READING COMPREHENSION
STRATEGY FLIP CHART
Before, During and After Reading Comprehension
Strategies for Non-Fiction Texts
...
What are Reading Strategies?
• Reading strategies are methods used by a reader to assist in
comprehending and thinking abo...
STRATEGIES FOR COMPREHENSION
BEFORE READING
ANTICIPATION GUIDE
CONCEPT SORT
LISTEN-READ-DISCUSS
THINK-PAIR-SHARE
VISUAL IM...
BEFORE READING STRATEGY:
ANTICIPATION GUIDE
What it is:
• An anticipation guide is a
comprehension strategy that is
used b...
BEFORE READING STRATEGY:
CONCEPT SORT
What it is:
• A concept sort is a vocabulary
and comprehension strategy
used to fami...
BEFORE READING STRATEGY:
LISTEN-READ-DISCUSS
What it is:
• The listen-read-discuss strategy
helps students comprehend
text...
BEFORE READING STRATEGY:
THINK-PAIR-SHARE
What it is:
• A collaborative learning strategy
where students work together to
...
BEFORE READING STRATEGY:
VISUAL IMAGERY
What it is:
• Good readers construct mental
images as they read a text.
• By using...
DURING READING STRATEGY:
CONCEPT MAPS
What it is:
• A concept map is a visual
organizer that can enrich students'
understa...
DURING READING STRATEGY:
INQUIRY CHART
What it is:
• The Inquiry Chart (I-chart) is a
strategy that enables students to
ga...
DURING READING STRATEGY:
JIGSAW
What it is:
• Jigsaw is a cooperative learning
strategy that enables each student of
a "ho...
DURING READING STRATEGY:
PARAGRAPH SHRINKING
What it is:
• Paragraph shrinking is an
activity developed as part of
the Pee...
DURING READING STRATEGY:
PARTNER READING
What it is:
• Partner reading is a cooperative
learning strategy in which two
stu...
AFTER READING STRATEGY:
EXIT SLIPS
What it is:
• Exit slips are written student
responses to questions teachers
pose at th...
AFTER READING STRATEGY:
QUESTION-ANSWER-RELATIONSHIP
What it is:
• The question–answer
relationship (QAR) strategy
helps s...
AFTER READING STRATEGY:
QUESTION THE AUTHOR
What it is:
• Questioning the author is a
strategy that engages students
activ...
AFTER READING STRATEGY:
STORY MAPS
What it is:
• A story map is a strategy that
uses a graphic organizer to help
students ...
AFTER READING STRATEGY:
SUMMARIZING
What it is:
• Summarizing teaches students
how to discern the most
important ideas in ...
References
Bursuck, W. D., & Damer, M. (2011). Teaching reading to students who are
at risk or have disabilities a multi-t...
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  1. 1. READING COMPREHENSION STRATEGY FLIP CHART Before, During and After Reading Comprehension Strategies for Non-Fiction Texts Maeghan McLaughlin RED 4348 – Critical Assignment #1 Slide Share Presentation
  2. 2. What are Reading Strategies? • Reading strategies are methods used by a reader to assist in comprehending and thinking about texts, when reading the words alone does not give the reader a sense of the meaning of a text. • When students know how to use these tools correctly, they are able to tackle challenging texts with greater independence and understanding.
  3. 3. STRATEGIES FOR COMPREHENSION BEFORE READING ANTICIPATION GUIDE CONCEPT SORT LISTEN-READ-DISCUSS THINK-PAIR-SHARE VISUAL IMAGERY DURING READING CONCEPT MAPS INQUIRY CHART JIGSAW PARAGRAPH SHRINKING PARTNER READING AFTER READING EXIT SLIPS QUESTION-ANSWER-RELATIONSHIP QUESTION THE AUTHOR STORY MAPS SUMMARIZING
  4. 4. BEFORE READING STRATEGY: ANTICIPATION GUIDE What it is: • An anticipation guide is a comprehension strategy that is used before reading to activate students' prior knowledge and build curiosity about a new topic. • Before reading, students listen to or read several statements about key concepts presented in the text; they're often structured as a series of statements with which the students can choose to agree or disagree. • Anticipation guides stimulate students' interest in a topic and set a purpose for reading. What it looks like: How to do it: 1. Teacher writes four to six statements about key ideas in the text; some true, some false. Columns follow each statement, and can be labeled or left blank. 2. Teacher models process by introducing text or reading material and shares guide with students. Teacher models process of responding to statements and marking columns. 3. Teacher reads each statement and asks students if they agree or disagree. Opportunity for discussion is provided. Emphasis is not on right answers but on sharing what students know and making predictions. 4. Teacher reads text aloud (or students read the selection individually), reading slowly and stopping at places in text that correspond to each statement. 5. Bring closure to reading by revisiting each statement.
  5. 5. BEFORE READING STRATEGY: CONCEPT SORT What it is: • A concept sort is a vocabulary and comprehension strategy used to familiarize students with the vocabulary of a new topic or book. • Teachers provide students with a list of terms or concepts from reading material. Students place words into different categories based on each word's meaning. • Categories can be defined by the teacher or by the students. Concept sorts provide an opportunity for a teacher to see what his or her students already know about the given content. What it looks like: How to do it: 1. To teach a concept or vocabulary that is presented in a book, the teacher chooses 10-15 relevant, important words from the book. 2. Working individually, in small groups or as a class, students sort the cards or objects into meaningful groups. The groups (or categories) can be pre- defined by the teacher (often called a closed sort) or by the students (often called an open sort). 3. Teacher and students discuss the categories used within the different groups. Students describe why certain cards were placed within certain groups.
  6. 6. BEFORE READING STRATEGY: LISTEN-READ-DISCUSS What it is: • The listen-read-discuss strategy helps students comprehend text. • Before reading, students listen to a short lecture delivered by the teacher. The students then read a text selection about the topic. • After reading, there is a large group discussion or students engage in small group discussions about the topic. • During the discussion, students compare and contrast the information from the lecture with the information they read. What it looks like: How to do it: 1. Listen: Teacher presents information to students about the book they will be reading. This can be in the form of a short lecture on the topic, using a graphic organizer to guide the lecture. 2. Read: Teacher asks students to read a text selection. The content should be similar to the material presented during the "listen" portion of the lesson. 3. Discuss: Teacher leads a classroom discussion of the material, encouraging students to reflect on any differences between their reading of the content and the presentation.
  7. 7. BEFORE READING STRATEGY: THINK-PAIR-SHARE What it is: • A collaborative learning strategy where students work together to solve a problem or answer a question about assigned reading. • This technique requires students to (1) think individually about a topic or answer to a question; and (2) share ideas with classmates. • Discussing an answer with a partner serves to maximize participation, focus attention and engage students in comprehending the reading material. What it looks like: How to do it: 1. Teacher decides upon text to be read and develops set of questions or prompts that target key content concepts. 2. Teacher describes purpose of strategy and provides guidelines for discussions. 3. Teacher models procedure to ensure students understand how to use strategy. 4. Teacher monitors and supports students as they work through following: T : (Think) Teachers begin by asking a specific question about the text. Students "think" about what they know or have learned about the topic. P : (Pair) Each student should be paired with another student or a small group. S : (Share) Students share their thinking with their partner. Teachers expand the "share" into a whole-class discussion.
  8. 8. BEFORE READING STRATEGY: VISUAL IMAGERY What it is: • Good readers construct mental images as they read a text. • By using prior knowledge and background experiences, readers connect the author's writing with a personal picture. • Through guided visualization, students learn how to create mental pictures as they read. What it looks like: How to do it: 1. Teacher begins reading, pausing after a few sentences or paragraphs that contain good descriptive information. 2. Teacher models by sharing the image created in their mind, and talks about which words from the book helped them "draw" their picture. The mental picture can relate to the setting, characters, or actions. 3. Teacher talks about how these pictures help to understand what's happening in the story. Teacher continues reading, pausing again and sharing new image created. Students share what they “see.” 4. Teacher asks what words helped students create their mental images. Students continue to practice this new skill and can talk about why their images might be different. 5. Students are encouraged to use mental imagery when reading alone to help with understanding the story better.
  9. 9. DURING READING STRATEGY: CONCEPT MAPS What it is: • A concept map is a visual organizer that can enrich students' understanding of a new concept. • Using a graphic organizer, students think about the concept in several ways. • Most concept map organizers engage students in answering questions such as, "What is it? What is it like? What are some examples?" • Concept maps deepen understanding and comprehension. What it looks like: How to do it: 1. Teacher models how to identify the major ideas or concepts presented in a selection of text while reading aloud. 2. Teacher organizes the ideas into categories and reminds students that the organization may change as reading continues, adding more information. 3. Teacher uses lines or arrows on the map to represent how ideas are connected to one another, a particular category, and/or the main concept. Amount of information on the map is limited to avoid frustration. 4. After students have finished the map, teacher encourages them to share and reflect on how they each made the connections between concepts. 5. Students are encouraged to use the concept map to summarize what was read.
  10. 10. DURING READING STRATEGY: INQUIRY CHART What it is: • The Inquiry Chart (I-chart) is a strategy that enables students to gather information about a topic from several sources. • Teachers design the I-chart around several questions about a topic. • Students read or listen to several sources on the topic and record answers to the posed questions within the I-chart. • Students generate a summary in the final row. Different answers from various perspectives can be explored as a class. What it looks like: How to do it: 1. Teacher provides each student with a blank I- chart and assists with topic selection OR provides the pre-selected topic. 2. Students engage in forming questions about the topic. Those questions are placed at the top of each individual column. 3. Rows are for recording any information students already know and the key ideas pulled from several different sources of information. The last row gives students the opportunity to pull together the ideas into a general summary. 4. Teachers may ask students to resolve competing ideas found in the separate sources or develop new questions to explore based on any conflicting or incomplete information.
  11. 11. DURING READING STRATEGY: JIGSAW What it is: • Jigsaw is a cooperative learning strategy that enables each student of a "home" group to specialize in one aspect of a topic (for example, one group studies habitats of rainforest animals, another group studies predators of rainforest animals). • Students meet with members from other groups who are assigned the same aspect, and after mastering the material, return to the "home" group and teach the material to their group members. • With this strategy, each student in the "home" group serves as a piece of the topic's puzzle and when they work together as a whole, they create the complete jigsaw puzzle. What it looks like: How to do it: 1. Teacher introduces strategy and topic to be studied and assigns each student to a "home group" of 3-5 students. 2. Teacher determines a set of reading selections and assigns one selection to each student. Teacher then creates "expert groups" that consist of students across "home groups" who will read the same selection. 3. Key questions are provided to students to help the "expert groups" gather information in their particular area. Materials and resources are also provided as necessary for all students to learn about their topics and become "experts." 4. Discussion is given for rules of reconvening into "home groups" and guidelines are provided as each "expert" reports the information learned. 5. A summary chart or graphic organizer is prepared for each "home group" as a guide for organizing the experts' information report. 6. Students are advised that "home group" members are responsible to learn all content from one another.
  12. 12. DURING READING STRATEGY: PARAGRAPH SHRINKING What it is: • Paragraph shrinking is an activity developed as part of the Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies (PALS). • The paragraph shrinking strategy allows each student to take turns reading, pausing, and summarizing the main points of each paragraph. • Students provide each other with feedback as a way to monitor comprehension. What it looks like: How to do it: 1. Teacher chooses assigned reading and introduces text to students. Pairs are chosen by identifying which children require help on specific skills and who the most appropriate children are to help other children. 2. Teacher models the procedure. Each member of the teacher-assigned pair takes a turn being "Coach" and "Player.“ Each student is asked to read aloud for 5 minutes without rereading a text. 3. After each paragraph, students should stop to summarize the main points of the reading. Students are asked to then summarize the who or what of the paragraph, the most important thing about who or what, and the main idea. 4. If a "Player" ever gives a wrong answer, the "Coach" asks "Player" to skim the paragraph again and answer question a second time. Students are asked to state the main idea in 10 words or less to encourage them to monitor comprehension while taking turns reading. 5. Teacher awards each pair points when the above goals of the strategy are met.
  13. 13. DURING READING STRATEGY: PARTNER READING What it is: • Partner reading is a cooperative learning strategy in which two students are encouraged to work together to read an assigned text. • Allows students to take turns reading and provide each other with feedback as a way to monitor comprehension. • Provides a model of fluent reading and helps students learn decoding skills by offering positive feedback. • Provides direct opportunities for a teacher to circulate in the class, observe students, and offer individual remediation. What it looks like: How to do it: 1. Teacher chooses assigned reading and introduces text to students. Pairs are created by identifying which children require help on specific skills and who the most appropriate children are to help other children learn those skills. 2. Teacher models the procedure and then has each member of the assigned pair take turns being "Coach" and "Player." These pairs are changed regularly, and over a period of time as students work. Thus, all students have the opportunity to be "coaches" and "players." Teachers monitor and support students as they work together. 3. The stronger reader begins this activity as the "Player" and reads orally for 5 minutes. The "Coach" follows along and corrects any mistakes when necessary. 4. The pair switch roles and the weaker reader becomes the "Player." The "Player" rereads the same passage for the next 5 minutes and the "Coach" provides corrective feedback. One point is earned for each correct sentence read (optional).
  14. 14. AFTER READING STRATEGY: EXIT SLIPS What it is: • Exit slips are written student responses to questions teachers pose at the end of a class or lesson. • These quick, informal assessments enable teachers to quickly assess students' understanding of the material. What it looks like: How to do it: 1. At the end of an assigned reading, students are asked to respond to a question or prompt. Note: There are three categories of exit slips (Fisher & Frey, 2004): 1. Prompts that document learning: —Example: Write one thing you learned today. 2. Prompts that emphasize the process of learning: —Example: I didn't understand… 3. Prompts to evaluate the effectiveness of instruction: —Example: Did you enjoy working in small groups today? 4. Other exit prompts include: —I would like to learn more about… —Please explain more about… 2. Exit slips are distributed on 3x5 cards for students to write down their responses. Prompts can also be stated orally to students or projected visually on an overhead or blackboard. 3. Teacher reviews exit slips to determine how to alter instruction to better meet the needs of all students.
  15. 15. AFTER READING STRATEGY: QUESTION-ANSWER-RELATIONSHIP What it is: • The question–answer relationship (QAR) strategy helps students understand the different types of questions. • By learning that the answers to some questions are "Right There" in the text, that some answers require a reader to "Think and Search," and that some answers can only be answered "On My Own," students recognize that they must first consider the question before developing an answer. What it looks like: How to do it: 1. Teacher explains to students that there are four types of questions they will encounter and defines each type of question with an example. 2. Four types of questions are examined in the QAR: 1. Right There Questions: Literal questions whose answers can be found in the text. 2. Think and Search Questions: Answers are gathered from several parts of the text and put together to make meaning. 3. Author and You: These questions are based on information provided in the text but the student is required to relate it to their own experience. 4. On My Own: These questions do not require the student to have read the passage but he/she must use their background or prior knowledge to answer the question. 3. Teacher reads a short passage aloud to students and then reads predetermined questions aloud to students before modeling how to decide which type of question is being asked. 4. Teacher shows students how find information to answer the question (i.e., in the text, from your own experiences, etc.).
  16. 16. AFTER READING STRATEGY: QUESTION THE AUTHOR What it is: • Questioning the author is a strategy that engages students actively with a text. • Rather than reading and taking information from a text, the QTA strategy encourages students to ask questions of the author and the text. • Through forming their questions, students learn more about the text. • Students learn to ask questions such as: • What is the author's message? • Does the author explain this clearly? • How does this connect to what the author said earlier? What it looks like: How to do it: 1. Teacher selects a passage that is both interesting and can spur a good conversation. Appropriate stopping points are also pre-decided where students might need to obtain a greater understanding. 2. Teacher creates queries or questions for each stopping point. 1. What is the author trying to say? 2. Why do you think the author used the following phrase? 3. Does this make sense to you? 3. Teacher displays a short passage to students along with one or two queries pre-designed ahead of time. 4. Teacher models for students how to think through the queries. 5. Students are asked to read and work through the queries teacher prepared for their readings.
  17. 17. AFTER READING STRATEGY: STORY MAPS What it is: • A story map is a strategy that uses a graphic organizer to help students learn the elements of a book or story. • By identifying story characters, plot, setting, problem and solution, students read carefully to learn the details. • There are many different types of story map graphic organizers. • The most basic focus on the beginning, middle, and end of the story. • More advanced organizers focus more on plot or character traits. What it looks like: How to do it: 1. Teacher discusses the main components of a story (e.g., characters, setting, plot and theme OR beginning, middle, end) or work of non-fiction. 2. Each student is provided with a blank story map organizer and teacher models how to complete it. 3. As students read, they are to complete the story map. After reading, they should fill in any missing parts.
  18. 18. AFTER READING STRATEGY: SUMMARIZING What it is: • Summarizing teaches students how to discern the most important ideas in a text, how to ignore irrelevant information, and how to integrate the central ideas in a meaningful way. • Teaching students to summarize improves their memory for what is read. • Summarization strategies can be used in almost every content area. What it looks like: How to do it: 1. Students begin by reading OR listen to teacher read the text selection. 2. Students are asked the following framework questions: 1. What are the main ideas? 2. What are the crucial details necessary for supporting the ideas? 3. What information is irrelevant or unnecessary? 3. Teacher has students use key words or phrases to identify the main points from the text.
  19. 19. References Bursuck, W. D., & Damer, M. (2011). Teaching reading to students who are at risk or have disabilities a multi-tier approach. (2ed.). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc. Reading Rockets. Readingrockets.org. Retrieved March 31, 2014, from http://www.readingrockets.org. ReadWriteThink. Readwritethink.org. Retrieved March 31, 2014, from http://www.readwritethink.org.

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