Kyle thesis


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Kyle thesis

  1. 1. Theme Analysis project Kyle. M. D. Cooke
  2. 2. The devil AndTom WalkerWashington Irying
  3. 3. Author bioWashington Irving was an American author who composed a collection of stories that became The Sketch Book (1819),which included "Rip Van Winkle" and "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow." After serving as a US ambassador, he turned outa succession of historical and biographical works. Irving advocated for writing as a legitimate career, and argued forlaws to protect writers from copyright infringementWriter. Perhaps best known for his short stories "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow" and "Rip Van Winkle," Washington Irvingwas born on April 3, 1783 in New York City, New York, USA. He was one of eleven children born to Scottish-Englishimmigrant parents, William Irving, Sr. and Sarah. He was named Washington after the hero of the American revolution(which had just ended), George Washington, and attended the first presidential inauguration of his namesake in 1789.Washington Irving was educated privately, studied law, and began to write essays for periodicals. He travelled inFrance and Italy (1804–6), wrote whimsical journals and letters, then returned to New York City to practice law --though by his own admission, he was not a good student, and in 1806, he barely passed the bar. He and his brotherWilliam Irving and James Kirke Paulding wrote the Salamagundi papers (1807–8), a collection of humorous essays. Hefirst became more widely known for his comic work, A History of New York (1809), written under the name of "DiedrichKnickerbocker."
  4. 4. Author bio 2In 1815 Irving went to England to work for his brothers business, and when that failed he composed a collection ofstories and essays that became The Sketch Book, published under the name "Geoffrey Crayon" (1819–20), whichincluded ‘Rip Van Winkle’ and ‘The Legend of Sleepy Hollow’. In 1822 he went to the Continent, living in Germanyand France for several years, and was then in Spain (1826) and became attache at the US embassy in Madrid. While inSpain he researched for his biography of Christopher Columbus (1828) and his works on Granada (1829) and theAlhambra (1832).He was secretary of the US legation in London (1829–32), and later returned to Spain as the US ambassador (1842–6), but he spent most of the rest of his life at his estate, ‘Sunnyside’, near Tarrytown, NY, turning out a succession ofmainly historical and biographical works, including a five-volume life of George Washington. Although he became abest-selling author, he never really fully developed as a literary talent, he has retained his reputation as the firstAmerican man of letters. Irving also advocated for writing as a legitimate career, and argued for stronger laws toprotect writers from copyright infringement.In 1999, director Tim Burton released his film Sleepy Hollow based on Washington Irvings story "The Legend of SleepyHollow." The film starred Johnny Depp as police constable Ichabod Crane, who is sent from New York City toinvestigate a series of murders by a mysterious Headless Horseman.
  5. 5. Authors inspiration 1part1The section admired by Newton includes “The Devil and Tom Walker,”which remains the most well known piece in the book. Based on the story ofFaust, Irving’s darkly comic tale inspired a number of works, includingStephen Vincent Benét’s The Devil and Daniel Webster and, most recently, a2008 musical that debuted at New York’s Metropolitan Playhouse. In bothIrving’s and Benét’s stories, the devil goes by the name of “Old Scratch”(probably from the Old Norse scrat, or goblin), an epithet also used in worksby writers such as Dickens, Trollope, and Kipling and transformed intoScratchy Wilson, the outlaw drunkard in Stephen Crane’s “The Bride Comesto Yellow Sky.”Although the story is set “about the year 1727,” the historical detailsdescribing the financial collapse actually refer to the circumstances of theLand Bank scheme of 1739–40, which occurred toward the end of theadministration of colonial governor Jonathan Belcher. Given Irving’s painful,personal bankruptcy after the War of 1812, it’s surely not a coincidence thatTom Walker’s chosen profession in evildoing is financial wizardry,accumulating bonds and mortgages and forcing foreclosures andbankruptcies during the “hard times” following a speculative real estatebubble gone bust:
  6. 6. Authors insperation 1part2lying nobody knew where, but which every body was willing to purchase. In aword the great speculating fever which breaks out every now and then in thecountry, had raged to an alarming degree, and every body was dreaming ofmaking sudden fortunes from nothing.In spite of its many comic and satiric elements, the bleak background andmoralizing tone (“Let all griping money brokers lay this story to heart”) makefor what biographer Andrew Burstein (The Original Knickerbocker, 2007) calls“perhaps Irving’s most pessimistic tale.”
  7. 7. SummaryIn "The Devil and Tom Walker," set in New England in the early 1700s, a narrator relates a story he has heard about a local mansdealings with the devil. The narrator never claims that the stories are true, only that they are widely believed.According to local legend, a treasure is buried in a dark grove on an inlet outside of Boston. It is said that Kidd the Pirate left it thereunder a gigantic tree and that the devil himself "presided at the hiding of the money, and took it under his guardianship." Since thepirate Kidd was hanged, no one has disturbed the treasure or challenged the devils right to it.In the year 1727 a local man, the notorious miser Tom Walker, finds himself in the dark grove alone at dusk while taking a short cutback to his house. Tom is well known among the townspeople for his pitiful horse, his loud wife, and the couples miserly habits inwhich they "conspired to cheat each other." Unaware that treasure lay nearby, Tom stops to rest against a tree outside the remains ofan Indian fort. Despite local legends of the evil goingson at the site, Tom "was not a man to be troubled with any fears of the kind."After absentmindedly digging up an old skull, Tom is suddenly reprimanded by a gruff voice. The voice belongs to a man who isblackened by soot and grime and who introduces himself as the black woodman. Soon enough, Tom realizes that he is in thecompany of the devil himself. After a brief conversation, "Old Scratch," as Tom calls him, offers Tom the treasure in exchange for a fewconditions. He declines. Back home, he tells his wife what transpired in the woods, and she is outraged that he passed up theopportunity for them to gain great wealth in exchange for his soul. She takes it upon herself to seek out the devil and strike a bargainon her own. After several trips to the fort in the woods, she becomes frustrated by the devils unwillingness to appear to her. One day,she gathers the couples few possessions of value in her apron and heads off for the woods. She never returns. Eventually, Tomwanders to the woods to find out what happened to her and discovers her apron hanging from a tree. It contains her heart and liver.Hoof-prints and clumps of hair at the base of the tree hint at a fierce struggle. "Old Scratch must have had a tough time of it!" heremarks. Nevertheless less, the next time the devil appears to Tom, he is eager to strike a deal now that he will not have to shareanything with his wife.Balking at the devils suggestion of becoming a slave-trader, Tom decides that he will become a usurer, or a moneylender, sincegaining the treasure is contingent upon being employed in the devils service. Tom immediately sets up shop in a "counting house" inBoston and attains great wealth by cheating people out of their money and charging them outrageous interest. He builds a luxurioushouse but refuses to spend money to furnish it properly. He buys an expensive carriage but fails to maintain it, and his horses he onlybegrudgingly feeds.When Tom grows old, he begins to worry about the terms of his deal with the devil and suddenly becomes a "violent church-goer" inan effort to cheat the devil out of receiving his soul. He reads the bible obsessively and prays loudly and long in church each week.Among the townspeople, "Toms zeal became as notorious as his riches." Nevertheless, one morning the devil conies calling andinstantly whisks Tom away on a black horse in the midst of a thunderstorm to the Indian fort in the woods, never to be seen again.Town officials charged with settling Toms estate discover his bonds and money reduced to cinders, and soon enough his houseburns to the ground as well.
  8. 8. The Legond of Sleepy Hollow Washington Irying
  9. 9. Author inspiration 2part1Sleepy Hollow was a real place close to Tarrytown in New York. Irving even used thegeographical reality of the town in his vivid descriptions. Indeed, Sleepy Hollow was a snugrural valley in the Catskill Mountains. There existed an Old Dutch Church in Sleepy Hollowas well. This church had a burial ground which was featured prominently in the descriptionand stories surrounding the galloping Hessian. The practice of relating exaggerated storiesby veterans of the American Revolution may have been the basis of the emphasis on storytelling in Sleepy Hollow and of Brom Bones ridiculous account of his encounter with theHorseman.Irving also drew on existing literature, particularly German legends, to create his story.Robert Burns "Tam O Shanter" and Brgers "Der wilde Jger" were tales of encounters withthe supernatural that were written about a couple decades before. Tam O Shanter was apoem that detailed the adventures of a drunk. On his way home, Tam hallucinates and seescreatures of the night, even Satan himself. Tams ride home was a lonely one, in theforbidding Ayshire countryside, on his mare. The poem even involves a chase in which Tambarely escapes from a legion of pursuing witches. Seems familiar doesnt it?Possibly the ultimate inspiration for "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow", was the fact that therewas a need for American Literature to be developed. Irvings tale was unique in that it wasset in America and contained references and symbols singular to America and New York inparticular. Washington Irvings myriad sources of inspiration helped him produce a tale thatprecipitated recognition for American literature and inspired subsequent writers.
  10. 10. Author inspiration 2part2Writers typically draw on a combination of knowledge, experience or context to weave astory. Washington Irvings story, The Legend of Sleepy Hollow, is a tale rich in historicalcontext. So meticulous is the description and sketching of the characters in the storythat the characters seem very realistic; even two centuries later. That is unsurprisingbecause Irving drew inspiration for the tale from real places and people. He was alsoinspired by existing literature that explored themes of the supernatural.The characters for the story were the direct results of the context and communitieswhich Irving experienced before the time of writing. He employed the use of Dutch-named characters in the Sleepy Hollow tale but also in some of his other works. Circa1810, the presence and influence of the Dutch in New York was very pronounced.Some have speculated that Irving was inspired by his neighbours in the construction ofspecific characters. A woman by the name of Eleanor Van tassel Brush and her auntCatriena are thought to be the basis for the naming and character of Katrina Van Tassel.A man who taught in a schoolhouse where Irving spent some time in 1809 is rumouredto be the inspiration for Ichabod Crane. Also, the character of Ichabod was based onthe stereotypes associated with the Yankee (Americans of Anglo-Saxon origin).
  11. 11. SummaryTarry Town, also known as Greensburgh, lies between the Hudson and Tappan Zee rivers, and it is a smallmarket town. Near this town is a very quiet glen named Sleepy Hollow. In this glen, the land and its people allseem to exhibit a quality of dreamy drowsiness. Diedrich Knickerbocker, whose story this is, is convinced thatthis quality has been caused by some kind of spell or curse. Because of its relative isolation for a fair amount oftime longer, Sleepy Hollow has more than its share of legends, superstitions, and strange occurrences.The town’s most dominant spirit is that of a headless man riding on horseback, believed by many to be theghost of a Hessian soldier from the Revolutionary War, who is frequently seen rushing quickly through the village,often near the church. It is thought that he is rushing in search of his head, and he is known throughout theregion as The Headless Horseman of Sleepy Hollow.Ichabod Crane, originally from Connecticut, is the schoolmaster of Sleepy Hollow. His school house is designedso that any thief could break in easily but would find it difficult to get back out. He believes in disciplining hisstudents with the rod, although he is careful to use it only against those who can bear it, and he treats theweaker students much more gently.The students do not hate him, and this benefits Ichabod, for by custom he relies on the hospitality of hisstudents’ families to give him room and board, each for a week at a time, since his pay is very low. He has fewpossessions. To alleviate his burden on the families, Ichabod does his best to make himself useful around thefarm and to be on good behavior. He is also the singing master of Sleepy Hollow, for which he makes some extramoney, and the local women like his skills, so he gets by quite well.Ichabod’s status as the schoolmaster, being second in learning only to the parson, gives him much of hisimportance in the female circles of Sleepy Hollow. His traveling lifestyle gives him greater access to gossip thanmost have, which adds to the welcome that he receives in most of the farmhouses. Ichabod is fascinated byCotton Mather’s History of New England Witchcraft, and he is a firm believer in it and in the supernaturalgenerally. Indeed, he often spends all afternoon reading this history before heading home for the week, and hescares himself so badly that he must sing psalms while walking to maintain his composure. He also enjoyslistening to the housewives tell their ghost stories, especially those involving the Headless Horseman, and hescares the women with his stories of witchcraft in return.
  12. 12. Work 1the Adventures Of Captain Bonneville [And] Bracebridge Hall GFThe Alahambra GF Jan-2007The Alhambra GF Dec-1986Astoria H Dec-2008Astoria, Or Anecdotes of an Enterprise Beyond the Rocky Mountains GF Jul-2007Beauties of Washington Irving GFBracebridge Hall HORRBracebridge Hall, Or The Humorists GFA Chronicle of the Conquest of Granada GF Feb-2007The Collected Supernatural And Weird Fiction Of Washington Irving F Oct-2010The Complete Tales of Washington Irving GF Apr-1975The Crayon Papers GF Jun-2007The Crayon Reading Book GFA History of New York GF Jan-2009The Keeping of Christmas at Bracebridge Hall GF May-2003A Knickerbockers History of New York GF Dec-2001The Land Of Footprints GFLegend of Sleepy Hollow and Other Stories GF Oct-1999The Legend of Sleepy Hollow GF Sep-1987The Life And Voyages Of Christopher Columbus GF 1849
  13. 13. Work 2The Life And Voyages Of Christopher Columbus, By W. Irving, Abridged By The Same GFMohammed GF Sep-1997Old Christmas GF Dec-2008Old Christmas from the Sketch Book of Washington Irving GF Jul-2007Rip van Winkle F Apr-1987Rip Van Winkle & Other Stories GF Mar-2011Rip Van Winkle and Other Stories GF Dec-1996Rip Van Winkle and The Devil and Tom Walker GF Jan-2009Rip van Winkle and The Legend of Sleepy hollow GF Sep-1995Selections From The Sketch Book GFSix Selections From Irvings Sketch-Book GFSix Selections from Irvings Sketchbook GFThe Sketch Book GF Aug-1961The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon, Gent. GF Dec-1988The Sketch-Book of Geoffrey Crayon, Gent GF Sep-2009Stories Of The Hudson LTales of a Traveler R Dec-2006Tales of Alhambra GF Nov-2010Tales Of The Alhambra GF Oct-2010Ten Selections From The Sketch-Book GF Mar-2010A Tour on the Prairies L Nov-1985Two Tales GF Oct-1986Washington Irving: Bracebridge Hall, Tales of a Traveler, The Alhambra L Apr-1991Washington Irvings Rip Van Winkle F Apr-2005Washington Irvings the Legend of Sleepy Hollow and Other St... GF Aug-1999Wolfert Webber, or, Golden Dreams GFWolferts Roost, And Miscellanies GF Feb-2007The Works of Washington Irving ...
  14. 14. ThemesSleepy Hollow The Devil andTom WalkerSpiritual rejection Spiritual awareness • Icabaud clams • Tom made a pact with everything he is seeing /tried to turn to the bible can be explained by but was now strong in his science and logic / faith. pushing away the fact that the situation which he finds himyself he can not explain
  15. 15. Universal themeSpiritual rejection
  16. 16. QUESTIONS