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  1. 1. Social Studies<br />Diego Villamizar<br />By: Mafe Arévalo, <br />Liz Mariel, <br />Laura Reales.<br />5-B<br />
  2. 2. Constitutions<br />Since declaring its independence from Spain in 1810, Colombia has had ten constitutions, the last of which--adopted in 1886-- established the present-day unitary republic.<br />A constitution is a set of rules for government often codified as a written document that enumerates the powers and functions of a political entity.<br />
  3. 3. Division of powers<br />These constitutions addressed three important issues: the division of powers, the strength of the chief executive, and the role of the Roman Catholic Church.<br />The powers of government shall be divided into three distinct departments: legislative, executive, and judicial.<br />
  4. 4. Chief executive<br />These constitutions addressed three important issues: the division of powers, the strength of the chief executive, and the role of the Roman Catholic Church.<br />The chief executive officer is the most important role in the management of an organization. <br />
  5. 5. Roman Catholic church <br />These constitutions addressed three important issues: the division of powers, the strength of the chief executive, and the role of the Roman Catholic Church.<br />The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the world's largest Christian church. It has more than a billion members, over half of all Christians and more than one-sixth of the world's population, although the number of lapsed Catholics is not reliably known.<br />
  6. 6. Central government <br />The issue of a strong central government versus a decentralized federal system was especially important in the nation's constitutional development.<br />Central government or union government is the government at the level of the nation-state.<br />
  7. 7. Federal system<br />The issue of a strong central government versus a decentralized federal system was especially important in the nation's constitutional development.<br />A federal system of government is one that divides the powers of government between the national (federal) government and state and local governments.<br />
  8. 8. Civil liberties <br />In settling the federal-unitary debate, the 1886 Constitution specifies that sovereignty resides in the nation, which provides guarantees of civil liberties.<br />Civil liberties are rights and freedoms that protect an individual from the state.<br />
  9. 9. Social obligations<br />The Constitution, by noting that labor is a social obligation--protected by the state-- guarantees the right to strike, except in the public service. <br />Social responsibility is an ethical or ideological theory that an entity whether it is a government, corporation, organization or individual has a responsibility to society at large. <br />
  10. 10. Public services <br />The Constitution, by noting that labor is a social obligation-- protected by the state--guarantees the right to strike, except in the public service. <br />Public services is a term usually used to mean services provided by government to its citizens, either directly (through the public sector) or by financing private provision of services.<br />
  11. 11. Political rights <br />The Constitution prohibits members of the armed forces on active duty, members of the National Police, and individuals legally deprived of their political rights from participating in any political activities, including voting. <br />Political rights, along with civil rights, are primarily designed to protect the individual against state interference, and are immediately applicable.<br />
  12. 12. Political activities <br />The Constitution prohibits members of the armed forces on active duty, members of the National Police, and individuals legally deprived of their political rights from participating in any political activities, including voting. <br />A political activity is an activity in which you do something associated with politics. <br />
  13. 13. Civil disorders<br />A second constitutional issue has been the strength of the chief executive's office, especially the presidential use of emergency powers to deal with civil disorders.<br />Civil disorder, also known as civil unrest, is a broad term that is typically used by law enforcement to describe one or more forms of disturbance caused by a group of people.<br />
  14. 14. Executive powers<br />The 1830 constitution further strengthened executive powers by creating the Public Ministry, which enabled the president to supervise judicial affairs. <br />The power of the President of the United States, delegated or implied by the Constitution, to implement and enforce laws.<br />
  15. 15. State of emergency<br />The 1886 Constitution restored strong executive powers primarily through the president's ability to invoke a state of siege under Article 121 and a state of emergency (estatuto de emergencia) under Article 122. <br />A state of emergency is a governmental declaration that may suspend certain normal functions of government, alert citizens to alter their normal behaviors, or order government agencies to implement emergency preparedness plans.<br />
  16. 16. State of siege<br />The president may declare a state of siege for all or part of the republic in the event of foreign war or domestic disturbance.<br />A state of siege is a situation in which a government or other authority puts restrictions on the movement of people into or out of a country, town, or building.<br />
  17. 17. Religious freedom <br />In contrast, the 1853 and 1863 constitutions, which guaranteed religious freedom and prohibited religious bodies from owning real estate, abolished the church's privileged status.<br />Freedom of religion is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or community, in public or private, to manifest religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship, and observance; the concept is generally recognized also to include the freedom to change religion or not to follow any religion.<br />
  18. 18. Religious bodies<br />In contrast, the 1853 and 1863 constitutions, which guaranteed religious freedom and prohibited religious bodies from owning real estate, abolished the church's privileged status. <br />"Religious body" means any congregation, society or body in the Gilbert Islands consisting of or representing not less than 50 persons of the age of 21 years and upwards holding religious tenets in common and which has its own system of discipline and internal government.<br />
  19. 19. National front<br />In May 1957, the two rival parties had united in the National Front coalition, which was envisioned as a bipartisan way to end la violencia and dictatorial rule. <br />The National Front is a far-right and whites-only British political party whose major political activities were during the 1970s and 1980s. <br />
  20. 20. Civil Services<br />Second, it provided for parity (paridad) in elective and appointive positions at all levels of government, including cabinet and Supreme Court (Corte Suprema) positions not falling under the civil service, as well as the election of equal numbers of party members to local, departmental, and national assemblies.<br />The term civil service has two distinct meanings:<br /> A branch of governmental service in which individuals are employed on the basis of professional merit as proven by competitive examinations.<br /> The body of employees in any government agency other than the military<br />
  21. 21. Executive Branch<br />Henceforth, the executive could more easily attain adoption of its legislative programs, although Congress could approve, delay, or veto an executive branch initiative. <br />The Executive Branch of the Government has the President, Vice President, and all the cabinet members. The President is allowed to pass or veto a bill that the legislature sends him. <br />

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