From the 3rdC A.C., the Germanic tribes invade the Roman Empire. Barcino is also invaded by them, especially by the Visigoths. During this period Christian ideas arrive. In Barcino there is proof of an early community and an own bishop between 260 and early 4thC A.C. The Christian community At the beginning of the 4thC A.C : veneration to Christian martyrs from the persecution by the emperor Diocleciano (284-305 A.C.) Sant Cugat (in Catalan): Important figure of African origin who had been evangelizing in several areas of the present Catalonia and was murdered near Castrum Octavium (present San Cugat del Vallés). Santa Eulalia : She is the patron saint of Barcelona. According to the Christian tradition, Eulalia was a girl, educated in Christianity, who lived in the outskirts (the present Sarria), at the end of the 3rdC. When she was 13, during the period of persecutions, Eulalia escaped from home and went to see the governor of Barcino, Daciano, to reproach the repression. Faced with Eulalia’s refusal of renouncing to the Christian faith, the governor sentenced her to thirteen torments, as many as years she was. 2.2.2. THE FALL OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE AND THE EARLY CHRISTIAN BARCELONA
Bartolomé Ordoñez. (1519) Cathedral of Barcelona. Sculptural decoration. Relieves of the chorus of the Cathedral of Barcelona. Santa Eulalia at the bonfire and Crucifixion of Santa Eulália.
From the bishop Paciano , in the 4thC, the church of Barcino was one of the most active in Hispania. The first architectural structures linked to buildings of Christian worship appeared in this century, and were remodeled and enlarged in the following centuries making up a wide episcopal set. Sepulchral laude . Both the chronology and the iconography say that this is the tomb of a martyr, traditionally attributed to Saint Paciano. It is a mosaic from the 5thC. Which was discovered in the excavations of Antoni Maura Square.
The Visigothic occupation was peaceful and the people did not abandon the Roman and Early Christian way of life radically since the Visigoths had adopted the Roman customs. In the year 415, the Visigothic king Ataulfo, married to Gala Placidia, settled in the city (the Visigoth court for a time) until the assassination of Ataulfo. In the later centuries, Barcelona lived a long period of political instability. The courts of the Germanic towns were traveling and Barcelona was the capital for a short time. 2.2.3. THE VISIGOTHS ARE HERE !!! In the city, the Visigoths didn’t make up an important group, and only held positions of power such as the garrison or top officials . Civil and militar : Comtes civitatis Religious: Bishop
The Visigothic Barcelona In Visigothic times, Barcelona had the same surface area as in Roman times, but inside the walls there were changes due to Christianity and the construction of a series of worship buildings. The present cathedral of Barcelona was originally basilica for Christian worship . Shaping of the medieval framework of Barcelona: From the 4thC the space between houses is not respected. The center of the city moves from the forum to the area of the cathedral. 5thC: Thry start to dismantle the monuments of the forum and honorary inscriptions and sculptures are reused to make other buildings. There are areas for farming and pasturage inside the walls from the 8th to the 10thC.
Episcopal Palace Besides the spiritual function, the bishops held the government and representation of the church. They needed a suitable residence, like the one built in Barcino during the 5thC. Together with the church and the baptistry, other buildings appeared, like the bishop palace –associated to a private chapel- and a room to welcome distinguished visitors, place of the two councils held in Barcelona in 540 and 599. The episcopal palace has been enlarged in different phases. It is a good example of how different architectural styles are combined in a single building. Important alterations: 13thC 18thC Stone doorway from the Episcopal hall, where the two General Synods held in Barcelona during the time of the Visigoths, took place.
Remains of the old Bishop's Palace View of the remains of the 5th-6th century Bishop's Palace, conserved below the Barcelona City History Museum.
Patio of the Bishop's Palace In the patio of the Bishop's Palace, with the remains of the 13th century building which have been preserved.
The Bishop's Palace, façade of the extension to Plaça Nova, under the auspices of Bishop Gabino de Valladares in the 18th century. The architect was Josep Mas, who also designed Palau Moja on the Rambla.
Ground plan of Sant Felip Neri church and the Bishop's Palace in Barcelona, according to the plans drawn up for old Barcelona by the architect Garriga i Roca.