1
Introducing…
2
for
3
“To infer as we read is to go
beyond literal interpretation and
to open a world of meaning
deeply connected to our lives...
Elkhart Community Schools 4
Inference
Background
Knowledge
(schema)
Making
Connections
Questioning
Predictions
Imagination...
5
“Questioning and inferring
work in tandem to enhance
understanding of text.”
~ Harvey & Goudvis
Authors of Strategies Th...
6
Students’ language
provides a clue to
their thinking.
7
Readers are able to think
inferentially when they
connect their background of
information, ideas, and
experiences with t...
8
It is important for the reader to
have background knowledge
about a text they are reading if
they are expected to read
i...
9
Word Clues
+ Experience
Inference
10
Dorothy Strickland shares, “For struggling
readers, it is critical that we not only activate
their knowledge of topics ...
11
Predicting is related
to inferring - - -
BUT
what’s the difference?
12
“When you read, you use all your
senses. You see things in your
‘mind’s eye’ and hear the sounds you
connect to that ab...
13
“Proficient readers use images to
draw conclusions, to create distinct
and unique interpretations of the
text, to recal...
14
“Inferring is the process of taking
that which is stated in text and
extrapolating it to one’s life to create
a wholly ...
15
“Proficient readers
make connections
between conclusions
they draw and other
beliefs or knowledge.”
~ Ellin Keene
16
All the processes
work together.
Each works in
concert with
the others to
aid the reader
in comprehending text.
17
18
Step 1 – The teacher explains the strategy
(reading between the lines) using short
scenarios, riddles, or charades that...
19
• Do several think alouds for this
strategy.
• Use picture books for students of all
ages.
• Students are only observer...
Elkhart Community Schools 20
 Use a variety of “lifted text” from different types of
books giving everyone a copy or usin...
Elkhart Community Schools 21
 Guide students’ thinking before reading by using
anticipation guides or prediction guides.
...
Elkhart Community Schools 22
 The teacher gives the students text that is easy
to read on their own.
 Students may pract...
23
Assessing Application of Inference
Keene’s Major Point Interview
Anecdotal Records
Journal Responses
Other Written Resp...
Elkhart Community Schools 24
Fiction and Poetry:
Allows a variety of interpretation
Nonfiction/Content Area Text:
Permits ...
25
•Word meanings
•Meanings of text
•Meanings of larger
themes of texts
26
•Predicting Words In Text
(before reading)
•Vocabulary Strategy:
Connect Two
•Cloze Technique
•Guess the Covered Word
Elkhart Community Schools 27
• Anaphoric Inferences: A pronoun or noun-
phrase that refers to a previous text constituent
...
Elkhart Community Schools 28
• Explanation Based Inferences: The event being read
about is explained by a causal chain or ...
Elkhart Community Schools 29
• Predictive Inferences: The reader forecasts what
events will causally unfold after the curr...
30
Elkhart Community Schools 31
“Art is so much more
interesting if everything
isn’t in the picture.
And so it is with inferr...
32
For more info: http://www.txla.org
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Inference Blue bonnet- language arts.innovate

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Librarian Media Specialist Lisa Carillo from Edinburg CISD
Slides on BlueBonnet and Inferencing

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Inference Blue bonnet- language arts.innovate

  1. 1. 1 Introducing…
  2. 2. 2 for
  3. 3. 3 “To infer as we read is to go beyond literal interpretation and to open a world of meaning deeply connected to our lives.” ~ Ellin Keene Author of Mosaic of Thought
  4. 4. Elkhart Community Schools 4 Inference Background Knowledge (schema) Making Connections Questioning Predictions Imagination/ Visualization Analysis of Text: Interpretation/ Judgment Drawing Conclusions
  5. 5. 5 “Questioning and inferring work in tandem to enhance understanding of text.” ~ Harvey & Goudvis Authors of Strategies That Work
  6. 6. 6 Students’ language provides a clue to their thinking.
  7. 7. 7 Readers are able to think inferentially when they connect their background of information, ideas, and experiences with the text.
  8. 8. 8 It is important for the reader to have background knowledge about a text they are reading if they are expected to read inferentially.
  9. 9. 9 Word Clues + Experience Inference
  10. 10. 10 Dorothy Strickland shares, “For struggling readers, it is critical that we not only activate their knowledge of topics they must read about and study, but also be aware of situations in which they have little or no background knowledge so that we can build essential understandings before they begin reading.”
  11. 11. 11 Predicting is related to inferring - - - BUT what’s the difference?
  12. 12. 12 “When you read, you use all your senses. You see things in your ‘mind’s eye’ and hear the sounds you connect to that about which you are reading.” ~ Guided Reading the Four Blocks Way
  13. 13. 13 “Proficient readers use images to draw conclusions, to create distinct and unique interpretations of the text, to recall details significant to the text, and to recall a text after it has been read.” ~ Ellin Keene
  14. 14. 14 “Inferring is the process of taking that which is stated in text and extrapolating it to one’s life to create a wholly original interpretation that, in turn, becomes part of one’s beliefs or knowledge.” ~ Ellin Keene
  15. 15. 15 “Proficient readers make connections between conclusions they draw and other beliefs or knowledge.” ~ Ellin Keene
  16. 16. 16 All the processes work together. Each works in concert with the others to aid the reader in comprehending text.
  17. 17. 17
  18. 18. 18 Step 1 – The teacher explains the strategy (reading between the lines) using short scenarios, riddles, or charades that require students to add up clues and make a conclusion. Step 2 – The teacher demonstrates how to apply the strategy successfully. Step 3 – The teacher thinks aloud to model the mental processes he/she uses when he/she reads.
  19. 19. 19 • Do several think alouds for this strategy. • Use picture books for students of all ages. • Students are only observers at this stage. • Demonstrate the use of sticky notes to code connections, questions, predictions, conclusions, judgments, etc. • Allow students to discuss what they observed following the think aloud.
  20. 20. Elkhart Community Schools 20  Use a variety of “lifted text” from different types of books giving everyone a copy or using the document camera.  Use whole group to small group model.  Use short text such as magazine and newspaper articles and poetry.  Encourage students to code their inferences with sticky notes or highlighting.  Use concept maps, two-column notes, and margin writing to record thinking.  Engage students in conversation about their inferences with the text with partners or whole group.
  21. 21. Elkhart Community Schools 21  Guide students’ thinking before reading by using anticipation guides or prediction guides.  Show students how to do a chapter tour or preview of nonfiction text to help them make predictions about the chapter.  Point out connections between inference and the other strategies they’ve learned.  Text sets can be used to have students reflect on inferences and compare them with different books within the set.  Use a book that can create an “anchor” experience for the class.
  22. 22. Elkhart Community Schools 22  The teacher gives the students text that is easy to read on their own.  Students may practice their strategy alone, in pairs, or in small groups such as book clubs or literature circles.  Students can discuss and compare their inferences with other students.  The teacher confers with the students and gives them feedback.
  23. 23. 23 Assessing Application of Inference Keene’s Major Point Interview Anecdotal Records Journal Responses Other Written Responses
  24. 24. Elkhart Community Schools 24 Fiction and Poetry: Allows a variety of interpretation Nonfiction/Content Area Text: Permits a narrow range of interpretation Best for drawing conclusions, predictions, questioning, and determining importance
  25. 25. 25 •Word meanings •Meanings of text •Meanings of larger themes of texts
  26. 26. 26 •Predicting Words In Text (before reading) •Vocabulary Strategy: Connect Two •Cloze Technique •Guess the Covered Word
  27. 27. Elkhart Community Schools 27 • Anaphoric Inferences: A pronoun or noun- phrase that refers to a previous text constituent or to an entity already introduced in the mental model. • Bridging Inferences: These are any inferences that a reader needs to systematically or conceptually relate the sentence being read with the previous content. These are sometimes called backward inferences.
  28. 28. Elkhart Community Schools 28 • Explanation Based Inferences: The event being read about is explained by a causal chain or network of previous events. These are sometimes called causal antecedent inferences. • Goal Inferences: The reader infers that an agent has a motive that explains an intentional action. • Elaborative Inferences: These are properties of entities, facts, and other associations that are not explained by causal mechanisms.
  29. 29. Elkhart Community Schools 29 • Predictive Inferences: The reader forecasts what events will causally unfold after the current event that is being read. These are sometimes called causal consequences or forward references. • Process Inferences: These inferences specify the detailed steps, manner, or dynamic characteristics of an event as it unfolds.
  30. 30. 30
  31. 31. Elkhart Community Schools 31 “Art is so much more interesting if everything isn’t in the picture. And so it is with inferring.” From: I Read It But I Don’t Get It ~ Cris Tovani
  32. 32. 32 For more info: http://www.txla.org

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