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Presentazione del dipartimento scientifico di Bologna

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Big bang-html

  1. 1. BIG BANG Ovvero Cosa possono dire gli scienziati sulla storia dell’Universo ?
  2. 2. UNIVERSO: l’insieme di tutti i corpi celesti e dello spazio nel quale sono contenuti e nel quale si muovono. CORPI CELESTI: pianeti, stelle, galassie ecc. Quanto è grande l’Universo ? C’è sempre stato ? Innanzitutto, cosa si intende per Universo ?
  3. 3. Vi ricordate il viaggio di Buzz Lightyear ? Verso l’infinito … e oltre
  4. 4. I corpi celesti sono immobili o in movimento ? Più di 70 anni fa un astrofisico osservò molte galassie, vicine e lontane, e si accorse che… si muovevano . Ma non a caso
  5. 5. Terra Le galassie si stanno allontanando da noi Più sono lontane e più sono veloci
  6. 6. Ora le galassie sono lontanissime da noi. Miliardi di chilometri. E si stanno allontanando da noi sempre di più. L’Universo è enorme. Si pensa che l’Universo, tanto tempo fa, fosse molto più piccolo. Secondo voi, fra un anno saranno più lontane o più vicine a noi ? Secondo voi, l’anno scorso erano più lontane o più vicine a noi ? E due anni fa ? E tanti anni fa ? Quanto tempo fa ? Se tutte le galassie dell’universo molto tempo fa erano tutte più vicine, secondo voi, l’universo era più grande o era più piccolo di adesso ?
  7. 7. Dalla misura della velocità delle galassie si trova che l’Universo, circa 15 miliardi di anni fa, doveva essere concentrato in un punto piccolissimo. Età dell’universo = 15 Miliardi di anni Doveva essere anche molto caldo. Caldissimo. Più era piccolo e concentrato, e più doveva essere caldo. Sappiamo infatti che più si comprime un corpo, più questo si riscalda. La materia però non poteva essere come la vediamo oggi sulla Terra. Se scaldiamo tantissimo un oggetto, lui si brucia, oppure si scioglie, si disintegra. Cosa ci rimane di questo oggetto ? Più avanti studierete che: i corpi sono formati da molecole, e le molecole da atomi, e gli atomi da particelle piccolissime. Queste particelle piccolissime non possono rompersi come invece possono fare le molecole e gli atomi Qualcosa ve la avevo già fatta vedere io l’anno scorso. Ricordate ?
  8. 9. Espandendosi l’universo si raffreddò, e solo dopo molto tempo, quando era diventato molto più freddo, le particelle si poterono legare assieme per formare gli atomi più semplici che esistono (idrogeno e elio. Gas). Tanti anni fa nell’universo c’era molto, moltissimo gas. E le stelle ? I pianeti ? La terra ? L’universo circa 15 miliardi di anni fa doveva essere così piccolo e così caldo che le particelle non potevano legarsi assieme per fare atomi e gli atomi legarsi per fare le molecole. E’ a questo punto che si pensa sia cominciata una violenta ESPANSIONE dell’universo (non una esplosione). BIG BANG
  9. 10. Le nubi di gas si sono concentrate sotto la forza di gravità e sono diventate sempre più dense, sempre più compatte e sempre più calde . Infine si sono ‘’accese’’ e sono nate le stelle. Come il sole
  10. 11. Il sole è una stella che si è formata in questo modo. Il suo carburante principale è l’idrogeno (la materia più leggera che esiste), che ‘’bruciando’’ si trasforma in materia più pesante (fino a diventare ferro). Quando tutto il carburante finirà, una stella come il sole, piano piano, si spegnerà e diventerà una Nana Bianca. Si pensa che altra materia, sotto forma di polveri, fosse presente nella nube di gas dalla quale si è formato il sole. Per effetto della gravità questa materia si concentrò in alcuni punti dando origine ai pianeti.
  11. 12. mercurio venere terra marte giove saturno urano nettuno plutone I 9 pianeti
  12. 13. La terra, circa 5 miliardi di anni fa, era una palla infuocata. Poi, piano piano, la superficie si è raffreddata e si è formata la crosta terrestre. Ancora oggi la terra, nel suo interno, è caldissima. La lava che esce dai vulcani infatti viene dall’interno della terra.
  13. 14. Poi si pensa che si sia formata una atmosfera composta da vari gas (non però l’aria che c’è oggi), fuoriusciti dai vulcani (anche del vapore di acqua) che non si disperdeva nello spazio perché c’è la forza di gravità. Il vapore condensando produsse la pioggia, che formò gli oceani. E in questi oceani, forse, si formarono con l’energia dei fulmini le prime molecole complicate, quelle che compongono gli organismi viventi più semplici, e i primi aggregati di molecole, una specie di brodo caldo.
  14. 15. La scienza cerca di ricostruire la STORIA dell’Universo e della vita sulla Terra ma non può dire di sapere come siano nati. E’ da questo ‘’brodo primitivo’’ che hanno avuto origine i primi esseri viventi circa 2 - 3 miliardi di anni fa ? E che, piano piano, si sono evoluti fino a diventare piante e animali ? Gli scienziati sono in grado di dire molte cose interessanti. Però questa è un’altra storia.

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