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  1. 1. To advance to the next screen, click the left mouse button. To pause or go forward or back or to a specific slide, click the right mouse button, then click Go , and then Slide Navigator . CURRICULUM TRAINING MODULE #2 Mark Feder Director Curriculum and Training
  2. 2. Learning/Teaching Theory Curriculum Classroom Practice (abstract) (concrete) #2 Training Module #2 Curriculum might be thought of as the link between pedagogical theory and classroom practice – the thing that connects abstract concepts to concrete teaching strategies.
  3. 3. Learning Teaching Curriculum Instructional Quality #3 Training Module #2 A curriculum is predicated upon what is to be taught and our beliefs about how best to teach it. Our understanding of how learning takes place drives how we think we ought to teach, which in turn drives what the curriculum looks like, which impacts the instruction that takes place in class.
  4. 4. more_subjects.htm #4 Training Module #2 Let’s consider a common teaching/learning experience that occurs outside of the classroom -- riding a bicycle.
  5. 5. What is the role of the parent/teacher in the bicycle experience? What is the role of the child/learner in the bicycle experience? Is there anything about the bicycle learning experience that applies to learning in general, to learning in an academic environment, and to language learning? #5 Training Module #2 Let’s try to think about what is involved in the process of learning to ride a bicycle
  6. 6. provide a bicycle; find a good place to practice; encourage the child and give assurances of success; give tips and advice; suggest ways to correct problems; make the child feel safe and secure; try to catch the child and prevent spills; congratulate the child for attempts and successes. health/pr_index.htm #6 Training Module #2 A parent might assert, “I taught my child to ride a bike,” but the statement, “My child learned to ride a bike.” might be more accurate. What, actually, can a parent do to “teach” a child to ride? A parent can:
  7. 7. yesterday115.html #7 Training Module #2 As they say, “You can lead a horse to water but you can’t make it drink.” But the actual learning is done by the child. Through the child’s effort, the jump is made from not being able to ride to being able to ride. Without the child’s effort and active participation in the learning process, nothing that a teacher did would be sufficient. Perhaps, the most helpful things the parent can do is encourage the child to put effort into the task and remove as many obstacles as possible to the child’s commitment to the task.
  8. 8. According to Carl Rogers, “ all human beings have a natural propensity to learn and the role of the teacher is to facilitate such learning.” #8 Training Module #2 So the parent/teacher can facilitate learning, but not actually “teach” a skill. Or, is facilitating the same thing as teaching? If so, is all teaching facilitating? Is learning algebra or English the same as learning to ride a bicycle and is the teacher’s role to be a facilitator or a dispenser of knowledge?
  9. 9. Affective Domain Cognitive Domain BODY - DOING: Balance Strength Coordination PSYCHE - FEELING: Confidence Motivation Anxiety MIND - KNOWING: Parts of bicycle How to pedal, stop Safety rules Psycho-Motor Domain #9 Training Module #2 Let’s consider what skills are involved in riding and learning to ride a bicycle.
  10. 10. Affective Domain Cognitive Domain BODY - DOING: Producing sounds Receiving verbal signals PSYCHE - FEELING: Confidence Motivation Anxiety MIND - KNOWING: Vocabulary Syntax Psycho-Motor Domain #10 Training Module #2 Now, let’s compare them to the skills involved in learning and speaking a foreign language.
  11. 11. Cognitive non-javascript/3.html #11 Training Module #2 Traditionally, the dispensing of information, knowledge, and skills has been considered the main role of the teacher. The transfer of information from teacher to student is not only the oldest pedagogical model, but still the most prevalent one. In the field of language teaching, the central position of the cognitive domain is apparent in the venerable Grammar-Translation Method.
  12. 12. Psycho-Motor indexrow1col2.html #12 Training Module #2 Behavioral psychologist B. F. Skinner viewed learning as stimulus-response conditioning. Instructional methodologies based on the Skinnerian view focus on the psycho-motor domain, utilizing repetition (reinforcement), rewards and programmed instruction rather than understanding and cognition. In language teaching, this approach is reflected in the Audio-Lingual Method.
  13. 13. Affective #13 Training Module #2 Affective elements have, perhaps, always been a part of pedagogy in an incidental kind of way, and throughout history, teachers have encouraged, coaxed and cajoled their students to learn. But the elevation of Affect as the primary focus of the teacher is relatively recent. In the field of language teaching, Community Language Learning, Suggestopedia, the Silent Way, and the Natural Approach all define the teacher as facilitator rather than dispenser of information.
  14. 14. The bicycle must be provided – but providing a bicycle is not teaching. The teaching consists of helping the child to ride the bicycle. #14 Training Module #2 While all 3 domains are undeniably important, indeed, indispensable to the learning process, the question is whether they are equally important for teaching. In the bicycle experience, it seems pretty clear that the role of the parent/teacher is to deal primarily with affective matters.
  15. 15. The teacher provides support, assistance, advice, encouragement, and a safe environment to allow the child to take risks and develop skills. archive/action.jhtml #15 Training Module #2 A sense of balance and coordination are absolutely imperative for the rider, but those are not things the teacher can impart. The rider herself has to develop those abilities. What the teacher can do is provide support, assistance, advice, encouragement, and a safe environment to allow the child to take the risk and develop those skills. In other words, the teacher’s role is almost entirely occupied with the affective domain.
  16. 16. = = #16 Training Module #2 For language learning to take place, information and language sources must be provided just as the bicycle must be provided. The student must also develop the ability to perceive and produce the sounds of the target language (phonemes) just as the bicycle rider must develop a sense of balance and coordination. The teacher can provide assistance, but it is up to the learner to develop these psycho-motor skills.
  17. 17. early-preparation.asp marapr01/marapr01g.htm “ A language cannot be taught. One can only create conditions for learning to take place.” #17 Training Module #2 Where the teacher can really make a difference is in the affective domain – helping the student feel comfortable and overcome obstacles. As the German philosopher Wilhelm von Humboldt said, “A language cannot be taught. One can only create conditions for learning to take place.”
  18. 18. I never teach my pupils; I only attempt to provide the conditions in which they can learn. Albert Einstein #18 Training Module #2 You cannot teach a man anything. You can only help him discover it within himself. Galileo It is the teacher's function to contrive conditions under which students learn. B.F. Skinner nt.html Humboldt’s remark about language learning made almost 200 years ago is echoed by the remarks of other scholars about learning in general.