AMICSA 20101
Multi-channel Detector
Readout Integrated Circuits
with ADCs for X-ray and
Gamma-ray Spectroscopy in
Space
Si...
AMICSA 20102
Abstract
We are developing detector readout integrated circuits (ROICs) for X-ray and Gamma-ray
spectroscopy....
AMICSA 20103
Introduction
A Family of recently developed Multi-Channel Radiation
Detector Readout ASICs.
• Radiation Energ...
AMICSA 20104
Space Application (1)
ASTRO-H
GM-I supplies ROICs for 2 instruments: HXI, SGDGM-I supplies ROICs for 2 instru...
AMICSA 20105
Space Application (2)
BepiColombo MMO
GM-I supplies ROICs for the MPPE instrument.GM-I supplies ROICs for the...
AMICSA 20106
Astro-H, BepiColombo (Astro-H, BepiColombo (HXI, SGD, MPPE)HXI, SGD, MPPE)
• The Hard X-ray Imager (HXI)The H...
AMICSA 20107
Design criteria
• ASTRO-H SGD (VATA450), launch 2014:
– Very low power
– Medium DNR
• ASTRO-H HXI (VATA461), ...
AMICSA 20108
Radiation Detector Principle
AMICSA 20109
VATA-ASIC Basic Functionality
Functionality Concept
Input: Readout of 32/64 radiation
sensors/electrodes/stri...
AMICSA 201010
ASIC TL architecture
Four distinct modes
of operation:
– Initialization
– Acquisition (FE)
– Conversion (ADC...
AMICSA 201011
ASIC FE Channel Architecture
AMICSA 201012
The VATA PRINCIPLE
AMICSA 201013
ADC Architecture
• 32/64 channels converted in
parallel
• Integrating single slope ADC
(”Wilkinson”)
• 10 bi...
AMICSA 201014
Back-End Architecture
• Digital data
reduction
• Output data
format:
– Status bits
– Trigger
map
– ADC data
AMICSA 201015
VATA-ASIC Extended Functionality
Function Implementation
User can adjust
•internal bias values
•adjust all t...
AMICSA 201016
ASIC Layout
JAXA / KIPAC [Watanabe, vertex 2009]
AMICSA 201017
Test results – Energy Spectroscopy (1)
VATA450 (low power)
JAXA / KIPAC [Watanabe et al., Vertex 2009] Data ...
AMICSA 201018
Test results – Energy Spectroscopy (2)
VATA451 (low noise)
JAXA / KIPAC [Saito et al.,, SPIE 2010]
Noise
(EN...
AMICSA 201019
Test results (3)
VATA460 (HDR)
Threshold of Noise
Energy Resolution
(FWHM)
Energy measurement Thresh-hold
En...
AMICSA 201020
Test results (4)
VATA460 (HDR)
Energy Resolution (FWHM)
Under CC-on
Energy Resolution (FWHM)
under CC-off
No...
AMICSA 201021
Radiation Tolerance and Latch-up
Reference: H.Aihara, M. Hazumi, H. Ishino, J. Kaneko, Y. Li, D.
Marlow, S. ...
AMICSA 201022
Radiation test of VATA460
Radiation test by 6MeV/n He.
Measurements performed by Takashima et al, JAXA.
Gain...
AMICSA 201023
Legacy of GM-I ASICs in Space
Selection of most known missions:
• AGILE (launched April 2007). Two different...
AMICSA 201024
Single-event Upset (SEU)
• All configuration registers are implemented
with majority vote flip-flops, with 3...
AMICSA 201025
Summary
• We developed a family of X-ray and Gamma
detector Read Out ASICs, suitable for a number
of space m...
AMICSA 201026
Acknowledgments
We would like to thank our colleagues at JAXA
and Kavli/Stanford for good collaboration, and...
AMICSA 201027
Appendix: Performance Specifications
Parameter Value Comment
Number of Input Channels
•VATA450/451
•VATA460/...
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Multi-channel Detector Readout Integrated Circuits with ADCs for X-ray and Gamma-ray Spectroscopy in Space

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We are developing detector readout integrated circuits (ROICs) for X-ray and Gamma-ray spectroscopy. The ROICs are applications specific (ASICs) for satellite instrumentation in space. The ICs described in this article belong to the VATA family with integrated analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) for fully digital readout of x-ray and gamma-ray detectors. The VATAs are ideal for the readout of cadmium zinc telluride (CZT), cadmium telluride (CdTe), silicon pads and strips, and large area avalanche photodiodes (APDs) with scintillators.

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Multi-channel Detector Readout Integrated Circuits with ADCs for X-ray and Gamma-ray Spectroscopy in Space

  1. 1. AMICSA 20101 Multi-channel Detector Readout Integrated Circuits with ADCs for X-ray and Gamma-ray Spectroscopy in Space Sindre Mikkelsen1 , Dirk Meier1 , Jahanzad Talebi1 , Suleyman Azman1 , Gunnar Mæhlum1 1 Integrated Detector Electronics AS Monday, September 6th 2010, 15:00 – 15:30
  2. 2. AMICSA 20102 Abstract We are developing detector readout integrated circuits (ROICs) for X-ray and Gamma-ray spectroscopy. The ROICs are applications specific (ASICs) for satellite instrumentation in space. The ICs described in this article belong to the VATA family with integrated analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) for fully digital readout of x-ray and gamma-ray detectors. The VATAs are ideal for the readout of cadmium zinc telluride (CZT), cadmium telluride (CdTe), silicon pads and strips, and large area avalanche photodiodes (APDs) with scintillators. The VATAs contain 32 and 64 pre-amplifiers each followed by pulse shaping circuits and level comparators for triggering and address encoding. Each channel contains a Wilkinson ADC that generates a 10-bit digital word proportional to the amplitude of the input pulse. Upon interaction of radiation in the sensor the VATA delivers digital signals proportional to the energy of the photon as well as a digital address corresponding to the point of interaction. The power dissipation is as low as 0.2 mW per channel during normal operation. VATAs are currently under test for the soft gamma-ray detector (SGD) and the hard x-ray imager (HXI) on board of the ASTRO-H satellite mission to launch in 2014 (formerly NeXT). Both detectors are Compton cameras based on silicon pads and strips, CdTe pixels and pixels, and APDs with BGO scintillators. ASTRO-H will help to study the evolution and structure of the universe. ASICs of the same family are also under test for one instrument in the Mercury Plasma Particle Experiment (MPPE) on board of the BepiColombo mission to Mercury and for the FOXSI rocket experiment. This article describes the VATA architecture and presents results from tests in the lab.
  3. 3. AMICSA 20103 Introduction A Family of recently developed Multi-Channel Radiation Detector Readout ASICs. • Radiation Energy Spectroscopy • Radiation Imaging The ASIC family is at the moment being utilized for the following space missions: • ASTRO-H (JAXA) • BepiColombo MMO (JAXA) • FOXSI (NASA/JAXA) Criteria for the ASICs • Very low power dissipation • Low electronic noise • Size and weight – high level of electronic readout integration
  4. 4. AMICSA 20104 Space Application (1) ASTRO-H GM-I supplies ROICs for 2 instruments: HXI, SGDGM-I supplies ROICs for 2 instruments: HXI, SGD Picture: JAXA
  5. 5. AMICSA 20105 Space Application (2) BepiColombo MMO GM-I supplies ROICs for the MPPE instrument.GM-I supplies ROICs for the MPPE instrument. Picture: JAXA
  6. 6. AMICSA 20106 Astro-H, BepiColombo (Astro-H, BepiColombo (HXI, SGD, MPPE)HXI, SGD, MPPE) • The Hard X-ray Imager (HXI)The Hard X-ray Imager (HXI) – 4 layers of double-sided silicon strip detectors4 layers of double-sided silicon strip detectors (DSSD) absorbs soft X-rays (<30keV), but(DSSD) absorbs soft X-rays (<30keV), but transparent for hard X-rays (>30keV)transparent for hard X-rays (>30keV) – 1 layer of double-sided CdTe detector detects hard1 layer of double-sided CdTe detector detects hard X-rays (20keV...80keV)X-rays (20keV...80keV) – BGO well is active shieldBGO well is active shield • The Soft Gamma-ray Detector (SGD) is aThe Soft Gamma-ray Detector (SGD) is a – non-focusing soft gamma-ray, 10—600 keVnon-focusing soft gamma-ray, 10—600 keV – narrow-FOV Compton telescope, rejectsnarrow-FOV Compton telescope, rejects background radiationbackground radiation • GM-I delivers the Read Out Integrated Circuits for theGM-I delivers the Read Out Integrated Circuits for the Silicon and CdTe detectorsSilicon and CdTe detectors • BepiColombo MMO MPPEBepiColombo MMO MPPE • Single sided strip detectorSingle sided strip detector • Measure High Energy Particle energy to investigateMeasure High Energy Particle energy to investigate thethe the structure and dynamics of the Mercury'sthe structure and dynamics of the Mercury's magnetosphere.magnetosphere. JAXA / KIPAC [Watanabe, vertex 2009]
  7. 7. AMICSA 20107 Design criteria • ASTRO-H SGD (VATA450), launch 2014: – Very low power – Medium DNR • ASTRO-H HXI (VATA461), launch 2014 and FOXSI (VATA451), launch 2011: – Low noise, medium power – Low DNR • BepiColombo MPPE (VATA460), launch Aug. 2013: – Low power – High DNR – Medium noise – Large temperature range
  8. 8. AMICSA 20108 Radiation Detector Principle
  9. 9. AMICSA 20109 VATA-ASIC Basic Functionality Functionality Concept Input: Readout of 32/64 radiation sensors/electrodes/strips/pixels 32/64 parallel & independent inputs channels, current input Signal processing • amplitude spectroscopy • simultaneously and independent 32/64 x analog signal processing: • charge sensitive amplifiers CSAs, • Semi-Gaussian shapers, • Discriminators •10 bit ADC (integrating) •Digital signal processing Data sparsification •Analog amplitude discriminators to identify events •Digital data processing to minimize data output Output: Delivers •Asynchrounous trigger signal •Digitized amplitude and pixel address The trigger is set immediately after first crossing of amplitude threshold. Digital data is read out synchrounously by the system.
  10. 10. AMICSA 201010 ASIC TL architecture Four distinct modes of operation: – Initialization – Acquisition (FE) – Conversion (ADC) – Readout (BE)
  11. 11. AMICSA 201011 ASIC FE Channel Architecture
  12. 12. AMICSA 201012 The VATA PRINCIPLE
  13. 13. AMICSA 201013 ADC Architecture • 32/64 channels converted in parallel • Integrating single slope ADC (”Wilkinson”) • 10 bit resolution • 10MHz conversion clock speed • 1mW/channel power consumption default, tunable between 0.5-2mW • 6 bit programmable offset correction • Common mode calculation • Termination of conversion phase when all channels have been converted
  14. 14. AMICSA 201014 Back-End Architecture • Digital data reduction • Output data format: – Status bits – Trigger map – ADC data
  15. 15. AMICSA 201015 VATA-ASIC Extended Functionality Function Implementation User can adjust •internal bias values •adjust all thresholds individually •enable or disable channels, adjust gain, adjust power/noise, test individual channels progammable configuration register Internal calibration pulse generation Individual channels can be tested through a digital interface Combine several ASICs ASICs can be Daisy-chained for serial read-out, control and configuration Compensate change of external temperature Differential signals Compensate large detector leakage current current compensation network Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) protection Customized diodes at the inputs, optimized for low noise
  16. 16. AMICSA 201016 ASIC Layout JAXA / KIPAC [Watanabe, vertex 2009]
  17. 17. AMICSA 201017 Test results – Energy Spectroscopy (1) VATA450 (low power) JAXA / KIPAC [Watanabe et al., Vertex 2009] Data taken by JAXA / KIPAC VA32TA6 VATA450
  18. 18. AMICSA 201018 Test results – Energy Spectroscopy (2) VATA451 (low noise) JAXA / KIPAC [Saito et al.,, SPIE 2010] Noise (ENC) VATA450 59 +14 e/pF VATA451 27 +6.6 e/pF VATA460 179 +16 e/pF VATA461 34 + 5.5 e/pF ASIC measurements, by GM-I
  19. 19. AMICSA 201019 Test results (3) VATA460 (HDR) Threshold of Noise Energy Resolution (FWHM) Energy measurement Thresh-hold Energy[keV] Temperature[degree] Measurements performed by Takashima et al, JAXA.
  20. 20. AMICSA 201020 Test results (4) VATA460 (HDR) Energy Resolution (FWHM) Under CC-on Energy Resolution (FWHM) under CC-off Noise level under CC-off Noise level under CC-on Temperature[degree] Energy[keV] Measurements performed by Takashima et al, JAXA.
  21. 21. AMICSA 201021 Radiation Tolerance and Latch-up Reference: H.Aihara, M. Hazumi, H. Ishino, J. Kaneko, Y. Li, D. Marlow, S. Mikkelsen, D. Nguyen, E. Nygaard, H. Tajima, J. Talebi, G. Vamer, H. Yamamoto, and M. Yokoyama, ”Development of Front-end Electronics for Belle SVD Upgrades”, IEEE, Proc. Nucl. Sci. Symp. Conf. Rec. 2000, Vol. 2, 9/213 – 9/216. • The most sensitive structures have been tested for radiation tolerance • ASIC fabricated in 0.35um CMOS process with epitaxial layer. • ASIC fabrication process has been choosen for good radiation tolerance and latch- up immunity. • Initial SEL tests have been performed, and the design has passed these.
  22. 22. AMICSA 201022 Radiation test of VATA460 Radiation test by 6MeV/n He. Measurements performed by Takashima et al, JAXA. Gain Noise
  23. 23. AMICSA 201023 Legacy of GM-I ASICs in Space Selection of most known missions: • AGILE (launched April 2007). Two different ASICs for the ST instrument and the SuperAGILE instrument: Luigi Pacciani, Ennio Morelli, Alda Rubini, Marcello Mastropietro, Geiland Porrovecchio, Enrico Costa, Ettore Del Monte, Immacolata Donnarumma, Yuri Evangelista, Marco Feroci, Francesco Lazzarotto, Massimo Rapisarda, Paolo Soffitta, “SuperAGILE Onboard Electronics and Ground Test Instruments”, Nucl. Instr. Meth. A 574, 2, 2007, 330-341. • STEREO/PLASTIC (launched Oct. 2006, http://stereo.sr.unh.edu/): A.B. Galvin et al., “The Plasma and Suprathermal Ion Compositioin (PLASTIC) Investigation on the STEREO Observatories”, Space Science Reviews, 136, 1-4, April 2008. • SWIFT/Burst Alert Telescope (launched Nov. 2004): L.M. Barbier, F. Birsa, J. Odom, S.D. Barthelmy, N. Gehrels, J.F. Krizmanic, D. Palmer, A.M. Parsons C.M. Stahle, J. Tueller, “XA Readout Chip Characterization and CdZnTe Spectral Measurements”, IEEE, Trans. Nucl. Sci. 46(1), 7, 1999. • AMS (AMS-01 launch 1998, AMS-02 launch 2011): B. Alpat, ”Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS02) Experiment on the International Space Station ISS”, Nucl. Sci. Tech. 14, 3, 2003. • CREAM (balloon experiment, launch Dec. 2004): M.G. Bagliesi, C. Avanzini, G. Bigongiari, A. Caldarone, R. Cecchi, M.Y. Kim, P. Maestro, P.S. Marrocchesi, F.Morsani, R. Zei, “Front-end electronics with large dynamic range for space-borne cosmic ray experiments”, Nucl. Phys. Proc. Suppl. 172:156-158, 2007. • GRIPS (balloon experiment, launch 2012). • CALET, (launch 2013). To be installed on the ISS. • ASIM (approved for ISS): S. Mikkelsen et al., ” A Low Power and Low Noise Multi-Channel ASIC for X- Ray and Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy in Space”, Proceedings of AMICSA 2008.
  24. 24. AMICSA 201024 Single-event Upset (SEU) • All configuration registers are implemented with majority vote flip-flops, with 3 storage cells. • Automatic error correction • Upsets are flagged externally using the trigger line. • Occurence of SEU events is flagged in the output data stream. Reference: Samo Korpar, Peter Krizan, Sasa Fratina, ”SEU Studies of the Upgraded Belle Vertex Detector Front-End Electronics”, Nucl. Instr. Meth., A 511 (2003) 195–199.
  25. 25. AMICSA 201025 Summary • We developed a family of X-ray and Gamma detector Read Out ASICs, suitable for a number of space missions. • Main achievements are. – Reduced power dissipation – Low noise – High level of integration • Other applications include: – Nuclear medicine – Security applications – High energy physic
  26. 26. AMICSA 201026 Acknowledgments We would like to thank our colleagues at JAXA and Kavli/Stanford for good collaboration, and for allowing us to use their test results in this presentation.
  27. 27. AMICSA 201027 Appendix: Performance Specifications Parameter Value Comment Number of Input Channels •VATA450/451 •VATA460/461 64 32 Readout for 32/64 pixels Input charge dynamic range •VATA450 •VATA451 •VATA460 •VATA461 ±16 ±1.6 ±72 ±5.5 Charge (fC), linear range. Some of the ASICs have much higher saturation range at higher non-linearity. TP slow (VATA450/451//460/461) TP fast 3/ 3/ 2/ 3.5 0.6/ 0.6/ 0.3 / 0.6 µs. Default settings. Power consumption •VATA450 •VATA451 •VATA460 •VATA461 0.25 1.16 0.336 1.28 Power consumption per channel (mW), nominal bias settings. Acquisition mode. Electronic noise of CSA •VATA450 •VATA451 •VATA460 •VATA461 59 e + 14e / pF 27 e + 6.6e / pF 179 e + 16e /pF 34 e + 5.5e /pF Baseline noise and noise slope. At default bias values. Detector Capacitance 5-7 Optimization value (pF). Detector Leakage Current 10pA Optimization value. VATA460 has been designed to tolerate up to 36nA.

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