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Martin Carnoy PLenary comment by Elsbeth


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Martin Carnoy PLenary comment by Elsbeth

  1. 1. Why Some Educational Systems are Better than Others: Comparing Botswana and South Africa.<br />Elspeth Mmatladi Khembo<br />11 July 2011<br />Linder Auditorium, Wits School of Education<br />
  2. 2. The StudyFactors affecting learner achievement<br />Historical and policy contexts<br />Processes of education policy change<br />Mathematics Curriculum <br />Supervision (Accountability)<br />Teacher training (HEI) vs. Teacher supply (Colleges of Education)<br />Teacher pay<br />Teacher unions <br />
  3. 3. Role of the Grade 6 Mathematics teacher<br />Coverage of all the topics of the curriculum<br />High academic expectation of learners<br />Improving learner achievement<br />Preparing learners for the Senior Phase<br />
  4. 4. The StudyTeaching (Grade 6 Mathematics)<br />At Grades 4 and 5 level<br />Low level of mathematics pedagogical content knowledge<br />Amount of time teaching mathematics low<br />Focuses on Number, Operations and Relationships<br />Routine mathematics procedures<br />Average of 50 lessons South Africa and an average of 78 lessons in Botswana<br />Slow pace of work within lessons<br />
  5. 5. The StudyGrade 6 learners<br />Botswana learners scored higher in the pretest and made significantly higher gains over the academic year<br />Learners in both countries had better knowledge of the Grade 6 mathematics curriculum<br />Number Patterns<br />Very poor knowledge of Grade 6 mathematics<br />Measurement<br />Data Handling <br />
  6. 6. Grade 6 Content knowledge (CAPS)<br />Measurement<br />Length/Mass/Capacity<br />Time/Temperature<br />Perimeter<br />Area<br />Volume<br />Relationship between<br />Perimeter & Area<br />Surface Area & Volume (Rectangular Prisms)<br />Data Handling<br />Collecting<br />Organising<br />Representing<br />Interpreting <br />Double bar graphs<br />Pie Charts<br />Analysing<br />Reporting<br />Probability <br />
  7. 7. The StudyThe quality of the teachers <br />Knowledge of Mathematics<br />Pedagogic Content Knowledge (PCK)<br />How well the teacher understands common mistakes made by learners and <br />How to correct them<br />Teaching quality<br />Teaching experience<br />Teacher preparation<br />
  8. 8. The StudyOpportunity to learn (OTL)<br />What mathematics the teacher taught<br />Low exposure to the mathematics curriculum<br />How much mathematics taught <br />school notebooks<br />
  9. 9. The study RecommendsEmphasizing otl <br />Increased time on mathematics tasks<br />Content coverage<br />Spread and sequencing of topics<br />Cognitive and curricular pacing within and across grades<br />Carefully designed textbooks/workbooks<br />Purposeful use of the textbooks/workbooks<br />Increasing learner academic competence<br />
  10. 10. Teacher professional development<br />In-service teacher training programme<br />How to ensure take up that results in improved classroom practice<br />ACE programmes vs. Short Courses<br />Who should be trained <br />Support (School Management)<br />Motivation (Incentives)<br />
  11. 11. Development of the Culture of Mathematics: Focused Intervention<br />Differentiated approach <br />Pockets of Excellence (Connoisseurship)<br />Efficiency vs. More Resources<br />Well written textbooks<br />Regular Assessment (Type of items)<br />Error analysis<br />Misconceptions<br />Collaboration (Teachers and Researchers)<br />Communities of practice (confidence/support)<br />AMESA<br />Monitoring & Implementation<br />
  12. 12. Conclusion…<br />King Solomon: If the axe is dull and its edge unsharpened, more strength is needed but skill will bring success. Ecclesiastes 10:10<br />Lack of skill should be sharpened through training and practice<br />Recognising where a problem exists<br />Acquiring or honing the skills to do the job better<br />Going out and doing it<br />Not necessarily throwing money at our problems<br />
  13. 13. Thank you…<br />