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1. CYCLOSIS - in protists (e. g. protozoans) these interchanges of materials are
accomplished by streaming movements of the cytoplasm, called cyclosis within their
2. DIFFUSION – simple multicellular organism like sponges have exchanges of materials
accomplished by diffusion between the cells and adjacent body parts.
3. BLOOD CURCULATORY SYSTEM – more complex animals with organs and tissues have a
special system called the circulatory system or cardio-vascular system for internal
1. PLASMA – is the liquid portion of blood and serves as the medium for organic and inorganic molecules,
nutrients, wastes, and formed elements.
2. ERYTHROCYTES – red blood cells (RBC) are called erythrocytes (Greek: erythros = red + kytos = cell).
- also called red blood corpuscles (little bodies), a term which is technically preferable
because matured RBC do not contain nuclei.
3. LEUKOCYTES – white blood cells (WBC) are called leukocytes (Greek: leukes= white + kytos = cell).
- they are less numerous, about 5,000 - 10,000/cu. mm. of blood in a healthy adult.
- an increase in the number of leukocytes (above the upper limit of 10,000.
Leukopenia - an abnormal decrease (below the lower limit 5,000). It may also result from radiation
sickness due to excessive exposure to gamma rays.
4. THROMBOCYTES – blood platelets or thrombocytes are the smallest (2-5 microns) of the formed
- these oval granular bodies are fragment of large cells and found in the red bone
marrow is called megakaryocytes.
Thrombocytopenia - a marked reduction.
Thrombocytosis - a marked increase.
BLOOD CLOTTING MECHANISM
Fluidity of blood is delicately balanced. If blood was not liquid, it could not
function, and yet if it could not solidify, any small wound would allow the blood to
escape unstopped, as it does in victims of the “bleeders disease” called
Blood does not clot inside blood vessel because the enzyme thrombin is not
present in circulating blood.
Blood clots that form in the tissues and in small vessels are eventually dissolved
by a process known fibrinolysis.
Chemical agents such as citrates and oxalates are anticoagulants, used in hospital
laboratories to prevent blood from clotting when it is taken out of the blood
ABNORMAL CLOTTING OF BLOOD
Intravascular coagulation or thromboembolism refers to abnormal clotting inside
blood vessels of a living person.
A stationary blood clot is called a thrombus
May partially or totally block a blood vessel in which it is formed is called
Hemophillia is the classic heredity disease in which a sex-linked characteristics is
transmitted by females, but in which the bleeding difficulties occur exclusively in
BLOOD TYPING – ABO and Rh SYSTEMS
The plasma membrane of RBC contains molecules that may differ from one individuals to the next.
When the blood of one individual is given to another, certain molecules can act as antigens in the
recipient, this antigen is agglutinogens are known as Type A and Type B and blood is typed
according to presence or absence of these antigens.
Within the plasma, there are antibodies called agglutinins specifically the alpha and beta making
it possible for the plasma to clump or agglutinate certain RBC of introduced blood, thus stopping
circulation of the recipient’s bloodstream.
In the simplified ABO System, there are four blood types: A, B, AB, and O based on the types of
agglutinogens and agglutinins present.
TYPE ANTIGEN or RBC
ANTIBODY IN PLASMA
A A Beta (Anti- B)
B B Alpha (Anti- A)
AB A, B NONE
O NONE Alpha and Beta
HEREDITY OF HUMAN BLOOD GROUPS
POSSIBLE NOT POSSIBLE
O X O O A, B, AB
O X A O , A B, AB
A X A O, A B, AB
O X B O, B A, AB
B X B O, B A, AB
A X B
O X AB A, B O, AB
A X AB A, B ,AB O
B X AB A, B ,AB O
AB X AB A, B, AB O
HEREDITY OF BLOOD GROUPS
A B AB O
A - + - +
B + - - +
AB + + - +
O - - - -
BLOOD TRANSFUSION (ABO System)
Legend + (Unsafe transfusion)
- (Safe transfusion)
When people undergo surgeries, they often require a blood transfusion,
the procedure of transferring blood from one person (donor) to another
(recipient). Some people today are storing blood that they themselves
might use later. That is appropriate if they expect to undergo surgery
some time soon. In most cases, donors and recipient are two separate
For a recipient to receive blood safely from a donor, his blood must
not have agglutinin that would cause the donors RBC to
agglutinate. For this reason, it is important to know the person’s
of Human Blood
for its beating.
HEART CHAMBERS AND VALVES
1. RIGHT ATRIUM – it receives blood from the upper portion of the
body via the superior vena cava.
2. LEFT ATRIUM –receives oxygenated blood from the lungs by the
way of pulmonary veins.
3. RIGHT VENTRICE – receives blood from the right atrium and
following the closure f the tricuspid valves, pumps blood through
4. LEFT VENTRICLE - receives oxygenated blood coming from the
Modified Cardiac Muscles Fibers and Heart Beat
One very important properly of the cardiac muscled is rhythmicity, the inherent ability
to contract rhythmically in the absence of external stimuli.
A second modified myocardium is the A –V Node (Atrio – ventricular Node) which is
located in the lower part of the interatrial septum, near the opening of the coronory
One cardiac cycle means one complete heartbeat. Systole refers to the period of
contraction of the heart muscles. Diastole refers to the relaxation of the heart
Heart contracts or beats about 70 -80 times/ min.
Factors which influence the heartbeat rate are:
When the heart beats, the familiar lub-dub sound is heard especially during auscultation
(listening to internal body sounds), as the heart valves close. The lub sound is due to the
closure of the bicuspid valves, tricuspid valves and ventricular contraction and the faint dub
sound due to closure of semilunar valves.
Heart murmurs or a slight slush sound after the lub, are often due to the ineffective valves
that allow blood to backflow to the atria.
Such abnormality may be caused by rheumatic fever resulting from a bacterial infection of
BLOOD VESSELS, LYMPHATIC
SYSTEM AND IMMUNITY
1. Arteries and Arterioles
Arteries are thick-walled vessels conveying blood from the heart to all tissues of the
body. This alternate expansion and contraction of arterial walls which corresponds to
the heart beat is known as the pulse.
Arterioles are small arteries just visible to naked eye. These small vessels branch into
much smaller microscopic branches called capillaries.
2. Veins and Venules
Veins are thin-walled vessels bringing blood from the tissue to the heart.
Venules are the small veins which drain blood from the capillaries.
in these instances, the superficial leg veins become dilated, and such condition is known as
the varicose veins.
Veins and Venules carry crimson red-colored blood to the heart which in turn sends it
to the lungs for oxygenation
refers to the force exerted by circulating blood against the walls of blood vessels in it is
arterial blood pressure which is the pressure most frequently determined in clinical
situations, is the exerted by blood against the walls of arteries.
two distinct pressure phases in the arteries
the systolic pressure
the diastolic pressure
Venous pressure – pressure of blood against the walls of veins.
Capillary pressure - pressure of blood against the capillary walls.
LYMPHATIC SYSTEM (Reticuloendothelial System)
consist of the lymphatic vessels the lymphoid organs, and the fluid called lymp
this system is closely associated with cardiovascular system:
the return of fluids escaping from capillaries back to circulating blood
the absorption of fatty acids and glycerols in the intestinal villi and transport them to the blood
and providing the body with immunity or defense against diseases.
1. Lymphatic Vessels – are very extensive vessels that are found through out the body much like the
2. Lymph – is the fluid that is present in the lymphatic vessels.
3. Lymphoid Organs – the organs composed of lymphatic tissue are called the lymphoid organs which are
areas of hemopoiesis and clean up of blood debris.
Lymph Nodes are the ovoid or round structures found at certain points along the lymphatic
Lymph Nodules found under wet epithelial surfaces that are frequently exposed to contamination,
such as the digestive tract, respiratory tract and genitourinary passages.
the Preyer’s Patches are the lymph nodules of the intestinal wall.
Pharyngeal Tonsil – is a mass of lymph nodules that is located on the posterior wall of
Two other masses of lymphoid tissue of the pharynx:
Tonsillitis is the inflammation of the palatine tonsils, and their removal is
Spleen – which is the largest of the lymphoid tissues, is located in the left
abdominal cavity just beneath the diaphragm and beside the stomach.
Thymus – located along the trachea just behind the sternum is a pinkish-gray
mass of lymphoid tissue that is relatively large in children and then undergoes
involution (decrease in size) after puberty.
1. General Defense – the first line of defense is designed to protect the body from
disease – causing agents from the environment.
This defense include the
• Integumentary System
• Sebaceous Glands
• Protective Proteins
2. Specific Defense – the body’s second line of defense take a little longer to act
because of their specificity and have mechanism designed to a particular threat.
1. Active Immunity – this method provides long lasting protection against a
disease – causing organism or pathogen.
2. Passive Immunity – this immunity occurs when an individual is given antibodies
to combat the disease.
3. Lymphokines – these are drugs being investigated as possible adjunct therapy
for cancer and AIDS because they stimulate leukocyte formation and/or
4. Blood Cell Growth Factors – growth factors are hormones that stimulate the
proliferation of leukocytes.
Certain human illnesses are believed to be due to the production
of antibodies that act against the individual’s own tissues.
SLE or Systemic Lupus Erythematosus