What is glass


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What is glass

  1. 1. GOOD MORNING Eng.Magdy Abdelsattar 1
  2. 2. Professional Profile Eng. Magdy AbdelSattar Omar,  Location: Cairo-Egypt  Experience:20 years of experience managing business unit and commercial divisions, supported with Solid academic foundation (EMBA).  Educational background: B.SC degree in engineering coupled with Executive MBA, major Marketing strategy’s formulation and implementation  Business Specialties: Sales, Marketing, Business Development, Product /Brand Management, Customer service, and Operations Management.  Business industry: telecommunications, FMCG, & household appliances business in the Egyptian marketProfile: Proven experience and knowledge of telecommunications, household appliances, and FMCG business in the Egyptian market. 15 years of experience as professional Management at multinational environment . Fully awareness and skilled with planning, organizing, controlling, and leading skills. Proven experience in building new business from scratch in the Egyptian market. Reliable awareness of the Gulf area market "customers culture and habits" acquired during his 12 years living in Kuwait, Eng.Magdy Abdelsattar 2
  3. 3. What is glass Agenda What is glass and how is it produced. Main properties of glass. Types of glass and market applications. Glass manufacturing Business tips Eng.Magdy Abdelsattar 3
  4. 4. WHAT IS GLASS ANDHOW IS IT PRODUCED Eng.Magdy Abdelsattar 4
  5. 5. Glass is a hard material normallyfragile and transparent commonin our daily life. It is composedmainly of sand (silicates, SiO2)and an alkali Eng.Magdy Abdelsattar 5
  6. 6. These materials at hightemperature (i.e. molten viscousstate) fuse together; then theyare cooled rapidly forming arigid structure. Eng.Magdy Abdelsattar 6
  7. 7. Glass is used for: architecture application, illumination, electrical transmission, instruments for scientific research, Optical instruments, domestic tools and even textiles. Glass does not deteriorate, corrode, stain or fade and therefore is one of the safest packaging materials. Eng.Magdy Abdelsattar 7
  8. 8. the common ingredients to obtainglass: 1. Sand (SiO2 silica) In its pure form it exists as a polymer, (SiO2)n. 2. Soda ash (sodium carbonate Na2CO3) Normally SiO2 softens up to 2000°C, where it starts to degrade (at 1713°C most of the molecules can already move freely). Adding soda will lower the melting point to 1000°C making it more manageable. 3. Limestone (calcium carbonate or CaCo3) or dolomite (MgCO3) Also known as lime, calcium carbonate is found naturally as limestone, marble, or chalk. The soda makes the glass water-soluble, soft and not very durable. Therefore lime is added increasing the hardness and chemical durability and providing insolubility of the materials. Eng.Magdy Abdelsattar 8
  9. 9. MAIN PROPERTIES OFGLASS Eng.Magdy Abdelsattar 9
  10. 10. the main characteristics of glass Solid and hard material Disordered and amorphous structure Fragile and easily breakable into sharp pieces Transparent to visible light Inert and biologically inactive material. Glass is 100% recyclable and one of the safest packaging materials due to its composition and properties These properties can be modified and changed by adding other compounds or heat treatment. Eng.Magdy Abdelsattar 10
  11. 11. TYPES OF GLASS ANDMARKET APPLICATION Eng.Magdy Abdelsattar 11
  12. 12. Type of glass Chemistry % by Weight of the most common types of glassElement Type of glass Fused Soda-lime Boro-silicate Alumo lead borate silica silica glass silicate glass glass SiO2 100% 60- 75% 70-81% 62% 54-65% Al2O3 1% 2-7% 17% 2% CaO 5-12% 8% MgO 4% 7% Na2O 12-18% 4-8% 1% 13-15% K2O B2O3 7-13% 5% PbO 18-38% Eng.Magdy Abdelsattar 12
  13. 13. Commercial glass or Soda-lime glass This is the most common commercial glass and less expensive. The composition of soda-lime glass is normally 60-75% silica, 12-18% soda, and 5-12% lime. A low percentage of other materials can be added for specific properties such as coloringIt has light transmission appropriate to be use in flat glass inwindows;It has a smooth and nonporous surface that allows glass bottles andpackaging glass to be easily cleaned;Soda-lime glass containers are virtually inert, resistant to chemicalattack from aqueous solutions so they will not contaminate thecontents inside or affect the taste.soda-lime glass does not allow light at a wavelength of lower than400 nm (UV light) to pass. Eng.Magdy Abdelsattar 13
  14. 14. Commercial glass or Soda-lime glassThe disadvantages of soda-lime glass is that is not resistant to high temperatures and sudden thermal changes. soda-lime glass is primarily used for bottles, jars, everyday drinking glasses, and window glass. Eng.Magdy Abdelsattar 14
  15. 15. Lead glass is composed of 54-65% SiO2, 18-38% lead oxide (PbO), 13-15% soda (Na2O) or potash (K2), and various other oxides. When the content of PbO is less than 18% is known as crystal glassIn moderate amounts lead increases durability;In high amounts it lowers the melting point and decreases thehardness giving a soft surface;In addition it has a high refractive index giving high brilliance glass. Glass with high lead oxide contents (i.e. 65%) may be used as radiation shielding glass because lead absorb gamma rays and other forms of harmful radiation, for example, for nuclear industry. Eng.Magdy Abdelsattar 15
  16. 16. Borosilicate glassis mainly composed of silica (70-80%), boric oxide B2O3 (7-13%) and smaller amounts of the alkalis (sodium and potassium oxides) such as 4-8% of Na2O and K2O, and 2-7% aluminum oxide (Al2O3).Boron gives greater resistance to thermal changes and chemical corrosion.It is suitable for industrial chemical process plants, in laboratories, in thepharmaceutical industry, in bulbs for high-powered lamps, etc.Borosilicate glass is also used in the home for cooking plates and other heat-resistant products.It is used for domestic kitchens and chemistry laboratories, it has greater resistance to thermal shock and allows for greater accuracy in laboratory measurements when heating and cooling experiments Eng.Magdy Abdelsattar 16
  17. 17. GLASSMANUFACTURING Eng.Magdy Abdelsattar 17
  18. 18. modern glass container factories are three-part operations batch househandles the raw materials. hot endhandles the manufacture proper — the furnaces, annealing ovens, and forming machines, is where the molten glass is formed into glass products cold endhandles the product-inspection and -packaging equipment. Eng.Magdy Abdelsattar 18
  19. 19. Glass manufacturing process Eng.Magdy Abdelsattar 19
  20. 20. Batch house Whether automated or manual, the batch house measures, assembles, mixes, and delivers the glass raw material recipe (batch) via an array of chutes, conveyors, and scales to the furnace. The batch enters the furnace at the dog house or batch charger. Different glass types, colors, desired quality, raw material purity / availability, and furnace design will affect the batch recipe. Eng.Magdy Abdelsattar 20
  21. 21. Hot end Furnace: The furnaces are natural gas - or fuel oil -fired, and operate at temperatures up to 1,575°C. Typically, furnace "size" is classified by metric tons per day (MTPD) production capability. Types of furnaces used in container glass making include end-port (end-fired), side-port, and oxy- fuel. Eng.Magdy Abdelsattar 21
  22. 22. Hot end Forming processThere are, currently, two primary methods of making a glass container blow and blow method used for narrow neck containers only press and blow method used for jars and increasingly narrow neck containers Eng.Magdy Abdelsattar 22
  23. 23. Hot endForming machinesThe forming machines hold and move the parts that form the container. Generally powered by compressed air, the mechanisms are timed to coordinate the movement of all these parts so that containers are made The most widely used forming machine arrangement is the individual section machine (or IS machine). Eng.Magdy Abdelsattar 23
  24. 24. Hot end Internal treatment After the forming process, some containers, undergo a treatment to improve the chemical resistance of the inside, called internal treatment or dealkalization. usually accomplished through the injection of a sulfur- or fluorine-containing gas mixture into bottles at high temperatures. Eng.Magdy Abdelsattar 24
  25. 25. Hot end Annealing As glass cools it shrinks and solidifies. Uneven cooling causes weak glass due to stress. Even cooling is achieved by annealing. An annealing oven (known in the industry as a Lehr) heats the container to about 580°C then cools it, depending on the glass thickness, over a 20 – 6000 minute period. Eng.Magdy Abdelsattar 25
  26. 26. cold end The role of the cold end is to: Inspect Secondary processing Package Coatings Label Ancillary processes – compressors & cooling Eng.Magdy Abdelsattar 26
  27. 27. BUSINESS TIPS Eng.Magdy Abdelsattar 27
  28. 28. Tips Glass container manufacture in the developing world is a growing market business. Glass container manufacture is also a geographical business; the product is heavy and large in volume, and the major raw materials are generally readily available, therefore production facilities need to be located close to their markets. A typical glass furnace holds hundreds of tones of molten glass, and so it is simply not practical to shut it down every night, or in fact in any period short of a month. Factories therefore run 24 hours a day 7 days a week. This means that there is little opportunity to either increase or decrease production rates by more than a few percent. Eng.Magdy Abdelsattar 28
  29. 29. Tips Furnaces and forming machines cost tens of millions of dollars and require at least 18 months of planning. There are usually more products than machine lines means that products are sold from stock. The marketing/production challenge is therefore to be able to predict demand both in the short 4-12 week term and over the 24- 48 month long term. In mature market business there is usually a factory per 1-2 million people. A typical factory will produce 1-3 million containers a day. Eng.Magdy Abdelsattar 29
  30. 30. EGYPT’S GLASSINDUSTRY Eng.Magdy Abdelsattar 30
  31. 31. Strengths Highest quality sand in the world and also high quality limestone. Virtually all input materials required to produce glass are available domestically. Egypt has a strategic location within three regional markets: Europe; Middle East; and Africa. Strong export performance in glassware product. Eng.Magdy Abdelsattar 31
  32. 32. Weaknesses The lack of a recycling system for glass products, in particular bottles and jars, is creating significant problems for Egypt’s glass manufacturers as they are having to operate their furnaces at lower levels of recycled inputs than is specified by the furnace manufacturers.This results in higher manufacturing costs and lower quality glass products. Alexandria Sodium Carbonate Co. is the only domestic producer of soda ash and is unable to meet domestic demand. Significant quantities of soda ash are being imported. Restrictions on the availability of certain dimensions of domestically produced clear float glass, and all colored float glass is imported. Imports of all types of float glass have been increasing. Lack of a domestic high performance glass sub-sector, with this weakness applying more to building, than auto, glass. Eng.Magdy Abdelsattar 32
  33. 33. Weaknesses High dependence on imports of bulbs and tubes for domestic electric lighting manufacture. Lack of R&D activities that are being applied commercially. Shortage of trained chemical – engineers required to support the development of the industry. Overall weakness in flat glass production and products, resulting in weak exporting performance in this product area. Eng.Magdy Abdelsattar 33
  34. 34. Opportunities New projects to: Increase bottle manufacturing capacity. Add new production capacity for jars and bottles, this could be based on further phases of the new facility indicated above with the potential of having four furnaces, each with a capacity of 27,375 tones. New production capacity for electric lighting glass. Add at least one new float production line. Produce high performance glass. Develop fiber glass manufacturing capability. Eng.Magdy Abdelsattar 34
  35. 35. Opportunities New soda ash production facility, in addition to the extra 35,000 tones capacity that will start operating.The region, as a whole, is a significant net importer of soda ash of about 1 mn tones a year, with the potential for Egypt to become a major player in this product. Egypt’s Glass Industry to emulate the export-led growth of Turkey’s Glass Industry, with Egypt’s industry changing from being a net importer of glass products, to a significant net exporter. Specifically, continue to develop Egypt’s strength in glassware products, and turn the current weakness in flat glass products into a strength. Establish a link between having a leading regional research and development capability in life cycle costing of buildings, under the concept of ―environmental optimization in environmental services‖ , and developing Egypt as regional base for the manufacturing of high performance glass. Eng.Magdy Abdelsattar 35
  36. 36. Threats New float glass manufacturing capacity is added in the region, in addition to the new facility being constructed in UAE, that reduces the likelihood of having a second and possibly third float line located inside Egypt. Regional high performance flat glass capabilities, for building and auto glass, are developed in other countries which takes the opportunity away from Egypt to become a major player in these products. Auto glass produced in Egypt continues not to meet the product quality standards and specifications of auto OEM manufacturers outside Egypt. Eng.Magdy Abdelsattar 36
  37. 37. THANKS Eng.Magdy Abdelsattar 37