• Italy is a Parliamentary Republic.
• The Constitution of the Italian Republic was enacted by
the Constituent Assembly on 22 December 1947 and had
effect from 01 January 1948.
• Power is divided among the executive, the legislative and
• How did it happen?
A. The myth: Romulus and Remus
B. Roman Republic
A. A system based on annually elected magistrates and
various representative assemblies
B. Constitution – sets separation of powers
A. Attacked by Gauls and powerful Phoenician City-states of
B. Caesar’s assassination – brought political crises and
C. Roman Empire
A. Augustus (Octavian : sole ruler of the Republic)
B. Assume absolute powers monarchs
D. Unification of City-states
E. Dictatorial Regime
F. Birth of the Republic
• Constitutional referendum to decide whether Italy should
remain monarch or become a republic. (June 2, 1946; 54%
voted for republic)
• Economic miracle: dramatic rise in the standard of living
G. 2nd Republic : 1994-present
PRESIDENT OF THE
• Head of the State and represents national unity
• He is elected by the two chambers of Parliament in joint
session for a period of seven years at the end of which he can
• He appoints the Prime Minister and five judges of the
• He can veto bills and send them to Parliament for a new
• He must be a native-born Italin citizen at least 50 years old.
• President Giorgio Napolitano
IF THE PRESIDENT OF ITALY IS
OVER THE JOB.
IF THE PRESIDENT
COMPLETE THE SENTENCE
IF THE PRESIDENT OF ITALY IS
SICK, THE PRESIDENT OF THE
ITALIAN SENATE TAKES OVER THE
JOB. IF THE PRESIDENT DIES, A
PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION IS HELD.
• The executive power is exercised by the government under
the direction of the Prime Minister, also called President of the
Council of the Ministers.
• He is appointed by the President of the Republic and chooses
• The government must be supported by a parliamentary
• All the ministers are jointly responsible for the implementation
of the country's laws and can propose new bills to Parliament.
PRIME MINISTER AND
• decides a national policy and is the most important person in
the Italian government.
• The prime minister is picked by the president, but can be voted
out of office any time.
• Members of the cabinet are picked by the prime minister, and
usually come from the members of Parliament.
• The president then appoints the members to the cabinet, and
they are approved by Parliament. The Italian prime minister
and the cabinet are officially called the government.
• Matteo Renzi
• president of the Council of Ministers
• The legislative power is exercised by Parliament, which
consists of two houses, whose members are elected directly by
• Both houses are elected for a maximum of five years, but they
may be dissolved before the expiration of their normal term. All
bills must be passed by both Houses before being turned into
Chamber of Deputies
has 630 members,
elected by all citizens aged at least
only citizens of at least 25 can be
Senate of the Republic
comprising 315 members elected by
all citizens aged 25 or over and
must be al least 40 years old.
• a Centre-Left one known as Italy, Common Good - a
descendant of the Olive Tree coalition - which consists of
seven parties and is led by Enrico Letta of the Democratic
• a Centre-Right one - a descendant of the Pole of Freedoms -
which consists of eight parties and is led by Silvio Berlusconi of
the People of Freedom (PdL)
• Judges of courts appoint rather than elect.
• The Italian judges get appointments during service exams.
• The President of the Parliament picks five of the judges from
the constitution court, and 5 are by judges of other courts.
• The courts work under a national ministry for a justice panel of
• The Constitutional Court of Italy is the country's
• It is composed of 15 judges: one-third appointed by
the President, one-third elected by the
Parliament, and one-third elected by the ordinary
and administrative supreme courts.
• The Constitutional Court is a post-war innovation.
• The other senior court is the Court of Cassation.