Democracy theories


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Democracy theories

  1. 1. Democracy theories Ayusia Sabhita Kusuma
  2. 2. A. Understanding democracy there is no single theory of democracy; only theories. (Robert Dahl) historical matters B. Models of democracy debates concerning the proper function and scope of power, equality, freedom, justice and interests. scope
  3. 3. Demos (people)and kratos (rule, power, sovereignty) fifth and fourth centuries B.C in Greek by Pericles and then Aristotles dlm buku Politics, 1317 government ruled by people, kedaulatan milik rakyat/ power by the people  Reductive term ?  the Greek vocabulary for regime-types,  the rule of the one, few, and many: monarchia, oligarchia, and demokratia.  But no Greek regime name pollokratia or pollarchia.  Classical terminologies Politea (Athenian Democracy)
  4. 4.      –arche-root regime-names answers the question: “how many rulers?‖ By contrast, the –kratos terminology has a root meaning of “power” – across the power spectrum, from ―domination‖ to ―rule‖ to ―capacity to do things‖ So……..? Demokratia is not just “the power of the demos” in the sense “the superior or monopolistic power holders in the state.” Rather it means, more capaciously, ―but, the empowered demos” – it is the regime in which the demos gains a collective capacity to effect change in the public realm. Conceptual meaning
  5. 5.    Robert A. Dahl (Polyarchy: Participation and Opposition, 1971) memperkenalkan tiga dimensi politik yang sifatnya generik dari demokrasi, yaitu ―kompetisi, partisipasi, dan kebebasan sipil dan politik‖ there is not a dominant class or a set of institutionally based elites that has predominant power. Just as the market system gives consumers freedom and sovereignty, so too does the political system give voters sovereignty Theorizing democracies: CLASSIC PLURALIST
  6. 6. ‗Whatever the explanation for conflict may be, ‗its existences one of the prime facts of all community life‘ (Robert Dahl, 1967: 6), as Seymour Martin Lipset put it, conflict is ‗democracy‘s lifeblood‘ (1960: 83).  Robert Dahl in a chapter of Democracy and Its Critics entitled ‗Why Polyarchy Developed in Some Countries and Not Others,‘ produces a list of conditions that are conducive to successful polyarchy not hierarkhi (his term for pluralist democracy).  include: high average levels of wealth and economic growth, occupational diversity, a large urban population, numerous interest groups, a political culture favourable to pluralism, freedom from antipluralist foreign intervention, and other such factors (1989: ch. 18).  Classic pluralism
  7. 7.   Citizens in democratic capitalist societies form voluntary groups that try to influence public opinion, lobby elected officials, and back sympathetic political candidates in the electoral process. Some voluntary groups harden into wellorganized interest groups that are often based in economic interests (e.g., industrialists, bankers, and labor unions), but also in other interests as well (e.g., environmental, consumer, and civil rights groups).
  8. 8. JOSEPH SCHUMPETER  1942 of his Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy, Joseph Schumpeter   public as a homogenous entity held together by a shared ‗general will‘ Schumpeter insisted, that they are governed not by the people or by a majority taken as a whole but by elected officials along with nonelected political party and bureaucratic attendants. Realist democracy
  9. 9. that democracy is only about the competition of leaders for votes. The will of the people, usually, is not genuine, but is manufactured by the leader  Democracy is only a method, of no intrinsic value, its sole function to select leaders  lanjut
  10. 10. A. Francis Fukuyama maintains that Western liberal democracy has become ‗the final form of human government‘ (1992: xi). liberalism primarily with the protection of individual freedoms and democracy with equality, which, in agreement with Tocqueville, he thinks not just political equality but grows out of and promotes a measure of social and economic equality as well Liberal democracy
  11. 11.  LIBERAL DEMOCRACY AND CAPITALISM A capitalist society, roughly defined in economic terms, is one with a predominantly market-driven competitive economy  free of state interference to dispose of their holdings or of profits derived from them as they please 
  12. 12. Participation Equality Freedom and autonomy The relation between democracy and liberalism  Sartori :now ‗we confront two futures: a democracy within liberalism, and a democracy without liberalism’. (1987: 386– 7).   ‗political liberties‘ such as the right to vote, run for office, or form political parties, which makes ongoing democracy more secure.  demokrasi liberal, yang paling cocok untuk liberalisasi perdagangan dunia ?     liberal-democratic principles
  13. 13. the label ―social democrat‖ to differentiate themselves from other socialists who did not accept democracy. represented a full-fledged alternative to both Marxism and liberalism. industrial revolution 19 century-> the age of liberalism The practical consequences of early capitalism—especially the dramatic inequalities, social dislocation—led to a backlash against liberalism and a search for alternatives from Marxism and socialism  Social democracy
  14. 14.    social democrats realized that appeals to the “people,” the “community,” and the common good. the tension between market economy and democracy, and the tension between global businesses and national politics require intervention. As democracy and market economy are mutually dependent, this tension cannot be abolished but only shaped. The questions, ―What are the limits of inequality in a society?‖, and ―How to restrict business influence on politics?‖
  15. 15.   Social democrats have traditionally accepted or tolerated the market because of its ability to provide the material basis upon which the good life could be built, but have been unwilling to accept the market’s primacy in social life In modern society, social democratic countries and political parties tend to focus on human rights issues. Social democratic countries typically have strict protections for minority groups
  16. 16. the term ‗participatory democracy‘ was coined by Arnold Kaufman in 1960 (Mansbridge 1995: 5).  participatory democrats consider breaking down apathy and maximizing active citizen engagement a main task of democrats.  Participatory democrats applaud the forging of solidarity as a principal virtue of democracy.  Participatory democracy
  17. 17.    Jean-Jacques Rousseau, and in particular his The Social Contract (published in 1762) Rousseau focused on the prior act whereby individuals in the state of nature agree to submit themselves to any form of political authority. There are two freedoms: Natural freedom happens when people live in a state of nature. In a state of nature there are no rules or governments. Social freedom happens when people sacrifice some natural freedoms so they can have the freedom that comes with security and protection
  18. 18. On the participatory-democratic perspective, democracy is control by citizens of their own affairs, which sometimes though not always involves , instructing governmental bodies to carry out citizens‘ wishes.  state and civil society are not distinct entities; there is no line dividing a state that rules and citizens in civil society who are ruled. 
  19. 19. THANKYOU