability in handling conflict and stress management. (b) Organizational Behaviour provides a useful set of tools at many levels of analysis. It helps manager to look at the behaviour of individuals within an organization. It helps the manager in understanding the various complexities involved in the interpersonal relations. (c) Organizational Behaviour is valuable in examining the dynamics of relationships within small groups, both formal and informal (groups). (d) Organizational Behaviour provides frame works for understanding differences between national cultures, because cultural difference may require managers to modify their practices. (e) Organizational Behaviour offers number of challenges and opportunities for managers, for example, how to improve quality, how to improve people's skill, how to recognize the value of work force diversity. Q.5 "The study of Organizational Behaviour is the study of the Behaviour of the People in the Organization." Discuss. Ans. Organizational Behaviour studies the behaviour of people in the organization. Everybody interacts with each other and influence behavioural quality of life in the organization. Managers, however have greater responsibility because they take decisions concerning all in the organization. Managers constitute the administrative system and in organizational behaviour, it is their responsibility to integrate the social system with the technical system, just to improve the "people-organization relationship" in order to accomplish the human benefits for which it is made. The administrative view of organizational behaviour contains a number of ideas as follows (a) Organizational behaviour focuses mainly on people and technical, economical and structural elements which are all related to people. (b) The environment is developed in such a way as to motivate the people
  5. 5. to work hard to accomplish the organizational goal. Managers motivate the people because only they, unlike other factors, can have greater output than the sum of their input throughout their creativity. (c) The direction of motivation is towards teamwork, that requires both, coordination of work and co-operation of people. Co-ordination means effective time and sequence in performing activities while co-operation means the willingness of people to perform the work of attaining the organizational goal. (d) The organizational behaviour seeks to fulfill both, employee's needs and organizational objectives. Every employee in the organization wants to fulfil his needs through organizational activities and the organization's responsibility is to provide behavioural climate in the organization to attain the objective. Thus, both people and the organization are benefited in this manner. (e) Both, employees and the organization, gain effectively by getting higher benefits with minimum costs. Organizational behaviour attempts to reduce the wasteful activities through economic and psychological means and thus increasing the effectiveness of the people and the organization. Q.6 What is meant by Organizational Behaviour (O. B.)? How does knowledge of O. B. help managers to improve their effectiveness. Ans. Refer to Q No 1 and Q. No 5 of this Chapter. Q.7 Discuss the different Models of Organizational Behaviour. OR What are Various Models of Organizational Behaviour? OR Write a note on SOBC. Ans. Different Models of Organizational Behaviour These are as follows . (a) The Autocratic Model In autocratic model the main source of authority comes from power. The persons who are in command must have the power to demand - an employee who does not follow orders will tie penalized. The authority is delegated by right of command over the people. Management thinks and employees obey orders. As per this model there is a tight control on employees at work. Obedience rather than respect for a manager is the employee orientation. Employees psychologically depend on their boss. Minimum wages are paid for minimum performance. Employees work for sustenance and some give higher performance because of internal achievement drives. Its main weakness is its high human costs
  6. 6. (b) Custodial Model In Autocratic model the employees work for substance and obey orders of boss, because they feel insecurity. They give minimum performance. Though they do not talk back, they show their feelings like frustration and aggression on their families etc. To dispel in security, frustration and aggression and improve quality of life the progressive employers need to play a custodian or parental role. Hence, Employers Union and Government started interacting and taking steps towards security needs of employees. Custodial approach can be successful when the organization has sufficient economic resources, to pay benefits like pension to employees. Then only security can be used as a motivating factor. The result is unlike in autocratic model the employee starts depending on the organization rather than on their boss. Employees are now satisfied for having security and get motivated to give better results in work. But still they are not motivated so much to give maximum capacity to which they are capable. Hence this model is better than autocratic model. (c) The Supportive Model We have seen earlier that autocratic model depends on power and custodial model depends on money. But the supportive model of organizational behaviour depends on leadership to motivate employees to perform better. The presumption here is that workers are not by themselves passive but they are made so by inadequate support and work. They can show higher responsibilities, given a chance. Support here means support extended in better job performance. A drive is developed among employees to contribute. Such type of support by management in employees' work, psychologically they have a feeling of participation and involvement in the organization. Their efforts are recognized. The leader or manager's role is that of helping employees to solve their problems and help in accomplishing their work. This model works well with employees as well as with management. This model is helpful for the organization in times of crisis, if it was sincerely followed in profitable times. It has more significance and application in developed nations rather than in developing nations (d) Colleagial Model Colleagues are those who work with a common purpose. In colleagial model, the management orientation towards team-work management acts as a coach and the employees respond with responsibility. This model depends on management's building and feeling of partnership among employees. Here the managers are found as joint contributions and not as bosses In this approach, a spirit of mutuality is built, wnere every person makes contribution and appreciates the contribution or efforts made by others. The employees become self disciplined. They produce quality work as they feel an obligation to provide high quality rather than for fear of boss. Irrespective of the amount of contribution employees get some degree of fulfillment, worthwhile contribution and self-actualization. This leads to enthusiasm in performance. This type of approach is very useful in research laboratories and others where work is unprogrammed and requires intellectual
  7. 7. environment and job freedom. (e) SOBC Model This model is used to identify the major variables in OB and to show how they relate to one another. The letters S-O-B-C stands for StimulusOrganism-Behaviour-Consequences respectively Framework of this model is based on social learning. OB model says that internal cognition (O) lead to behaviour (B) S-B-C model emphasizes the need to identify observable contingencies (S and C) for the prediction and control of behaviour (B) S-O-BC is the expanded model which recognizes the interactive nature of the environment (S and C) the person's cognition (O) and the behaviour itself (B) in the determining behaviour. According to this model causes for the behaviour, the behaviour itself and the effects of the behaviour can be observable or non-observable. S-O-B-C model does not abandon the emphasis on behaviour, it merely expands the group of variables to include cognitive processes and observable (covert) and non-observable (overt) behaviours. Thus S-O-B-C model is an electric modei taken from both cognitive and behaviouristic approaches, but it is based mainly on the new social learning approach. This model can perhaps best meet the goals of organizational behaviour. The S-0 portion deals with understanding and the BC portion deals with prediction and control. If the organizational situation is substituted for S, the organizational participant is substituted for O and the dynamics and applications are put into C, the model can serve as conceptual framework for the study of OB. The S-O-B-C model is used to identify the major variables in OB and to show how they relate to one another. Q, 8 Write short notes on (A) Fundamental Concepts of Organizational Behaviour. Ans Organizational behaviour is based on fundamental concepts around which nature of people and nature of organization revolves Nature of people depends on the following assumptions (i) Individual differences, (u) A whole person, (iii) Caused behaviour, (iv) Value of the person or dignity. Theories of motivation, leadership and supervision are based on the individual differences. Some organization believe that they employ only the brain or skill of person but they are wrong in their approach. They employ the whole person Motivation of people is necessary in the organization to push up the work irrespective of the machinery and equipment in use. People shall be treated differently as they are of the higher order in the universe and they shall be treated with respect and dignity. Nature of organization depends on iiie assump!ioi.s (i) Assumption of social system and (ii) Assumption of mutual interest. People have psychological needs as well as social roles and status. Social system is both formal an:: normal All parts are interdependent and interconnected. People need organization as a means to help them to reach their goals while
  8. 8. organizations need people to help to reach organizational goals. (B) Challenges and Opportunities for Organizational Behaviour. Ans. (i) Organizational behaviour offers insights to improve a manager's people skill that they can use on the job. (ii) Organizational behaviour provides framework for understanding differences between national cultures. (iii) Managers is to stimulate employee's creativity and tolerance for change because organizations must maintain their flexibility, (iv) Organizational behaviour can offer managers, guidance in creating an ethically healthy work climate. (v) Organizational behaviour can help in improving quality and productivity by including their employees, by increasing their active participation in planning and implementing changes, (vi) Organizational behaviour recognizes differences and helps managers to see the value of work force diversity, (vii) Empowerment is challenge for Organizational Behaviour. Empowerment means putting employees in charge of what they do.
  9. 9. 8. PERSONALITY AND ATTITUDES Q.1 Explain the term 'Personality'. Discuss the Various Stages of Personality Development. OR What is Personality? Explain the Personality Development Concept. Ans. Personality The word 'Personality' has been derived from the Latin word 'Persona' which means 'to speak through'. Personality means how people affect others, how they understand and view themselves as well as theif pattern of inner and outer measurable traits and person-situation interaction. 'Personality' is concerned with external appearance, behaviour, self measurable traits and situation interactions. The concept of personality is however quite complex. There is no universal agreement on the exact meaning of personality. "Personality is the dynamic organization within and individual of those psychological systems that determine his unique adjustments to his environment." -Geordon Allport "Personality is the characteristic patterns of behaviour an modes of thinking that determine a person's adjustment to the environment." - E. R. Hilgard "(Person's) Personality is like all other people's, like some other people's and like no other people's.: - Kluckhotn and Murry Personality includes, how people affect others, how they understand and view themselves, their pattern of inner and outer measurable traits, person-situation interaction. Stages of Personality Development Psychologists have given different stages of personality development. These are as follows (i) Freudian Stage 'Sigmund Freud' was the first psychologist to believe that childhood events might have a bearing on adult behaviour and consciousness. According to him, there are four universal stages of psychological development which are decisive for the formation of personality, i.e. oral, anal, phallic and genital. (8.1) The following given table explains the Freud's stages of personality development
  10. 10. Stage Age Major Features Oral Birth to One Interest in oral gratification from sucking, eating, Year mouthing and biting Anal One year to Gratification from expelling and withholding Three Years faces, coming to terms with society's control relating to toilet training. Phallic Three to Four Interest in the genitals, coming to terms with Years Oedipal conflict leading to identification with same sex purvent. Latony Four to Six Sexual concerns largely unimportant. Years to Adolescence Genital Adolescence to Adulthood Re-emergence of sexual interests and establishment of mature sexual relationships. (ii) New-Freudian Stage 'Erik Erikson' gave a new dimension to the development of personality, which according to him is mere extension of Freud's Psycheosexual development. According to him, more attention should be given to the social rather than the sexual adaptations of the individual. He was of the opinion that, social problems emerged in the course of development were more important stages in which a child faces a wide range of human relationship as he grows up. Erikson states that a psycho-social crisis occurs within each of the stages and that a person in order to have a normal fulfilling personality, each crisis should be positively resolved. He considers Crisis as a turning point in individual's personality development and not as a catastrophe. (iii) Cognitive Stage 'Jean Piaget', a Swiss Phsychologist is credited with 'Cognitive Stage' of personality development. According to him, it is 'conscious' instincts which are important variables in the personality development. He identified four (4) stages of personality development, these are as follows Cognitive Stages Stage Age (a) Sensorimotor 0-2 yrs. (b) Pre-operational 2-7 yrs. (c) Concrete Operational 7-11 yrs.
  11. 11. (d) Formal Operational 11 yrs. and above. At the first stage (i.e. sensorimotor), the infant responds to stimuli directly. During the second stage (i.e. Pre-operational), the child learns .to" separate himself from all other surroundings (i.e. environment) and started to classify the objects through the use of symbols and words. At the third stage (i.e. concrete operational), the child learns about an intellectual understanding of the concept of conservation of a mass, irrespective of its shape. At the final stage (i.e. formal operational), reasoning can take place on abstract as well as on concrete levels. (iv) Immaturity to Maturity The Harvard University Professor, C. Argyris has recognized specific dimensions of the human personality as it develops. According to him, human personality progresses in a continuous form, from an infant to maturity as an adult He was of the opinion that, healthy people will display the behaviour of the immaturity to maturity continuum. Immaturity Characteristics Maturity Characteristics (i) Passivity Activity (ii) Dependence Independence (iii) Few-ways of Behaving (iv) Shallow Interests Diverse Behaviour Deep Interests (v) Short-time Perspective Long-time Perspective (vi) Subordinate Position Super-ordinate Position (vii) Lack of Self-Awareness Self Awareness and Control Q.2 Explain the Various Determinants (Factors) of Personality. Ans. Determinants of Personality (a) Biological The impact of hereditary on personality is a very active but still unsettled area of understanding. The hereditary versus environment debate is still alive but in spite of this hereditary does equip the person for survival and growth. According to some behavioural scientists managers think differently from general population. Senior managers have greater capacity for differentiation and integration. Recently physiologists and psychologists felt that certain biological functions such as brain wave patterns, gastric secretions, fluctuations in blood pressure and skin temperature are beyond conscious control. Many scientist believe
  12. 12. that these functions can be consciously controlled through bio feed back. Biologically based approach to study of personality is to anlayse the effects of physical features and rate of maturing. In individual's physical appearance which is said to be vital ingredient of personality, is biologically determined. (b) Cultural The learning process plays an important role in personality development. Culture is the main concept in analyzing the content of learning. Cultural events contribute significantly to personality. Culture largely, determines attributes such as aggression, co-operation, independence, competition etc. The method by which an infant is bathed , fed, cared etc. and the ways in which the person makes transition from adolescence to adulthood are all culturally determined. (c) Family: Family probably has the most significant impact on personality formation and development. The parents play an important role in the identification process which is important to person's early development. The type of atmosphere that is generated for child affects personality. (d) Social Socialisation starts with the initial contact between a mother and her infant. After infancy, other members of family, close relatives, family friends and then the social groups play influential roles. (e) Situation The cultural and family impact is more concerned with historical nature of personality development. Both the cultural or family and socialisation processes are important to personality, but it should be recognised that immediate situation may in final analysis predominate. It is the situation which determines the actions of a person. A person situation interactions surfaces as an important determinant of personality but it is mostly overlooked by people in understanding human behaviour. Q.3 What is Attitude? State its nature. What are its functions? Ans. Attitude 'Attitudes' are evaluative statements either favourable or unfavourable concerning objects, people or events. They reflect one's feeling about something." "Attitude are evaluative statements either favourable or unfavourable concerning objects, people or events. They reflect how one feels about something." - Stephen P. Robbins "Attitude are learned dispositions towards aspects of our environment. They may be positively or negatively directed towards certain people, service or institutions." - N. L. Munn "An attitude is predisposition to respond positively or negatively, to a certain set of facts." Nature of Attitude (i) Attitudes are evaluative statement.
  13. 13. (ii) Attitudes refer to feelings and beliefs of individuals or groups of individuals. (iii) Attitudes provide the emotional basis for one's interpersonal relations and identification with others. (iv) Attitudes tend to result in behaviour or action. (v) Attitudes are uni-dimensional variable. (vi) All people, irrespective of their status or intelligence, hold attitudes. (vii) 'Attitudes' are organized and are close to the core of personality. Functions of Attitude These are as follows (a) Utilitarian The development of attitude in one's personality helps him to obtain rewards or avoid punishments. In some cases, the attitude is a means to an end. For e.g., a worker finds that when he expresses a negative attitude towards his boss, his coworkers pay attention to him and sympathize with him, however, when he expresses a positive attitude, he is ignored. (b) Ego-Defence Function To safeguard the self image, individuals often form and maintain certain attitudes. For example, when the female workers are employed in any organization, the male workers may feel threatened by their entry. These threatened workers now developed negative attitudes towards their female counterparts. They may develop an attitude that such newcomers are less qualified, and they might mistrea these workers. Such an ego defensive attitude is developed to cope up with a feeling of guilt or threat. (c) Value Expression Function An individual's attitude shows his taste of values and the values are the expressive attitudes that are closely related to his selfcontrol. An individual with freedom as his central value, shows more positive attitude than anybody else towards decentralization of authority in the work, flexible work schedules etc. Q.4 State the dimensions of attitude. Ans. Dimension of Attitudes (a) Centrality The centrality means the importance of the object. The attitudes which have high centrality for an individual will be less susceptible to change. (b)Overt Components Overt Components are the behavioural parts or segments which express the way of behaviour intended. (c)Valence Valence refers to the degree of the unfavrourableness towards the particular event or object. favorableness or
  14. 14. (d)Attitude vary in relation to the need of an individual. (e)Cognitive Cognitive component refers to the rational process which is used before a set of particular action one's own beliefs, experiences and thoughts. (f) Multiplicity Multiplicity means the number of elements constituting the attitude. Q.5 Explain the term 'Transactional Analysis'. State its Advantages. Ans.: Transactional Analysis (Meaning) Transactional Analysis (TA) offers a model of personality and dynamics of self and its relationship to others that make possible a clear and meaningful discussion of behaviour. It refers to method of analysis and understanding interpersonal behaviour. When people interact, there is a social transaction in which one person responds Jo. another. The study of these transactions between people is called Transactional Analysis'. Transactional Analysis was originally developed psychotherapist, for psychotherapy in 1950. by 'Eric Berne', a Advantages of Transactional Analysis (TA) (a) Developing Positive Thinking TA is applied to bring positive actions from people because TA brings positive approach towards life and hence positive actions. TA brings a clear change from negative feelings - confusion, defeat, failure, fear, frustration, hesitation, loneliness, pessimism and suppression to positive feelings - clear thinking, victory, achievement, courage, gratification, decision, friendship, optimism and fulfillment. Such a change from negative attitude to positive attitude is a source of psychic energy. Dositive attitude makes people stronger and negative attitude makes them exhausting. The whole objective of TA training programme is directed toward positive thinking. Thus, its application can enhance the trust and credibility felt toward the organization which are essential for good employee relations. Some of the specific areas for developing positive thinking through TA are stroking, positive reinforcement, inner dialogue as related to decision making, active listening and time-structuring. (b) Interpersonal Effectiveness TA improves interpersonal relationship by providing understanding of ego states of persons involved in interaction. It emphasizes complementary transactions which ensure complete communication and problem-solving approach. Since complementary transactions can be learned by individuals in the organization, people can improve interpersonal relations through TA. The
  15. 15. effective managers may be able to analyze transactions with employees in the organization. TA provides them with a theoretical framework within which to examine the interactions with the employees. The managers may be able to identify the ego states from which both parties are interacting. A better understanding of themselves and of other persons will make them more comfortable, confident and effective. The improved interpersonal relations will bring effectiveness to the organization. (c) Motivation TA can be applied in motivation where it helps in satisfying human needs through complementary transactions and positive strokes. Mai gers can enrich jobs for people by helping them to engage in kinds of activities that give them more positive strokes. It emphasizes strokes from the intrinsic value of the work, rather than depending entirely on strokes from outside (extrinsic). The job enrichment in this case means increasing the number of intrinsic strokes gained from the work activity. TA helps in changing the managerial styles more suitably to the emergent situation. In this context, TA may be compared with McGregor's Theory X and Y The theory X manager emphasizes parent-child relationship and uses terms like 'should be', 'have to' 'must' and so on. He adopts a life position of "I am O.K. You are not O.K." which is not a healthy position either for motivating the employees or for the organization as a whole. On the other hand, theory Y manager emphasizes adult-adult interaction with life position "I am O.K. You are O.K." which is motivating for employees and beneficiai to the organization as a whole. (d) Organization Development Organization development applies a humanistic value system to work behaviour and a reorientation of man's thinking and behaviour towards his wftrk organization. The major goal of organization development is to fight the past in the present in order to choose freely the future. TA can help in organization development process. Q.6 Write a note on Ego States. Ans. Ego States Transactional analysis of Eric Berne seems to be an outgrowth of the Feudian concept of id, ego and superego. Feud, depicts that there are three sources within the human personality that stimulate, monitor and control behaviour. Berne suggests that all people have though in different degrees three ego-states-parent, adult and child and the behaviour of a person shows which of these three ego-stage is operating at a particular moment. The parent ego-state is a result of messages people receive from their parents during their early childhood. These messages are recorded in the lead of a childjust like on the cassette tapes The persons interacting from a parent ego states are protective, dogmatic, evaluative and righteous. Behaviour is evoked the adult ego stage and develops thought concepts of
  16. 16. life based on data gathering and data processing. The behaviour from the adult ego state is characterized by problem solving analysis and rational decision making. The child ego state reflects early childhood conditions and experiences. It is dependent, rebellious, selfish and sometimes creative. The child ego state is emotional. Q.7 Write short note on The Self Concept and Self Esteem. Ans. The self concept has been structured by the interactions of individual with other people and emerges as a product of that social interaction. The self concept of individual is formulated in terms of how people reacts to him; it is the mirror of how others perceive him. The concept of self esteem means an individual's own pride and honour in eyes of other's people. Q.8 Write a detailed note on Johari Window. Ans. Joseph Luft and Harry Ingham developed the Johari Window. The term 'JOHAR!' represents the combination of their firit names. Psychologist give reasons for inter-personal conflicts by examining different ways in which self and others may interact. One such attempt to understand dynamics of interpersonal conflict is known as Johari Window. Johari Window includes, (i) Open Self (ii) Hidden Self (iii) Blind Self (iv) Undiscovered Self A person knows The person does The person does about himself not know about not know about and knows about the other. him. the other. These points can help to understand and manage many interpersonal conflicts, within or without group setting. According to Johari Window, the strategy to solve conflict is to increase open self and decrease hidden self. By disclosing information about oneself, the potential for conflict may be reduced, but individual risk is also involved in self-disclosure because the other early may use it for his advantage at the cost of the person who tries to reduce hidden self. Q.9 Write short notes on (A) Developing the Right Attitude. Ans. 'Developing the Right Attitude' refers to rational behaviour of an
  17. 17. individual in his day-to-day life. For developing the right attitude, the following methods can be implemented by the individual, viz. (i) Maintain a log-book (record) of your thoughts, (ii) Be aware of your thoughts, (iii) Identify negative thoughts and replace them with positive thoughts, (iv) Controlling the Emotions, (v) Dont react instantly.
  18. 18. 9. MOTIVATION Q.1 Define the term Importance/Significance. 'Motivation'. State its Features and its OR Define Motivation. Discuss importance of motivation as a function of Management. Ans. Motivation (Meaning) "Motivation" is a term derived from the word "Motive". "Motivation" means to provide someone with a motive. Motivation includes different aspect of behaviour such as desires, needs aspiration, control 3tc. Man has 'capacity to work' but no willingness to work and hence motivation is needed. Motivation is an effective instrument for a manager in inspiring the work-force and creating confidence in it. The manager must know that he can buy a man's time, he can buy a man's physical presence at a given place, but he cannot buy his initiative and loyalty. Motivation is an important task of management but it is number one problem of management. Motivation can be positive or negative, extrinsic or intrinsic, financial or non-financial, primary and secondary. Motivation is the 'core of management'. One of the consequences of motivation is 'morale'. Morale is always connected with motivation. The presence of "tension, energy or drive" becomes necessary in motivation. Motivation is influenced by financial incentives like wages, bonus, retirement benefit and non-financial incentives like participation, praise, promotion, delegation of authority, suggestion schemes etc. important Definitions of Motivation (i) "Motivation refers to the way in which urges, drives, desires, aspirations, needs direct control or explain the behaviour of human beings." Mc Forland (ii) "Motivation is a process of stimulating people to action to accomplish desired goals." - W. C. Scott (iii) "Motivation is the act of stimulating someone or oneself to take a desired course of action to get desired results." - M. J. Jucius Performance given by employees is explained as, Performance (P) is a function of an 1. A = Ability 2. K = Knowledge 3. M = Motivation
  19. 19. P = M(A + K) Features or Characteristics of Motivation (a) Motivation is the latest force of behaviour. (b) Motivation is closely related with needs of an individual. (c) Motivation may take place with or without the awareness of the concerned person. (d) Motives may be of two types, repetitive motives and non-repetitive motives. (e) Motivation is evaluated in terms of its presence or absence or degree only and not in terms of numerical expressions. (f) Motivation, as a force may act positively or negatively on the performance of an individual. Importance of Motivation Motivation is an important function of management. Without it the organization do not exist. "Motivated employees are the real asset for any organization." The following points highlight the importance of motivation (a) High Performance Level Motivation makes people willing to do their work and improves their performance. Thus, motivation results into increased productivity, wastage and scrap will be reduced. Quality of production will be better. (b) Maximum Utilization of Factors of Production Due to motivation, there is maximum utilization of factors of production. Workers will improve their efficiency by increasing their knowledge and skill. (c) Reduced Labour Turnover and Absenteeism A motivated employee stays in the organization more and their absenteeism is low. Workers do not leave the job frequently and this saves the expenditure loss caused to the organization. With reduced labour turnover, it becomes possible for (he organization to plan it's activities on long term basis. (d) Worker's Co-operation If workers are motivated, they give good cooperation and take interest in their job and their efficiency increased and hence higher output. (e) Good Industrial Relations Motivation creates good relations between the workers and management and between workers themselves. As a result, complaints and grievances will come down and conflicts will be reduced. This
  20. 20. results in smooth working of the organization. Q.2 Explain the Nature of Motivation. Ans. Refer to Q. No. 1 for Definition and Meaning of Motivation. Nature of Motivation Nature of motivation can be understood from the following facts (a) Motivation is an Unending Process Man being a social animal has innumerable wants to satisfy which induce him to work. All wants cannot be satisfied at one time. One want is satisfied and the other may emerge. Satisfaction of wants is an unending process. So, men on the job require motivation all the time though their motives or wants may be different. (b) Motivation is a Psychological Concept Motivation is a psychological concept that comes from inside the individual. The inner feeling balances the perception of an individual and satisfaction of his needs that influences the direction, volume, behaviour and limitations of efforts of an individual. So, motivation is an inducement of under feelings of an individual and it cannot be forced upon him from outside. (c) The Whole Individual is Motivated Each individual is an integrated organized whole and a part of him cannot be motivated because, motivation is a psychological concept that is concerned with the whole individual. A man's basic needs determine to a great extent what he will try to do at any given time and all these needs are interrelated and cannot be separated from each other. (d) Frustrated man cannot be Motivated If a man fails in satisfying any of his basic needs in spite of his best efforts, he becomes frustrated and to some extent mentally ill. Such frustrated man cannot be further motivated until his basic need is fulfilled. (e) Goals are Motivators Goals and motives are inseparable. Man works to achieve the goals. As soon as the goal is achieved he will be no longer interested in work. Goal means satisfaction of needs. It is, therefore, very essential for the management to know the goals or motives or needs of each individual so that they can be pushed to work by directing them towards achievement of their goals. (f) The Self- Concept as a Unifying Force Unifying forces run through each individual's history. Unifying force means the drive to actualise his own image. The outline of a person's self -image is fairly well -realized in his early childhood and in his later age he acts accordingly. For example, a child who think himself as a leader, will if possible, try to behave that way in later life. Thus two things that an individual is always trying to do are
  21. 21. (i) to act like a person, he thinks he is, and (ii) to get what he thinks he can. Thus, self-concept is an important motivating force. Q.3 What are the Different Techniques of Motivation? Ans.: Techniques of Motivation (a) Provision of "Intra-mural Facility Technique' In order to motivate all the workers in the organization to show their best, number of intramural facilities are offered to workers in modern business organization. These facilities are made available to the workers at the time of work. Besides the minimum working conditions as made compulsory by provision of Factory's Act 1948, the number of extra facilities like introduction of music at work places, centralized air conditioned organization, entertainment arranged at the rest pauses, library facilities, canteen facilities, recreational facilities are some of the examples of some intramural facilities offered to the workmen. (b) Monetary Techniques Monetary techniques based on popular belief that man works for money. Therefore, an attraction of getting more money will prove to be the most powerful motivator. Examples of monetary techniques Wages, bonus, payment of extra money through various schemes, retirement benefits etc. (c) Job-based Techniques The basis of job techniques is human and psychological belief. Examples of Job-based Techniques job enlargement, Job enrichment, sense of organization, responsibility achievement etc. (d) MBO Techniques The technique has been developed by Peter Drucker, which emphasizes on Self-Control and Self-Motivation. MBO technique is a participatory technique of motivation whereby managers and their subordinates jointly participate in achieving the common goals of the enterprise. (e) Supervisory Techniques Supervisory techniques have also a great role in motivation of employees. The important styles are autocratic, democratic and free rein style of leadership and they have their own implications for employee motivation, morale and productivity. The management should adopt different supervisory style in different situations for different workers/employees. Q.4 Define Motivation and discuss various types of Motives. OR Explain different types of Motives. OR How motives can be classified? Give examples of different types of Motives. OR Define Motivation. What are the various Motives of work?
  22. 22. Ans. Motivation Refer to Q. No. 1 of this chapter. There are two types of motives, viz. (i) Primary Motives and (ii) Secondary Motives. (i) Primary Motives These motives arise from basic requirements of life and are important for survival of human being. These motives are virtually universal among people, but they vary in intensity from person to person. These motives are physiologically based. Examples Hunger, Thirst , Sleep, Shelter, Sex Avoidance of Pain etc. (ii) Secondary Motives These motives are more vague, because they represent the needs of the mind and spirit rather than of the physical body. These motives arises after the primary motives are satisfied. These motives affects the motivational efforts of the managers. Examples Power, Achievement, Affiliation, Status, Security. Let us discuss the important secondary motives, (a) Power Motive When feeling of inferiority is combined with an innate need for superiority, then the person's life style is featurise by striving for power. Power motive has significant implications for organizational leadership and for the informal, political aspects of organizations. (b) The Achievement Motive Achievement motive, can be expressed as a desire to perform in terms of a standard of excellence or to be successful in competitive situations. (c) The Affiliation Motive This motive relate to people on a social basis. Persons with affiliation motives work better when they are complimented for their favourable attitudes and co-operation. This motive is an important part of group dynamics. (d) The Security Motive Security motive is based on fear and it is avoidence oriented. Job security has a great effect on organizational behaviour. Humans have a learned security motive to protect themselves. (e) The Status Motive Status can be defined as a relative ranking that a person holds in a group. Status evolves from the capacity of people for rewarding those with whom they interact. (iii) General Motives General Motives lay between primary and secondary motives. These motives are more relavant to organizational behaviour than the primary motives. (a) The Competence Motive Competence motivated people expect high quality work from their associates.
  23. 23. (b) The curiosity, manipulation and active motives. (c) The affection motive. Q.5 Explain Maslow's Theory of Need Hierarchy. Ans. Motivation Refer to Q. No. 1 of this chapter. Abraham Maslow's Need Hierarchy Theory A . H. Maslow developed "Need theory" of motivation on the concept of "hierarchy of needs". These needs are (a) Basic Needs These are hunger, thirst, shelter, sex and other body needs. (b) Safety and Security Needs When basic needs of an individual are fulfilled, these needs start. These needs include security and protection from physical and emotional harm. (c) Social Needs These needs refer to love and affection, belongingness, acceptance, friendship. These are related to get high position and status in the society. (d) Ego or Esteem Needs These included needs of self-confidence, knowledge, recognition, prestige, self respect, etc. (e) Self-Actualization Needs These needs include growth, self-employment and self-development, self-fulfillment, continuous development of individual skills and powers. Needs % Satisfaction in Business Units Basic 80% Safety 70% Social 50% Ego/Esteem 40% Self Actualization 10% Evaluation of the Theory This theory was not much concerned with motivational studies for a long time. In modem times however, the management studies in motivation specifically are greatly influenced by this theory. His treatment to the human needs arranged in a hierarchical order is well accepted. Man is continuously a wanting animal. When one need is satisfied then the new appears, every man wants to satisfy his continuously growing needs. According to Maslow, the first three needs are lower level needs and remaining two are higher level needs. When all the needs are satisfied, man loses motivation to work.
  24. 24. Demerits of Maslow's Theory (i) It is a general expression not specific. (ii) Levels in the Organization are not properly fixed. (iii) This approach overlooks interaction of needs. Q.6 Explain F. Herzberg's Theory of Motivation. OR Critically examine Fredrick Herzberg's Two Factor Theory. OR Explain Motivation and state how Herzberg's two factors theory can be used for work motivation. Ans. Motivation Refer to Q. No. 1 of this chapter. F. Herzberg's Theory of Motivation F. Herzberg developed a two factor's theory of motivation. He says that man has two sets of needs. One is Lower level set. It denotes hygiene, maintenance or environmental factors which do not motivate satisfaction, but their absence causes dissatisfaction. The other high level needs are termed as motivators because they are the real cause of job satisfaction and they lead to better performance. The work factors, which lead to job satisfaction and motivation (the so-called motivators) are different from those (so-called hygiene, maintenance) which lead to job dissatisfaction. Two kinds of needs of people at work Hygiene or maintenance factors Environmental needs Needs instinsic to work itself Motivation factors (Real Motivators) 1. Policies and administration. 1. Achievement of challenging task. 2. Supervision. 2. Recognition for accomplishment. 3. Working conditions. 3. Challenging work. 4. Interpersonal Relations - Boss, 4. peers, subordinates. Increased responsibility. 5. Money wages, salaries. 5. Opportunity for growth development (inner/outer). 6. Status and security. 6. Enriched challenging job (positive feelings towards the job). Comments and
  25. 25. (a) Herzberg calls factors leading to dissatisfaction as 'Hygiene' or maintenance factors. If absent, these make employees feel exceptionally bad. Note that they are extrinsic, i.e they come from outside the person. When they are adequate, they merely prevent dissatisfaction. These factors correspond to Maslow's lower level needs. (b) Factors leading to satisfaction are termed as motivators. They are causes of job satisfaction, if present these make employee feel exceptionally good. Note that these factors are intrinsic, i.e. they come from inside the person. They lead to motivation when you build them into the way you manage. (c) Theory 'X' assumptions of human beings lead to Herzberg's hygiene factors or dissatisfiers mentioned above. (d) Theory V assumptions of human beings lead to Herzberg's hygiene satisfiers or motivators. (e) Herzberg's approach to two types of motivation is applicable to affluent or richer countries. (f) According to two factors theory of motivation developed by Herzberg money is hygienic factor and not a motivator, (g) Improving work environment, raising wages and salaries, offering social security, maintaining good human relations etc. cannot achieve the greater output, efficiency and productivity under Herzberg's approach to motivation. One may have the result in the form of peace, less conflict, but no satisfaction of motivation. In Herzberg's words, satisfaction is equal to motivation. No satisfaction means no motivation, un-hygienic environment creates dissatisfaction. Hygienic environment, fall in wages means no dissatisfaction. Q.7 Explain how Motivation affects on Morale. OR Write a note on Morale Building and Motivation. OR Give relationship between Morale and Productivity. Ans. Morale Building and Motivation The dictionary meaning of morale is "condition with respect to discipline and confidence". It is closely connected with willingness to work. It is related to state of "mental health" which is related to loyalty, egoism, enthusiasm etc. It is an identification of group interest and that of the interest of the enterprise, fellow workers and requirements of the job. It is the subjective feeling of the employee. If group shows an attitude of satisfaction, it's morale will be high. Motivation, however, should oe distinguished from morale, though these concepts are related to both individuals and groups. Morale denotes attitudes, judgements of individual or groups. On the other hand, motivation indicates
  26. 26. "propensity for particular and behaviour patterns reducing or satisfying certain needs including tension". In words of Ralph M. Stogdill, "Motivation is a function of drive and confirmed desirability estimates regarding various alternatives satisfaction, whereas morale is freedom of restraint in action towards a goal". Thus, an individual or a group, may be highly motivated but unable to act. With freedom to act, the degree of morale may be highly related to strength of motivation. Morale may be in a sense be thus regarded as motivation demonstrated in over-action towards goal. Motivation then provides potential for morale". Morale is resultant state encompassing the willingness to co-operate and expressing the degree of integration existing between conflicting interests. Motivation is an active force directing behaviour by (a) causing individuals to seek one of several available goals and (b) causing individuals to seek several goals not present at the moment. However, it should be remembered that problems of motivating employees and that of maintaining high morale are more or less similar. Either to change morale or motivation, the inner behaviour of individual or group is required to be changed but to know to what extent an employee has been motivated or his (morale has been raised is not to be surveyed but to be observed through ) intervention of executive in the behaviour of such subordinates. In short, motivation is intimately connected with morale. Good motivation leads to high morale. Poor morale is the manifestations, of weak or defective motivating process. Morale is frequently assumed to be associated with higher performance, greater satisfaction and increased production. A high morale always results in high productivity, whereas low morale automatically results in low productivity. However, research has shown that the relation between two is not so direct and positive as that. Morale is only one of the factors of productivity. It is possible to find out high morale related to low productivity and low morale associated with higher productivity. In fact, morale and productivity may be related to each other in the following four possible ways. A High Productivity C High Productivity High Morale Low Productivity Low Morale D Low Productivity B High Morale Low Morale High Productivity goes with the high morale, when the workers are motivated and supervision is of right type (i.e. the supervisors treat the men with consideration). In fact, high morale may push up the productivity.
  27. 27. This is an ideal state and makes the best possible use of human potentialities. In practice, this state may not be very common. Since morale is a state of human behaviour to sustain such a state of affairs. An exactly reverse situation could be that of low morale and low productivity. High Morale and low productivity will go together when the men are different in training and supervisors are not. Management uses penalties and punishment and provides better equipment to the workmen. But it must be remembered that high productivity with low morale cannot be sustained for long since the will to work is of great importance that shows the worker's attitudes towards the job, the supervisors and organization and it's policies is an important factor in productivity and management must try to ensure favourable attitudes on the part of men while taking other steps for raising productivity, morale may not be the only factor in raising the productivity but it does represent the single most important variable. High productivity cannot be suited for long without high morale. It should be remembered that, research had not yet proved either that there exists no positive relationship whatsoever between morale and productivity or that the management can afford to overlook the. problem of employee morale without producing any adverse consequence. Q.8 Explain McGregor's Theory of Work Motivation. Ans. The management's action of motivating human beings in the organization, according to Douglas McGregor, involves certain assumptions, generalisation and hypotheses relating to human behaviour and human nature. These assumptions may be neither consciously crystallised, nor overtly stated; however, these serve the purpose of predicting human behaviour. The basic assumptions about human behaviour may differ considerably because of the complexity of factors influencing this behaviour. McGregor has characterized these assumptions in two observed points, Theory X and Theory Y. Theory X This is the traditional theory of human behaviour. In this theory, Douglas McGregor has certain assumptions about human behaviour. In his own words, these assumptions are as follows (a) Management is responsible for organizing the elements of productive enterprises -money, material, equipment, people - in the interest of economic ends. (b) With respect of people, this is a process of directing their efforts, motivating them, controlling their actions, modifying their behvaiour to fit the needs of the organization.
  28. 28. (c) Without this active intervention by management, people would be passive - even resistant - to organizational needs. They must be persuaded, rewarded, punished, controlled and their activities must be directed. This is management's task. We often sum it up by saying that management consist of getting things done through other people. (d) The average human being has an inherent dislike of work and will avoid it, if he can. (e) The average human being is lazy and avoids responsibility. (f) The average human being is indifferent to organizational goals. (g) The average human being prefers to be directed. Wishes to avoid responsibility, has relatively little ambition and wants security above all. Of these assumptions, last four deal with the human nature and first three with managerial actions. These assumptions about human nature are negative in their approach. However, much organizational processes have developed on these assumptions. The managers subscribing these views about human nature attempt to structure, control and closely supervise their employees. The managers feel that control is most appropriate for dealing with irresponsible and immature employees. McGreogr believes that these assumptions about human nature have not changed drastically though there is a considerable change in behavioural pattern, he urges that this change is not because of changes in human nature, but because of nature of individual organization, management, philosophy, policy and practice. Theory Y The assumptions of Theory Y are described by Douglas McGregor in the following words (a) The average human being does not inherently dislike work. Depending upon controllable conditions, work may be a source of satisfaction or a source of punishment. (b) The average human being will exercise self-direction and self-control in the service of objectives to which he is committed. (c) Commitment to objective is a function of the reward associated with their achievement. The most significance of such award, e.g., the satisfaction of ego and self-actualization needs, can be direct product of effort directed towards organizational objectives. (d) The average human being learns under proper conditions not only to accept, but to seek responsibility. Avoidance of responsibility, lack of ambition and emphasis on security are generally consequences of inherent human characteristics.
  29. 29. (e) The capacity to exercise a relatively high degree of imagination ingenuity and creativity in the solution of organizational problems is widely distributed in the population. (f) Under the conditions of modern industrial life, the intellectual potentialities of the average human beings are only partially utilised. Theory Y assumes that goals of the organization and those of the individuals are not necessarily incongruent. The basic problem in most of the organizations is that of securing commitment of workers to organizational goals. Worker's commitment is directly related to the satisfaction of their needs. Thus, this theory places emphasis on satisfaction of the needs of the workers. It does not rely heavily on the use of authority as an instrument of command and control. It assumes that workers exercise, self-direction and self-control in the realization of the goals to which they feel themselves committed. Because of these reasons, "Theory Y" is realistic and frequently used at different levels in most of the organizations. In support of the assumptions embodied in 'Theory Y', McGregor cited a few practices wherein the subordinates are given a freedom to direct their activities, to assume responsibility and importantly, to satisfy their egoistic needs. These practices include decentralization and delegation of authority, job enlargement, participation and consultative management and management by objectives. Q.9 Explain Porter and Lawler's Motivation Model. Ans. Porter and Lawler start with the premise that motivation (effort or force) does not equal satisfaction or performance. Motivation, satisfaction and performance are all separate variables and relate in ways different from what was traditionally assumed. It is important, however, that Porter and Lawler point out that effort (force or motivation) does not lead directly to performance. It is mediated by abilities and traits and by role perceptions. More important in the Porter-Lawler model is what happens after the performance. The rewards that follow and how that are perceived will determine satisfaction. In other words, the Porter-Lawler model suggests and this is a significant turn of events from traditional thinking - that performance leads to satisfaction. The model has/had a fair degree of research support over the years. For example, a recent field study found that effort level and direction of effort are important in explaining individual performance in an organization. Also, a comprehensive review of research verifies the importance of rewards in the relationship between performance and satisfaction. Specifically, it was concluded that performance and satisfaction will be more strongly related when rewards are made contingent upon performance than when they are not. Implications for Practice Although the Porter-Lawler model is more applications
  30. 30. -oriented than the Vroom model, it is still quite complex and has proved to be a difficult way to bridge the gap to actual management practice. To Porter and Lawler's credit, they have been very conscientious of putting their theory and research into practice. They recommend that practicing managers go beyond traditional attitude measurement and attempt to measure variables such as the values of possible rewards, the perceptions of effort-reward probabilities, and role perceptions. These variables, of course, can help managers better understand what goes into employee effort and performance. Giving attention to the consequences of performance, Porter and Lawler also recommend that organizations critically re-evaluate their current reward policies. They stress that management should make a concentrated effort to measure how closely levels of satisfaction are related to levels of performance, and recently a practitioner-oriented article emphasized that the accurate of role perceptions may be the missing link in improving employee performance. The interference here is that employees need to better focus their efforts on high-impact behaviours and activities that result in higher performance. However, both recent studies and comprehensive analyzes continue to point out the complex impact that the cognitive process has in relation to rewards and other outcomes in organizations. Q.10 Write short notes on (A) Indicators of Morale. Ans. There are no hard and fast rules about the morale indicators. Morale can be checked by considering the basic morale indicators. These indicators are as follows (i) Labour turnover. (H) Productivity, (iii) Waste and scrap, (iv) Absenteeism and tradiness. (v) Quality records, (vi) Grievances, (vii) Exist Interviews, (viii) Medical records. Direct Indicators of Morale Labour turnover, Absenteeism and tradiness, accident reports, productivity, quality records waste and scrap. Indirect Indicators of Morale Counselling reports, medical records, training records, grievances, suggestions, exit interviews. Low morale is expected to result in high turnover, but in several studies very low corelation has been observed between these two variables. Absenteeism is expected to be negatively corelated with morale. All the indicators are flashing red lights, demanding a stop and look reaction.
  31. 31. 10 GROUP DYNAMICS AND TEAM BUILDING Q.1 Define Group and Group Dynamics. Discuss the Importance of Group Dynamics. Ans. 'Group' It is a collection of two or more individuals who are interdependent and interact with one another to achieve a common goal. Group Dynamics The term 'group dynamics' refers to the complex forces that determine group formation, its size and structure, conflict, change and cohesiveness, interaction and behaviour. The word 'dynamics' has been derived from the Greek word meaning 'force'. "Hence, group dynamic refers to the study of forces operating within a group", defines Keith Davis. He further states that, "The social process by which people interact face to face in small group is called group dynamics". In the organizational behaviour, group dynamics is primarily concerned with, according to Fred Luthans, "The interaction of forces between group members in social situations". However, it was Kurt Lenin who coined the concept and shaped it into a discipline in the late thirties. Lewin's conception of group dynamics centred around the internal character and composition of groups (small groups), their structures and process, their impact on the individual members, inter-group interaction and organization. In short, group dynamics may be stated as the behaviour of individuals as members of a group in an organizational setting. Thus, in the light of the above definitions, the concept of group dynamic may be discussed under the following heads (i) Why are groups formed? ( The dynamics of group formation). (ii) What are the various types of groups? (iii) How the group system is viewed? (iv) What is the relation between individual and group? (v) How the groups are developed and structured? (vi) Group cohesiveness (collaboration) and conflicts, and so on. Research on group dynamics over the years has produced set of techniques like role playing, brain storming, group therapy, sensitivity, training etc. which are useful in activating the tremendous potential of individual in groups. Groups have their own properties, quite different from that of individuals who make up the group. Individual behaviour of the members of the group need
  32. 32. not necessarily represent the behaviour of the whole group or vice versa. Simply two members do not represent a group, the force of relationship is a must to make them a group. There are so many problems of human behaviour which have disturbed the man from the very beginning. There are certain questions which are asked about the human relations and the group; behaviour that are very difficult to answer. Some of the questions are (i) How should we consider relationship between individuals and the group? (ii) Are there needs of the group, the individual needs, and if so then what are the properties of the group? (iii) Are they formed or deformed? (iv) Are all the properties found in individuals? (v) Are groups good or bad? How do individuals behave with the group? Researches have been done to answer these related questions of human and group behaviour In this age of behavioural science, we think we should be rational and unbiased in the study of the human behaviour, but can we? No, it is not absolutely possible because, still there are certain prerequisites about the realities or unrealities, qualities and evils of groups that guide us. Generally, these preconceptions are integral parts of an individual's personal philosophy. Such preconceptions may be positive or negative. Negative Aspects First, we shall consider the negative view point. The people having negative viewpoint are of the view that (i) Groups do not exist and these are the product of distorted thought processes generally known as abstractions (ii) Groups are not good. They expect that their members must be loyal to the groups without using their head and brain. Positive Aspects There is another view, i.e., positive view. Followers of positive view say that (i) Groups do exist. Acceptance or non-acceptance of an individual by a group counts much to that individual and it proves the existence and importance of groups. (ii) Groups are not bad, they are good. They satisfy the higher order needs of an individual such as affection, recognition and self-esteem. They stimulate altruism and self-sacrifice. Groups provide the means to get such things
  33. 33. through mutual interaction that a person can never attain them individually. Synoptic View The characteristics of the positive attitude may be called the characteristics of so-called group dynamics movement The intention of the promoters of group dynamics is that the work should be done in group Individual responsibility and man to man supervision are bad. Individual problem solving and individual theory are bad. Committee meetings, qroup decisions, collective problem solving and group therapy are the index of the group prosperity. Though group dynamics studies the relationship of individuals, yet we ''orge; that evef*' individual in the group is different in attitude ana behaviour. The manage inisatiol must not forget that each member of a positive group does not have similarity in views in i particular situation and they are quite different in views and have their own self-respect Q.2 What are the Reasons/Causes of Group Formation? OR Explain the Reasons for Joining the Group. Ans. Reasons or Causes of Group Formation The dynamics of group formation, 'peoples propensity' to form and join group may be understood by the following three approaches (i) Psycho-analytical The instint of group formation is inherited from the primal family which suggest the 'psycho-analytical' approach. (ii) Cognitive People join the group because they have the expectation that membership will benefit them, which relates to the cognitive approach. (iii) Operant There is a general conviction among people that by joining group they will experience the positive reinforcement from social and group behaviour. This relates to the operant approach. The approach may be different, but the basic reasons for joining the groups are as follows (a) Group affiliation People join group because, it provides them an opportunity to have regular company with those, with whom they share something in common. (b) Security People feel that an individual, isolated and unorganized is likely to be exposed to different types of hazards in relation to his position as a member of organization. So, by joining a group, he acquires a sense of security.
  34. 34. (c) Esteem By associating himself with a group of high status the esteem of an individual increases. (d) Power United we gain and divided we fall. Collectively members enjoy greater power than individually. (e) Identity Group provides information about oneself and also others. Thus, a person gets identity being with a group. (f) Rewards In a group, a person may get several forms of rewards such as fnendsnip, status, recognition and even financial benefits. (g) Accomplishment People in group get an opportunity to share their knowledge, pool their talents, tools, contact etc. Q.3 Explain the Various Theories of Group Formation. Ans. Theories of Group Formation Group may be formed through accidental or fortuitous means beyond the immediate control of their members or they may be formed voluntarily, as a result of mutual attraction. (a) Propinquity Theory According to this theory, individuals affiliate with one another because of spatial or geographical proximity. For example in an organization, employees who work in the same area of the plant or office would more probably form into groups than those who are not physically located together. This theory can explain group formation in better way but it cannot explain complexities of group formation. (b) Homan's Theory of Group Formation This theory states that persons in a group interact with one another, not in just the physical propinquity sense, but also to solve problems, attain goals, facilitates co-ordination, reduce tension and achieve balance. This theory is based on Interactions, Activities and Sentiments (I - A - S). These three elements are directly related to one another. The more activities persons share, the more will be their interactions and the stronger will be their sentiments. The major element of this theory is interaction. Thus, with the help of this theory we can understand group formation and process in a better way. (c) Balance Theory This theory was proposed by Newcomb. According to this theory, persons are attracted to one another on the basis of similar attitudes toward commonly relevant objects and goals. This theory includes both propinquity and interaction factors. Common Attitudes and Values Religion Politics Life style Marriage Work Authority Fig. 10.1 Balance Theory of Group Formation
  35. 35. This figures, shows that individual X will interact and form a relationship with individual Y, because of common attitudes and values (Z) once this relationship is formed the participants strive to maintain a symmetrical balance between the attraction and the common attitudes. If an imbalance occurs an attempt is made to restore the balance. If the balance cannot be restored, the relationship is dissolved. Q.4 What are the Various Types of Groups? Explain them briefly. OR Discuss the Various Categories of Group. Ans. Various types of groups are as under: (a) Large and small groups Organization of any class is a large group. But within any organization, there are several groups which are small groups. (b) Primary and secondary groups All primary groups are small but the converse is not true. The primary group has feelings of loyalty and a common sense of values among its members. Primary groups like the family, the poor group, the work-group, etc. are fundamental in moulding, the social nature, behaviour and values of the individual. Thus, the primary group is regarded as the basic building block of organizations and of society. Secondary group is a larger entity and is made up of several primary groups. Being big in size, large in membership, it is somewhat impersonal, remote and does not facilitate face-to-face interaction. It is formed to achieve larger objectives and goals. (c) Membership and reference groups Membership groups are formed informally and formally through membership cards or certificates. The Institute of Income Tax Consultants is a membership group and is a secondary group. Reference group is one to which, individuals would like to belong or to identify themselves The reference group's values and opinions are important to the individual. The reference group serves a normative function to the individual, it also serves as a source of individual's norms and attitudes. (d) In-groups and out-groups The 'in-group' represents a cluster of individuals who hold the prevailing or powerful values in high esteem. Thus, 'in-group' represents 'power circle'. The 'out-group' is one which does not have much influence on social thinking or powerful values. (e) Command and task groups The command group is formed by the manager and his immediate subordinates. The roles of relationship among the members of command groups are formally determined by the organization. The task group is formed by members who work together to complete specific
  36. 36. tasks. Its function and structure are also formally determined. Committee is an example to the task group. (f) Open and closed group This type of group has four important variables. (i) Changing group membership An open group is constantly adding and losing members where as the membership is stable in closed groups. (ii) Frame reference In an open group, the frame of reference expands with the addition of new members with new ideas and thereby the activity also expands but it is stable in closed group. (iii) Time perspective Due to constant changes in an open group the perspective is limited to only near future where as in closed group, because of its stability, it has longer time perspective. (iv) Equilibriums It may be stated as a state of balance or stability. (g) Formal and informal groups That which is deliberately created to perform a specific task is a formal group where as a group, that which arises out of interactions, attractions and needs of individuals is an informal group Q 5 What is Formal Group in an organization? State its various types/forms. Ans. Formal Groups Formal groups are created by management to accomplish organizational goals. They are shown in the organizational chart. Groups are empowered with the authority by the organization Authority is always delegated to the position and not to the person Therefore, position is important and not the person in the format groups. Authority in formal groups is not acquired but delegated from the top level and it always flows downwards and never upwards The status of a group is determined by its position on the organizational chart or the responsibilities of the job it performs. All communications to formal groups are sent through chain of command. The behaviour of members is regulated through predetermined rules ana regulations. Any violation of rules and regulations attract penalty. Forms or Types of Formal groups The formai groups are classified as under (a) Permanent and Temporary Formal Groups Permanent formal groups are formed by the organization on the permanent basis and more or less exist so long as the organization exists. Board of Directors, departmental units, staff groups, standing committees are some examples of formal groups. Groups formed by the organization, to carry the particular work or to perform the specific task are temporary formal groups. A committee or study groups, appointed to analyze or review the pay structure in the organization are examples of temporary formal groups. These groups come to an end as soon as the tasks assigned to them are over.
  37. 37. (b) Command Groups The authority structure forms and determines the boundaries of divisions, departments and sections within the organization and these departments or sections or divisions are known as command groups. The smallest command group consists of supervisor and his subordinates and the largest one consists of top management and the tota. personnel in the workforce. There are so many other groups in between these two extremes. The chain of command as expressed by authority, responsibility and accountability, allocates the roles of each individual in the command group. It also spells out the member-authority relationship which exists between them. The superior of a particular group is the leader who performs important functions for his group. He sets goals for the group, suggests ways and means to get them and settles jurisdictional issues which arise between subordinates. The superior is an effective instrument for downward communication and an initiation for upward communication. (c) Functional Groups Functional groups are those groups whose primary task is to carry on the operations. In many cases, the functional groups may be congruent with the authority groups. Thus, a single department in the organization would probably be both command group and functional group. The department is a command group within the authority structure but the staff working in that department engaged in a particular activity and directed and coordinated by the same superior may form a functional group such as typists, clerks, salesman etc. Thus, a command group may have several functional groups The functional groups can be again classified into team, task and technological groups The distinction between these groups involves the method, role allocation and role fulfilment. a. Team Group Team group nas no specified, fixed role to play for its individual The general role of the group is set and the members of the group are allocated the role according to the needs of the goal. Thus, roles of members in a team group are interchangeable without any clash. (ii) (ii) Task Group Task group specifies a fixed job for each of its members and lays down the job description. Thus, roles of the members are not interchangeable and if superior does so, it is not without much personal resistance and friction between superior and the member. (iii) Technological Group Technological group is something different. Here, the roles are assigned by the management. The position of the job is fixed and the methods are laid down and the speed of work is fixed by some device Thus, members of the group have no choice over the method and the speed of the work (iv) Status Group Status groups involve the members of the same status in an
  38. 38. organization. It includes a number of different ranking of positions which are frequently inconsistent with each other. It makes distinction of a functional basis between manager and workers, on an authoritarian basis between superiors and subordinates, and on a payment basis between salary and wage earners. In some cases, status distinction is made on the basis of facilities or amenities to be enjoyed by the members. More often, the status distinction is made on wage and salary structure that leads to all sorts of status reactions amongst work-groups Q.6 What is Informal Group in an Organization? State its Various Types/ Forms. Ans. Informal Groups Men can be engaged to work as a whole and not in parts There are number of needs which cannot be satisfied through formal groups. So. they form other groups by interacting with each other to satisfy some of their unsatisfied needs. Because of the social and psychological forces operating at the work place, members create such a group for their own satisfaction and the working of the groups are not regulated by that general framework of organizational rules and regulation. The groups are called 'informal groups'. They are generally small and serve different interests of their members. An informal group arises voluntarily It is a natural grouping of people in work situation to get a total picture of any organization, informal group is inevitable along with formal one Thus, it is called informal organization. Each informal group has its own informal leader who is elected among the members of the group not on the basis of authority he possesses m the formal group but on the basis of age, seniority, technical knowledge, respect etc So, authority is to be earned from members of the group. Authority in the informal group is given to the person and not to the position As soon as the members lose their confidence in him, he will no more be the leader of the group. Communication in informal groups passes through informal channel, mostly verbal or by gestures Behaviour of members are regulated by norms, values and beliefs of the group. Violater of norms are punished through nonfinancial modes such as social boycott, loss of prestige and status within the group. Informal groups, unlike formal ones, cannot be abolished. Any attempt to destroy them may cause several others to emerge. Informal groups may exist within or outside the organization. Forms or Types of informal Groups Mayo and Lambard have classified informal group, on the basis of the functions of the group in determining standards of conduct and internal structures onto three categories, natural, family and organized. Thus, informal groups may be grouped as under (i) Friendship Group This kind of group involves close personalities as friends or relatives who are well-known to each other before hand. Mostly these groups are found in pairs and are useful in spreading influence and
  39. 39. information. (ii) Cliques: These groups consist of cliques and associates who normally observe certain norms and standards. They are closely intimated to each other. The number of members tends to be smaller The object of this type of group is to provide recognition to each other and exchange information of mutual interest. Dalton has noted three types of cliques (a) Vertical Clique Such cliques consists of people working in the same department irrespective of their rank difference. Such groups develop because of earlier acquaintance of people or the dependence of superior upon his subordinates for some formal purposes. (b) Horizontal Clique This group consists of people of more or less same rank and working more or less in the same area. Such groups are formed cutting across organizational boundaries. Such members find some points of commonness and keeping the objectives in mind, come together. This is the most common form of informal group. (c) Random or Mixed Clique This group is a mix of vertical and horizontal cliques. People come from different ranks, departments and locations to form such types of cliques, having some common objective in mind. The member may be residing in the same locality, travelling by the same bus or train or may be member of the same club. (iii) Sub-Cliques The group consists of some member of a clique inside the organization along with some other person outside the clique. The members of the clique in a sub-clique recognise but partially, members included in a subclique but who are not the members of the main clique because of their association with them. (iv) Isolates Actually it is not a group. An individual who is not the member of any group is called isolate. Such isolates do not participate in any social activity organized by the group. They avoid people and people avoid them. (v) Classification by Sayes Another classification of informal groups by Sayes, (Human Relations in Administration) from the stand-point of pressure tactics has divided the informal groups into four: (a) Apathetic Group Not sincere to their demand and numbers do not actively engage in union activity. They always show indifferent attitude towards formal organization. (b) Erratic Group Very sensitive to their demand. Easily inflamed and easily pacified. Thus, they are marked by inconsistent behaviour and centralized autocratic leadership. Engage in union activity without working. Deep rooted grievances exist without any reaction from the group. (c) Strategic Group A well-planned strategy for fighting with the management
  40. 40. for their grievances. Build continuous pressure. They have high degree of internal unity and good production record in the long run. (d) Conservative Group Consists of members having critical or scarce skills. Though they have strong position by virtue of cooperation specific objectives and self assurance, yet they are least engaged in union activity. Q.7 What is Team Work, Team Development, Task Group? State the Objectives of Team Development. Ans. Team Work Majority of employees work in regular small groups where their efforts fit together like the pieces of picture puzzle. Their work is interdependent, they act as a task team and seek to develop a co-operative state called teamwork. When the members of a task team know their objectives contribute responsibility and enthusiastically to the task and support one another, they are exhibiting teamwork. Team Development Apart from group cohesion, in an organization development technique, team building is also an effective method. In team building technique an individual has to (i) Learn thoroughly about himself. (ii) Know and to respect the sentiments of others. (iii) Learn the principle of mutuality and reciprocity in his behaviour with others, and (iv) Learn to subordinate personal objects to group's objects. The above principles of team-building may be acquired in the laboratory and non-laboratory training programme. Sensitivity and group training will help the member to acquire all the four principles necessary to forge a team on solid foundations. For both worker and the manager to learn to accommodate each other's viewpoint on the basis of mutuality and reciprocity principles, can be achieved through Managerial Grid system, developed by R.R. Black and J.S. Mouton. The manager has to learn to increase the level of his concern for people, similarly the worker has to raise their level of concern for production. This adjustment of labour and management to strike at 5-5 on grid scale will strengthen the forces of team-building within the organization. Grid consists of six phases (i) Managerial Grid, i.e. assessing various managerial skills, (ii) Team work development, (iii) Intergroup development,
  41. 41. (iv) Developing ideal strategic corporate model, (v) Implementing ideal strategic model and (vi) Systematic critique. Task Work Improving the task work of the team by (i) goal setting, (ii) decisionmaking and (iii) problem solving will also help in team building. If specific goals are set for achievement by the team, functioning of the team will improve. Every member will know the object of the team which will help him to adjust his own goal with the goal of other members of the team on the one hand and the team as a whole on the other hand. The decisions regarding mechanics of operation in the form of procedures and methods of work should be taken witnout any delay. This will facilitate the task of members of the team to perform their functions within the procedures and policies of the team. All problems relating to the tasks and other related issues should be solved without loss of time. Objectives of Team Development The underlying objective of team development is to increase trust among team members because people together work better. Team building, to be effective, the following points are to be followed (i) Sensing problem. (ii) Examining effects of difference in perception. (iii) Feed back, giving and receiving. (iv) Developing interacting skills based on constructive behaviour. (v) Personal contracting with team members and (vi) Follow-up .action Members of the team may be put to training to adapt themselves as members of the team They will learn to subordinate their own interest to the goals of the team, understand themselves and to respond positively to the emotions and sentiments of other members on reciprocal basis, Intergroup Confrontation To develop team spirit within the whole organization comprising different interest groups, it may be necessary if intergroup confrontations under the guidance of the management consultant are arranged not only to understand better each other's viewpoint but more importantly to devise a programme for organization development. Each group will get an opportunity to express it's viewpoint, problems and grievances against the other and most of unfounded misgivings leading to conflict will be removed on the spot. According to Edgar Huse, events in a team or group have two dimensions; one, the content or the topic of conversation or the agenda and two, the
  42. 42. process, i.e., what is happening in the group; e.g., who is talking to whom, how the member feels about the group and one another, and the kinds of subgroups, coalitions and alliar-es that have formed. Team-building, as already pointed out, is effected by an outsider, the consultant. The consultant will like to know group atmosphere, degree of trust and openness and tasks effectiveness He will also ascertain the extent to which full use of talent has been made . Q.8 Discuss the Importance of 'Team' in Organizations. Ans. Importance / Advantages of Teams in Organizations (i) Effective team-building in an organization offer many advantages such as, increased productivity, improved quality, improved customer service etc. (ii) Effective team-building in an organization provides many advantages for workers and/ or employees in the form of avoidance of wasteful efforts, reduced errors, more output for each unit of input, better quality of work life, reduced stress etc. (iii) Effective team-building in an organization results in reduced scrap, fewer errors, fewer remuneration claims, reduced labour turnover. All this results into effective cost reduction. Members in the team are committed to their team's performance. They do not want to let down their teams. Commitment to performance makes team members cost conscious (iv) Effective teambuilding in an organization can eliminate relunctant layers of bureaucracy and flatten the hierarchy in large organization. Employees will have direct and better access with top management, (v) Effective team-building in an organization enables the team members to innovate and solve problems creatively. Q.9 Explain the Process of Creation of Teams. How Teams are Created? Discuss. Stages of Team Formation. OR OR OR Explain Group Dynamics and discuss Various Stages of Group Formation. Ans- Group Dynamics Refer to Q. No. 1 of this chapter. Process of Team Creation The process of team creation consists of the following steps (a) Planning the Change Before implementing any team to function, considerable analysis and planning should be conducted. It involves a drastic departure from the traditional hierarchy and authority. For this, significant planning preparation and training are necessary. Planning is divided into two broad categories, viz., first decision to have teams and second, implementing the decision to have a (team) structure.
  43. 43. (b) Decision Making The top management appoints someone as a leader for implementing the change effectively. The leader may be the CEO or any prominent person in the organization The leader shall establish a steering committee to help the organization to have team based structure. The steering committee shall consists of plant or division manager, union representatives, H. R. representatives and operational level employee. The Steering Committee shall conduct a feasibility study. (c) Implementing the Decision Before the final decision to have team based structure is implemented and preparatory work must be done. Preparatory work consists of clarifying the objectives, selecting the site for first work teams, preparing the design team, planning of delegation of authority, and drafting of the preliminary plans. After this, implementation process actually starts. Implementation is long and difficult process, lasting even for two to five years. During this period, the teams have to go through the following three phases, viz., (i) Create performance conditions, (ii) Form and build the team and (iii) Provide ongoing assistance Q.10 Write short notes on (A) Dynamics of Group Formation. Ans. Communication, dissent and openness are the characteristics of a matured group. A matured group will attain its goal with greater efficiency within the stipulated period of time Once the group attains the maturity, several structural characteristics of the group come to the surface Important among them are (i) Role, (ii) Morale or Status hierarchy and (iii) Cohesiveness. They are described as under (i) Role A set of expectations about the behaviour of someone occupying a given position in a social unit like a group is his role. In a group, the role may be of a leader or the roles of followers. In addition, there may be roles of an expert, enforcer, trouble-maker or a scapegoat. When a person performs a number of roles, it is known as a role set. For instance, the role set of a father will include the roles for his children wife, parents and his children's teachers (ii) Status The measure of worth, conferred on an individual by some social group is known as the status of a person. It may be granted by an individual. The status, if lower is. of low value and, higher of high value. A few persons or positions have high status. Heads of powerful countries are generally high status even outside their countries. Similarly, certain positions in the organization
  44. 44. have a high status. Sources of Status The sources of status may be three in its nature, Reward Power, Reward-Receiving Power and Personal Investment. Reward Power Any person having the competance of conferring award on the people has the status. Higher the capacity of conferring the award, higher will be the status of the individual. For example, Padma Bhushan by the President of India. Rewards Receiving Power People hold in high esteem even those persons who receive the award. Anyone who receives the award acquires the status. The award is valued by the group, class or society. A person receiving the Nobel Prize is held very high in status in the world. Personal Investment Let us take for example the sacrifices of Mahatma Gandhi for the independence of India. Thus, people capable of taking high risks in life to achieve their goals are often accorded higher status in society. This is their personal investment which is instrumental in getting status from people, group or society. Sometimes, sacrifice and seniority also give status to the people. People who have made sacrifices in the past are held in very high esteem throughout the world. In certain societies like the oriental society, seniority is also the basis of status. An old man is held high and given a higher status in society. (B) Group Cohesiveness. Ans. Group cohesiveness may be characterised by the group situation in which all members work together for a common goal or where everyone is ready to take responsibility for group chores. If group cohesion is high, the interaction between members of the group is high and the amount of agreement in group opinion is high. The greater the group cohesiveness, the greater will be its influence on the behaviour of the members. All members of highly cohesive groups tend to produce at a similar level. In groups with low cohesiveness, a wide variation is usually present. This is so because high group cohesiveness promotes high control over the level of production of the individual members and this reduces variation among those members Group cohesion brings low personal absenteeism and high personal adjustment More cohesive a group is the better the group members seem to be able to withstand pressures emanating from outside (D) Characteristics of Teams. Ans. Following are the characteristics of Teams (i) 'Teams' are deliberately structured formal groups to serve the desired organizational goals