Different Types and Forms of Innovation


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Different Types and Forms of Innovation

  1. 1. MOT 612 Innovation Management Spring 2010Different Types and Forms of InnovationBy:Name: Al-Motaz Bellah Alaa ElDin Al-AgamawiID: 102027
  2. 2. MOT 612: Class Three Assignment By:Al-Motaz Bellah Al-Agamawi, ID: 102027RADICAL COMPONENTUSB Flash Drive WHO MADE IT?1 Trek Technology and IBM began selling the first USB flash drives commercially in 2000 WHAT IMPACT ON THE SOCIETY AND INDUSTRY?As computer, information and electronic media are playing a major role in our daily life, theintroduction of the USB Flash technology have a great impact on society. It is easier, faster andmore comfortable to use USB flash storage to collaborate and share files with others.As a result of the advancement which happens in the flash desk technology, especially in thestorage capacity which reaches gaga bits today and USB 2 technology which gives a highertransfer rate, many manufacturers offer the flash storage as an option in their machines ratherthan the normal Hard disk technology. It is expected that in the near future when flash storagecapacity increases and production cost flow down and also when it become more mature, that itwill replace the normal today hard disk storage technology specially because it will solve themechanical speed limitation of the normal hard desk (head seeking time). Also you can feel theusage of the USB technology in many normal electronic machine of today like car cassettes,satellite receivers, TV sets and many other machines, USB outlet is almost found in most oftoday normal electronic machines. WHEN DID THE INNOVATION OCCUR?In 2000 COMMENTS IF ANY?Patent ownership have a conflect on the company who have invented the technology and whichhave the rights in it. Two main claiming companies are Netac Technology, a Shenzen consumerelectronics company which claims to have invented the USB flash drive in the late 1990s.1 Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/USB_flash_drive#HistorySpring 2010 Page |1
  3. 3. MOT 612: Class Three Assignment By:Al-Motaz Bellah Al-Agamawi, ID: 102027RADICAL SYSTEM2 Xerography  Photocopying Machines WHO MADE IT?Inventor was Chester Carlson, having the first prototype of a photocopy machine in 1938.Carlson tried to find finance for a period of 6 years, until believer entrepreneur Wilson fromhaloids decided to fund him with 25,000 USD in 1946. After that they were ready but with noreal production until the department of defense gives them an order of 120,000 USD to develop adry photographic process. In 1961 Xerox the world first photocopying producer had beenestablished.Another important person with a great impact on Xerox, Haloids marketing manager, C. PeterMcColough. McColough, sales and marketing strategy which could be summarized as cost to thecustomer should be a function of the number of copies produced. By this Haloid was able to sellthe machines in an affordable price and reach a large segment of customers. WHAT IMPACT ON THE SOCIETY AND INDUSTRY?Xerography opened a completely new market which was not existing before Carlson invention.Before 40th of the 19th century there was nothing called photocopying machines, aftercooperation between Carlson and Haloid the a new market and industry have started to rise untilreaching an industry size of 20 Billion USD in 1986. Real diffusion have started in mid 60th, in1960 the sales reached 3 million USD, in 1961 almost 60 million and in 1966 about 428 millionUSD.Photocopying machines have a great impact on society including individuals and business, youcan imagine the required effort to have a copy of a document or a page from a book beforehaving this marvelous invention of xerography WHEN DID THE INNOVATION OCCUR?I believe that the innovation occurred on stages:2 Source of Xerography: Customized Management of Technology, T. KhalilSpring 2010 Page |2
  4. 4. MOT 612: Class Three Assignment By:Al-Motaz Bellah Al-Agamawi, ID: 102027 a) Carlson: 1938, first prototype including the world first dry photocopy. b) 1946, Wilson commercialization and approaching the department of defense to have the first sales worries 120,000 USD. c) Their office market introduction for model A and the price relation with consumption and number of printed papers. COMMENTS IF ANY?Xerography is a very clear case study for a radical innovation and a science pull approach.Before it existence no one have imagined the added value and everybody thought that it is aluxury at the beginning. Carlson and Wilson is a typical example for the success which couldhappened when a brilliant inventor meets a believing entrepreneur. Also the leasing idea anddesigning a licensing schema linking the usage with the price is a good lesson for how newinnovation can be introduced to the market through innovative marketing approach to reach thediffusion.Spring 2010 Page |3
  5. 5. MOT 612: Class Three Assignment By:Al-Motaz Bellah Al-Agamawi, ID: 102027INCREMENTALVoice Over IP WHO MADE IT3? 1974 — The Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) published a paper titled "A Protocol for Packet Network Interconnection 1981 — IPv4 is described in RFC 791. 1985 — The National Science Foundation commissions the creation of NSFNET. 1995 — VocalTec releases the first commercial Internet phone software. 1996 — ITU-T begins development of standards for the transmission and signaling of voice communications over Internet Protocol networks with the H.323 standard. US telecommunication companies petition the US Congress to ban Internet phone technology. 1997 — Level 3 began development of its first softswitch, a term they coined in 1998. 1999 — The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) specification RFC 2543 is released. Mark Spencer of Digium develops the first open source Private branch exchange (PBX) software (Asterisk). 2004 — Commercial VOIP service providers proliferate. 2005 — OpenSER (later Kamailio and OpenSIPS) SIP proxy server is forked from the SIP Express Router. 2006 — FreeSWITCH open source software is released.3 Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voice_over_Internet_Protocol#cite_note-0Spring 2010 Page |4
  6. 6. MOT 612: Class Three Assignment By:Al-Motaz Bellah Al-Agamawi, ID: 102027 WHAT IMPACT ON THE SOCIETY AND INDUSTRY?Operation cost is one of the most important factors for the VoIP technology speciallyinternational calls. Also flexibility in operation and integration of different telephony platforms.Finally extra added value services and features which could be included over VoIP technology.On the other side there are some difficulties and challenges as quality of service, unavailabilityof service in case of power failure, difficulty in location identification for emergency calls,privacy issues and security issues, lake of redundancy which means if a point fall the system willfall and separated islanded will created, compatibility with traditional telephone sets, Caller ID,Portability of subscriber number between different service providers, fax handling and manyother challenges must be solved before the complete diffusion of VoIP. WHEN DID THE INNOVATION OCCUR?Invention process and research have been started since the mid of the 19th century but the realinnovation and commercialization starts in 2004 with the first commercial VoIP service availablein the markets.Spring 2010 Page |5
  7. 7. MOT 612: Class Three Assignment By:Al-Motaz Bellah Al-Agamawi, ID: 102027NEXT GENERATION TECHNOLOGY4 A Cordless (Wireless) Future of Electricity WHO MADE IT?5 Professor Marin Soljačić, developed the theoretical basis for this novel method for wirelesselectric power transfer in 2005, and validated their theories experimentally in 2007.Today Eric Giler is the CEO of WiTricity.WiTricity has an exclusive rights to commercial the MIT owned IPR for electric power transfertheory. WHAT IMPACT ON THE SOCIETY AND INDUSTRY?Anybody can imagine the great added value of having a safe, efficient and long distance wirelesscharging technology. Although scientists starts to think about wireless electricity since 1890 butthis the first theory which seems safe, affordable, having enough power transmission andsuitable/practical charging distance.The direct benefit that there will be no more need for batteries which means a better environment(more than 40 billion batteries are produced each year) and also better cost of ownership. Also itis expected that electrical cars will be more accepted by consumer due to the ease of chargingand minimum cost of operation. Many other ideas and incremental innovation is expected justupon reaching the diffusion of this invention and after the market acceptance for the idea. WHEN DID THE INNOVATION OCCUR?The invention occurred in 2005 when the first publication was introduced. We are know in thecommercialization phase of the invention. Innovation will occur when a robust business modelwill be applied to the idea through the more use model of the wireless electricity will be adapted.Although it is expected that the a larger amount of power will increase exponential over timefrom just charging a mobile, reaching enough charge for laptops and even after that to cars.4 Source: http://www.cnn.com/2009/TECH/09/02/wireless.electricity/index.html5 http://www.witricity.com/pages/company.htmlSpring 2010 Page |6
  8. 8. MOT 612: Class Three Assignment By:Al-Motaz Bellah Al-Agamawi, ID: 102027The main challenge will be market and consumers acceptance for the idea. COMMENTS IF ANY?The technology is named “magnetically coupled resonance”. Basically it send magnetic filedthrough air with a special frequency and then the device at other end receive it and turn it againto electricity.Spring 2010 Page |7