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THEY BECAME
WHAT
THEY BEHELD

WRITTEN BY
EDMUND CARPENTER

PHOTOGRAPHED BY
KEN HEYMAN

AN OUTERBRIDGE 3. DIENSTFREY /  BAL...
The text owes much to Marshall McLuhan who.  in
fact.  co-authored portions of an earlier version.  We are
indebted to the...
FOREWORD

I recently came across the following rules of
communication.  posted in a School of Journalism: 

1. Know your a...
DISLOCATIONS
Orly connect‘ me "as!  is salence
NT

 

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THE BEGINNING.  IS NOWAND Evgg

AS IT WAS IN
omo WITHOUT END. 

SHALL BE.  W

 

 

 

.5. If E I’ II
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# so

In the 1960's.  D€0D| f-3 spoke of "dropping out . .

NO _q. C,.3 Dropoing _out.  like SU. ’Clde,  ink. /O[Ve‘a a Ch...
THE NAME is THE NUMB
when a cop writes down your name.  he lattes you Wef-

As long as information is classified — In conte...
DECLASSIFICATION

When you declassify ar‘-ythzng,  you make " aVa"ab‘e
for new ciassiiication that is,  for the pr0dUC“f’"...
OBSOLESCENCE

Every time you put a new technO|09Y 8700'“ 3 3°°‘°‘Y-
the old technology becomes a iUt‘tl<Y3'd- 3"‘ "°“‘
iun...
flfi  PAST
d emmoi-. ment is easier to perceive than the
".90! l enwonment because no one is really
Vw'f, ¢ in it.  _ ,  ,
m...
j------’ ~

THE ISLANDER

. .we don-g know who discovered water.  but we’re ceria, ,.
'1 wasn't a fish. ‘ t. /Oh" CU/ kin
...
9.31
WIDE-EYEO WONDER OF THE CHILD

All discovery is accident or error Ignorance &
inadequacies leave openings tor errors & the...
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DICCOVIIIING

"Truth will not stand or stay or keep:  . ii I8 OWN’ "W
or not nt alt " Norman 0. Brown

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THE SMELL OF NEWNESS

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tines wtwn it SCf'lilS a hare “ Isaac...
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:GN0R| NG 01-0 AUDIENCE.  CREATING NEW «~ r»; '+‘-'= .:r'r; st13CmN". .rv

fig. -4,5, P. "v'€’Y‘_. ’ detail

N‘ exu| cs: I'...
HUMOR AS DECLASSIFIEI-I

One of Will Rogers funniest acts was simply to read the
daily newspaper aloud in a night club.  A...
ENTHRONING A NEW MEDIUM. 
DETHRONING AN OLD

The appearance ol any new medium leads to a shift in
media ratios.  recasting...
""""'

MATING MEDIA

Mating two media can simultaneously declassily old
cliché & reclassify new cliche.  The marriage of t...
area:  930“ W°”'d be Rep‘ 0“ '18 Darticular channel.  From
these the commentators would select programs shown
on a master ...
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-mg TRIBE THAT SWALLOW THE ' “

new regard themselves as]
mm” Tegtfirgrmey belong to a seamless web
partzo gresponsmiii...
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TRIBAL ARTIST

“Art" is a title traditionally reserved for works 01 _
sell-expression.  Aestheticians & art collect...
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ONE TOUCH OF NATURE MAKES

THE WHOLE WORLD KIN

mt it-—thal by means ol
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mg ans were set apart from daily li...
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SERVICE ENVIRONMENTS

Monarchs & millionaires created private wo. r=g3  M
private wealth.  Morgan 8. Astor,  imitating ...
labor.  is equally nonsensical.  The unemployed Negro
youth who demands admission into this environment

white who strives...
*

M| N|-ENVIRONMENTS

Aural,  tribal man lives in multiple mini-states,  not ih
homogenized state of literate,  commercia...
7

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g[hOOdS surround them.  Each must be governed
.  within:  all efforts a...
END I REBIRTH OF EXPERIENCE

Experience is now useless.  It's no good at high SP9“-
Wlth speed up at information,  practic...
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WORLD OF DIVIDED SENSES
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THE CROWDED STAGE

The senses aren't mere input channels:  they make their
own worlds of_ spaces & relations. _

Every sen...
habits or linguistic sense Absolutely nothing can be
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has no subj...
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THE LIVING TRUTH OF THE HUMAN FACE

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ALIENATION

Alienation from all senses save;  -
detachment-—the inability to teelat
Literate man not only concealed e...
- ~ ii’,  and when this was sung nboutbt

i— miiets.  it's probable listeners iolnod
~ - :1 inese emotions.  Hearing these...
VISUAL BIAS

Literate man divided up the senses and developed
separate art forms around each.  Writer.  musician‘. 
sculpt...
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POINT OF VIEW

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as one can receive & process many sounds from many
...
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.  PUTTING Ott Tl-IE AUt)tENt: E .  h '3 d M!  corporate images’;  ...
u£DlA its oootsiens

. .wnen Kennedy's body was brought back to New York

irom Los Angeles.  one cl us was at the airport ...
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THEY BECAME WHAT THEY BEHELD...
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TELEPHONE

"Hettc.  Centraf.  Give me Dr J22? “ Je-‘iv PW‘ "'-“"’9”°”-
The teteuhorte 3 said to be the only thtrg that can...
VIOLENCE & THE QUEST FOR IDENTITY

William James once wrote that no more liendish
torture could be devised than when you s...
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VEHICLES AS EXTENSION OF SELF

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BODY AS SCULPTURE

“In the native world, " writes Alan Lomax,  “painting

lives on the body,  sculpture is something you u...
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DRESS AS CELEBRATION OF IDENTITY

Man is the great pattern-maker & pattemperceiver. 
No matter how primitive his situation...
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LOVE MY LABEL LIKE MYSELF

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TO BE UGLY IS TO BE UNSPECIFIED

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DRESS UNDER DURE88

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- peowe :...
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REDISCOVERY OF ‘ma aopy

Literate man valued the delimited,  controlling self
W': ll<‘: l"l_lle equated with the rational ...
canned-food world,  out off from personal sensations_
He was ashamed of his body.  He avoided nudity; 

was obsessed by to...
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BEAUTY LIFE IS BODY LOVE

 .  . and what do you think that pride was drest in? "

Pride of self dresses itself in pride of...
SWINGING

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PLAY

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leisure meant the absence oi work.  or mere idleness. 
The re...
SENSATE WORLD OF THE CHILD

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When natives talk about their own world, C}_ht: )'6:P93k
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They Became What They Beheld
They Became What They Beheld
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They Became What They Beheld
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They Became What They Beheld
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They Became What They Beheld
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They Became What They Beheld
They Became What They Beheld
They Became What They Beheld
They Became What They Beheld
They Became What They Beheld
They Became What They Beheld
They Became What They Beheld
They Became What They Beheld
They Became What They Beheld
They Became What They Beheld
They Became What They Beheld
They Became What They Beheld
They Became What They Beheld
They Became What They Beheld
They Became What They Beheld
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They Became What They Beheld
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They Became What They Beheld

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Carpenter's "They became what they beheld". The original is really hard to find, but I was lucky to come across a PDF.

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They Became What They Beheld

  1. 1. THEY BECAME WHAT THEY BEHELD WRITTEN BY EDMUND CARPENTER PHOTOGRAPHED BY KEN HEYMAN AN OUTERBRIDGE 3. DIENSTFREY / BALLANTINE BOOK Oulerbridgc 8. Diensilrey, Distributed by E. P. Durton Ballaniine Books. lnc. _ An INTEXT Publisher, New York
  2. 2. The text owes much to Marshall McLuhan who. in fact. co-authored portions of an earlier version. We are indebted to the authors quoted and to their publishers. and to Harper's Bazaar in which some portions of the material appeared. The Tribal Man who walks through these pages IS composed. like the Bride oi Frankenstein. of bits 8- pieces from many sources. He cannot be found in any pearby jungle or tundra or city. but lives in a more remote land. in company with the savages ol Rousseau & Diderot. L, » ' Library of Congress number 73429502 First published in the United States of America in 1970 Copyright (9 1970 by Edmund Carpenter and Ken Heyrnan All rights reserved. including the right of reproduction in whole or in part in any form. Design: Hess andlor Antuplt Outerbridge & Dlensttrey 200 West 72 Street. New York 10023 Ballantlne Books. Inc. 101 Fifth Avenue New York. N. Y. 10003
  3. 3. FOREWORD I recently came across the following rules of communication. posted in a School of Journalism: 1. Know your audience and address yourself directly to it. 3- KM" What You want to say and say it clearly and fully. 3. Reach the maximum audience by utilizing existing channels. Whatever sense this may have made in a world of print. it makes no sense today. In fact. the reverse of each rule applies. if you address yourself to an audience. you accept at the outset the basic premises that unite the audience. You put on the audience. repeating cliches familiar to it. But artists don't address themselves to audiences: they create audiences. The artist talks to himself out loud. if what he has to say is significant. others hear & are affected. The trouble with knowing what to say and saying it clearly & fully. is that clear speaking is generally obsolete thinking. clear statement is like an an object: it is the afterlife of the process which called it into being. The process itself is the significant step and, especially at the beginning. is often incomplete & uncertain. Columbus’s maps were vague 8. sketchy. but showed the right continent. The problem with full statement is that it doesn't involve: it leaves no room for participation: lt’s addressed to consumer. not co-producer. Allan Kaprow posted a few small posters about Berkeley: "SUPPOSE you were interested in designing a primer. in mixed media. etc. . . . Allan Kaprow will be in Berkeley in July & August. “ No phone. address. dates, terms. He found, however. that those who wanted to work with him. and those he wanted to work with. located him without difficulty. Reaching the maximum audience may be the last thing one wants to achieve. George segal says. "i don't give myself to everybody. I give myself very intensely to my work. my wife. my kids. my few friends. i can’t begin to give myself indiscriminately to all. it's the only thing that makes me pause about. say. Ginsberg's preachings of universal love or oven California ideas about Esalon and touching " Utilizing existing channels can wipe out a statement There is a widely accepted misconception that media merely serve as neutral packages for the dissemination of raw facts. Photographers once thought that by getting their photographs published in Life. they would thereby reach large audiences. Gradually they discovered that the only message that came through was Ufa magazine itself and that their pictures had become but bits at pieces of that message. Unwittingly they contributed to a message far removed from the one they intended. The same thing occurs on TV guest shows. Guests accept invitations to appear on programs in the hopes their messages will reach new & wider audiences. but even when they are treated in a triendly manner. they generally come away with a sense of failure. Somehow the message transmitted is far removed from the message intended. The original message has been declassified by an alien medium. "on. what a blow that phantom gave me! " cries Don Quixote The young today shun the hardware of the past. Marx thought the big question was: who owns the presses? Software makes hardware obsolete. an encumbrance. creating a false sense of power & security. The young package their messages in media that fit their messages. that is. they create new media to fit their messages. in so doing. they create their own audiences. Some of these audiences may be very small at the beginning. In Houston I met film makers producing films for audiences of no more than six. The point was that they would reach the right people in the right way with the right message. it is one of the curiosities of a new medium. a new format. that at the moment it first appears. it's never valued. but it is believed. what it offers. I believe. is a sudden insight. an unexpected glimpse into a reality that. at most. was merely suspected but never before seen with such clarity. Like guerillas. the young are in a favored position: they don't need or want the hardware & audiences of yesterday.
  4. 4. DISLOCATIONS Orly connect‘ me "as! is salence
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  6. 6. THE BEGINNING. IS NOWAND Evgg AS IT WAS IN omo WITHOUT END. SHALL BE. W .5. If E I’ II ‘. I’ V I1, Ivy: 7, ; ‘- ‘ V 1' II'''I': I 1' ‘V 7”’ ~- 7 : :. I’ I’ “ TI 1. ‘ -‘ C; In 1 r‘. we; n-I : -~I_-_. . 1 I! I‘! w "- ‘I’ “I317: I I I D ‘ I ‘ NW ' “IF "I 7 I . I-,1} I_: ‘ H _, _. J 7' . "f'I' 1 " V>, ‘|>'. V . ‘ ‘. . I —_u I: 151‘ "rr ‘ . IVI . ;y~' .3: r‘. _._. . h? " ‘ “-- H11} ' ' I"r‘I ; ':I"‘i a‘ A
  7. 7. # so In the 1960's. D€0D| f-3 spoke of "dropping out . . NO _q. C,.3 Dropoing _out. like SU. ’Clde, ink. /O[Ve‘a a Chemo NO. _._, Irierels no cnoico: the system itself has dropped. 0UtHur'tan evolgtion began In South Africa, am when ages descerdetz from trees. but when the trees {_g,3mgei»'es dl$8D_DC2ZT8Cl & arboreal skins became obsolete. Ezectronic med: a created a new eflvltonmaf-3nt_ {angering obsolete the patterns by . _., .h, C_I. . I Wake man ccdil ed reality Stirldenly. all informat5or-, —— freed from ¢; assI‘ir: ations which had long bound it _. became , ,—, ,I, available to everyone 3;mUItaneOUSIy Via electronic media. out of thzs vastly confusing wealth. each of us lS forced to create his own environment — that is. program his own psychic 8. sensory life. To this end we ttirt‘ to the arts, for only artists. and maybe criminals Create their own lives. “T3 live outside the law you must be honest" 81:. “ Dirt-¢. «'7 ‘l"‘ as ‘:1 jail before l‘| | break the law " Bumper s! ic'-6'
  8. 8. THE NAME is THE NUMB when a cop writes down your name. he lattes you Wef- As long as information is classified — In contem- medium. audience-—it's restricted 8. controlled. But changing any one of these three declassrfies it. And the moment it's declassified. all its resources become available to everyone & can be used for new ends. At this point. communication becomes possible. By "communication" I mean redistribution of knowledge. not simply between knower 8- not-knower. but ultimately within the intelligence itself. If we accept the idea that communication automatically excludes the familiar & predictable, than most so-called communication media are_grossiy mlslabeled. Everything in Reader's Digest Is either familiar or predictable to all its readers. That’s why they subscribe. Last month's issue is identical with this month's issue. If you've seen them all. you've seen one. What you've seen is a particular format. and once having experienced that. you know it. Repeating it merely establishes it as cliche. it's like an Anglican sermon that confirms you in all previous convictions. Such convictions are public. shared alike by all subscribers. Publishing them means "putting on the audience. " it rc—presents that audience to ltseli. Newspapers are mirrors: a few even call themselves that. They reflect their readers. Their repeat/ repeat of cllché is closer to incantation than to communication. some years ago I came across a book entitled Plots that sell to Top-paying Magazines which outlined the storylines each national magazine accepted. Henry Miller tells how. in hard times. he looked at back issues of magazines. rewrote their stories 8 submitted these to the editors. who accepted them. of course. Most ioumals. newspapers. TV shows, etc . merely repeat cliches & the real cliches they repeat are their own formats. As cliches. they become environmental 8. hence unseen. 0/ril Connolly once complained that several years alter he stopped publishing Horizons. contributors were still submitting articles. In the novel Jean Barols. the founder & editor or 3 small but once-influential magazine continues to publish long after his magazine has had any gtrms Finally he runs an experiment: for three months he ' fails to send copies to twenty charter subscribers though their subscriptions are paid up. Not one at them notices. About fifteen years ago. someone checked the circulation of a wall-known university quarterly. He found that. of its 700-odd subscribers. less than thirty-five were noninstitutional. and most of these rm, elderly alumni or department heads. He arranged to have several libraries place current & back Issues on reserve. No one checked them out. Year after year, articles were typed. read. edited. set in type. proofread, printed. mailed. cataloged, even bound. but . . _ When Life was young. it succeeded in communicating a new format. a new way of perceiving & classifying experience. It created its own audience by changing people. But in so doing, it fused imperceptibly with the very environment it helped create. its format. once startling. became an unseen cliche. Both Colliers & Saturday Evening Post died at the peak of their circulations. Lite & Time have never had larger circulations. yet both are in financial difficulty. Advertisers feel that products advertised in them tend to disappear into that unseen environment where perception & awareness are muted. No environment is perceptible because it saturates the whole field oi attention. one can perceive it only after alienation——after some degree of alienation. I can swallow the saliva in my mouth because it's "me. " but I can't swallow it if I put it first in a glass. So long as I transact with my environment—my ecological whole—l can't perceive it: it doesn't even environ me. it's an extension of me. And I can’! smell myself.
  9. 9. DECLASSIFICATION When you declassify ar‘-ythzng, you make " aVa"ab‘e for new ciassiiication that is, for the pr0dUC“f’" 8‘ distribution of new knowledge. "COn99$"°”- fiysyou, McLuhan. "sthe inoxspcns;1(b; e”P'9'Ud" ‘° 98" 9 hand in the other 9U‘/ '5 DOC 9- e As McLuhan ooims out every breakdcffi/ fiafzdame potential breakthrough The 1929 crash vet-'8 The economic s‘. ructure1o1l"e entire commum ‘Yam of breakdown of segregaiio” ‘9"9a'ed me na 1 racism The gereraiion 939 ’9Ve3'ed the nature 0 identity.
  10. 10. OBSOLESCENCE Every time you put a new technO|09Y 8700'“ 3 3°°‘°‘Y- the old technology becomes a iUt‘tl<Y3'd- 3"‘ "°“‘ iunkyards come new art. New art can be made by retrieving & reshBP"‘9 iU"k- Yeets. alter searching widely for the components oi new art. finally tound them. he tells us. in the “loul rag and bone shop oi the heart. " _ "One touch oi nature makes the whole world kin. That all with one consent praise new—born gauds. Though they are made and moulded oi things past. And give to dust that is a little gilt More laud than gilt o'orduste Troilus and Cressida. III. iii Picasso assembled his lamous Bull's Head sculpture trom pans ol 3 wrecked bicycle: "Out ol the handle bars and the bicycle seat I made a bull's head which everybody recognized as a bull‘s head. Thus. a metamorphosis was completed and now i would like to see another metamorphosis take place in the opposite direction Suppose my bull's head is thrown [back] on the scrap heap. Perhaps some day a iallow will come along and say: ‘Why there's something that would come in very handy tor the handlebars oi my bicycle. . ' " in a trash heap you can see true lorms because everything is declassified. it's a “tound art" viortd A bright. new. chrome Ford can be driven only in certain areas, in certain ways. for certain purposes But as junk. it's declassified and all its potentials. hitherto largely concealed by specialization. become fi(’. Cl}“‘Lii. V'<. .' to artists. Any junkyard is potentially an alchcmlsts kitchen. a poet's scrapbook The Golden Bo-ii, -ri mi junk. became a source book for poets 5 writers What goes into an attic as useless may be brought back out as art. Trash 8- Treasures. 3 sign on a New York shop. serves to remind us that these two aren't necessarily opposites. Every age has its great poem & that poem is the culture's junkyard. The Iliad. The Waste Land. The anthropologist is the "old rag & bone man" 0! the world. a title, in tact. conlarred by Naskapi Indians on the great ethnoioglst Frank Speck Rubbing fages between two worlds in continuous parallel releases archetypes. ' ’ Cliche is whatever is in use whatever is in use ,3 environmental. hence largely invisible. The momem a new cliche arises to surround it. the old cliche becomes useless. hence veil! visible. Art is olten shaped out oi the useless archetypes coming irom jurikyards: they are obsolete cliches. rear-view mirrorg The wealth & resources of any language or technology become accessible to artists when that language or technology is rendered obsolete by 3 N, ” term. The Renaissance used Latin 8. the Classics as an sources. Americans have long treated the whole or Europe 8. Asia as collectors‘ iunkyards. Electronic media have turned the entire globe into a midden. Artists are now busy translorming all our yesterdays into now. The whole world has become a happening. We might liken it to disarmament & demobilization oi an army. Materials & talents. hitherto restricted to specific tasks. can now be applied in vastly expanded ways.
  11. 11. flfi PAST d emmoi-. ment is easier to perceive than the ".90! l enwonment because no one is really Vw'f, ¢ in it. _ , , mgustnalization blackened Leeds & whgter. creating "this dark. Satanic land. " Lake M8"°"wen, in search oi pastorial pleasures and P0919 nh sang ot childhood toys. Classicism served vl0cl: :‘£, ,i-, aint to Renaissance technology; '5 icism to mechanization: Trtbalism to Walton. Constructed as countersituations. they “wt g means of direct attention. Like utopias. d as antienvironments enabling one to V M symwith detachment at clarity. flgnry Ford used prolits irom his Rouge River “Sal-ibiy plant to create Dearborn Village filled with cw"-.5_ spinning wheels & other remnants ol‘ cottage iorait. wgach new development makes an art form of the my name was oriented toward Greece. The agnaissance was oriented toward Home. American industrialists collected Renaissance paintings. The “mum of Modern Art is really a period piece. in its initial stages. every new medium takes as its content the medium it has just rendered obsolete: scribes recorded oral legends; printers set in type old mgnuscripls: Hollywood filmed books: radio broadcast concerts at vaudeville: Tv showed old movies: iiiagiietic tape was used to copy LP records. "Content" in art is often no more than obsolete nrlserving as lacade for new art or new technology. The content ol much Renaissance art was the Bible. but its ellec-s derived primarily irom single perspective. orprivate point ol view. which was the visual counterpart at the notion of individualism. ‘ Both were by-products ol writing 8. the new technology at print. Each new environment makes the old one visible: mat is psychic becomes explicit only after it becomes obsolete. The present environment is never seen. We “Spec! its laws without being conscious oi them. we are conscious only or the obsolete & we value it 5963050 ll appears manageable suoiect to conscious °°""0l This makes it spionuiiiiy attractive The history of European ml is a succession of 5°"°°'9 5 Styles replacing one another as new technologies created new ways or perceiving 8- Delhi). 3"“ "GW WBYS oi perceiving & being created new technologies Perceptual modes became visible as 90°" 33 "WV became obsolete They sewed as the content 01 each new environment I doubt it the same principle operates nearly so clearly in tribal societies Such societies are highly stable. at least in comparison to Western ones. and among them the dichotomy between the invisible present 8. the visible past seems lat less clear “The true mystery ol the world is the visible. not the invisible. " Wilde
  12. 12. j------’ ~ THE ISLANDER . .we don-g know who discovered water. but we’re ceria, ,. '1 wasn't a fish. ‘ t. /Oh" CU/ kin It's the outsider who sees the environment. The istander sees the outline of the distant mainlana_ when he goes ashore. he commands, tor he alone sees form 8. process. _ yea15_ Joyce. Shaw, lrom Ireland: Eliot. from Missouri; Pound, lrom Idaho. were the innovators ot twentieth century English Beaverbrook, irom the Maritimes; Luce. from a missionafli’ '3""'Y in China; Thomson, from the Ontario bush. became the giants ot twentieth century publishing Detachment 8i perspective permit pattern recognition "In the histories of most peoples. there occur long lapses during which they lie creatively lallow. western European man was late by a millenium or so in adding anything to ancient culture; the Jews between the Despersion and their emergence from the ghettos did nothing that a historian of art and thought could not cover in a long footnote when they reentered the world. the Jews. as though seeing for the lirst time the structure to whose piecemeal growth they had contributed almost nothing, produced within a century a series oi epic innovators—Karl Marx. Sigmund . ‘~‘re-co. Albert Einsteiri—and scores of hardly less ~éii_r; ir~a1 «Kafka. for example) The reemergence ol the Islamic peoples. when complete. may give us the same kind ofconstellation "A J Liebling
  13. 13. 9.31
  14. 14. WIDE-EYEO WONDER OF THE CHILD All discovery is accident or error Ignorance & inadequacies leave openings tor errors & therefore discoveries. No experts need apply. The phrase "organized ignorance" seams to have arisen during world war It. when Operations Research people put biologists & psychologists to work on weapons problems that would ordinarily have lallen to the lot of engineers & physicists. The former group had all the trash. wide-eyed wonder at children. They swarmed all over each problem instead of beaming a ray of specialized knowledge at it. It you beam knowledge at a subject. you find it quite opaque: it you organize your ignorance. tacking the situation as an overall project. probing all aspects at the same time. you find unexpected aperatures. vistas. breakthroughs‘ Thus the chemist Mendeleev. to discover the missing link in the element chart. did not simply use available knowledge. instead. he asked: what must be the characteristics of the rest. it those we do know are to make sense among themselves? T Organized ignorance can aPDroachir19 the unfamiliar. °° 8 great asset time It was this approach at nonp, -96° " enabled the iiim maker Robert i= i.-, i,, ,,"‘°°tilioii um lomis hidden from conventional view? to discom preconception is the precondition to , '_-,3 ' because it's a state ol mind. when you ds°°"°'y. preconceive, then you go about finding 0 "°' nothing else you can do. You beg, " to 63"‘ Them: "All art. " said Flaherty. “is a kind ol 9 NW? ‘ To discover and reveal is the way We x”', °" . about his business. " 'V “*3! Sets Flaherty didn't begin with a i . . . view. " but let the camera see e: ec, :,? -Lo‘ 99'"! or child, tilled with childlike wonder, he (2% avid as it called out lorms that the camera tound hidnm: he for it requires a creative human ac; before gen there. explorfid bgcolmes a world revealed 9 w°"" " ru a la waitin in all thi " . “They unfold themselvgs more tl: g;rari. t'3:rrm'mm from living buds. whenever you latch the spy. ” " ' ")5 sunshine moistened with summer rain. But it ggusg tn yourselt. it shall come from your soul. It shall be gm
  15. 15. v I H '1 ‘I'M . . ‘ ‘» J I ‘j‘'*'_ 1 7; | 5‘ -'_, 3 6;’ ‘ , n ' T'~ } ~. T 33. . -an "H ‘_o; ‘rd , A , , ,3 , __, _ _. - . —4 '— -. 1 __. =- _» 5,-. - _ _- —: :: _; ., i*'*= "— _ 1-'. -*1_~ . .. _ ‘ _ :2, _ V . .. _
  16. 16. v '. - ' -— r~_'= '. .r. ',; :52. . +.— WI’ Ll’ ‘ I; re‘ -1 _ . ., :" u, . , ‘ . . 7, -~ —. —~ ~ ‘ *“ _ i ‘_ _ . _. f V ———j ‘T * , _ -» / ._ _, . :1 ‘ ~ ' 1, F .4‘, ‘ r —- . " A . .._ ) ‘ -. . - ‘ ' L . . I I - i’ l W 1 I R . / (' . -‘/ vjfl 2} I | I . I) " . *}J 4
  17. 17. DICCOVIIIING "Truth will not stand or stay or keep: . ii I8 OWN’ "W or not nt alt " Norman 0. Brown The young were attracted to Eugene Mccarthli when he spoke out; they were turned oil by Robot! Kennody’s hosltancy. Robert Walls. in creating Happenings. tound that Happenings announced tar in advance were ignored or lorgollen. Participants were drawn to them when they saw them about to happen. even beginning to happen. The young are indlllerenl to old truths. which are dead. or the possession of others. And they are lndlllerenl to lulure truths. which are too remote for Identity. For them. the act at discovering is primary & personal. It's that moment ol inception: quivering with tile & uncertainty. vital. subjective. To them. truth : — discovering. "A new lorm always seems to be more or less an absence ol any lorm at all. since it is unconsciously Iudged by relerence to consecrated lorms. "- Robbe-Grlilel Recognition of any new lorm is greatly delayed by idle responses cl mere like or dislike. satislaction or alarm‘ These postures delay any understanding ol the real character at lunclion of any new term. specialists don't welcome discovery: they welcome only new proots oi what they already know. Discovery is unrepeatable. All specialists understand that discoveries are fatal to the stockpile cl their unclassified date. Discovery makes the lield ol the specialist obsolete. "Though we all know. we otten lorget. that the existence ol America was one of the greatest disappointments in the history of Europe. Plans laid and hardships borne in the hope oi reaching Cathay. merely ushered in a period during which we became to America what the i-tuna had been to us. " C. S. Lewis
  18. 18. ts: "' ‘ "‘ ‘ - ' '-:9 ~ . — I , ,, ‘ 7 = j a—= — - 3 —- —- I 3' rm 4 — o _ _ _ _ _ __ ‘ _ __ _ _ __ __ - g ——4-; $., (’~‘
  19. 19. THE SMELL OF NEWNESS 'i3li. li: ioii sliiitlder . it the Smell of newness as a dog tines wtwn it SCf'lilS a hare “ Isaac Babel Lioriul i'riilin<_z tells how RODUIY Warshmv gave a tov. niitginwit by his nv. -.rn son, to Triliing's son: ' It ivns a i¥. Tlgi'illlCPltt fortress. with batilemcnts and .1 ctrawbridno and a (‘.0l1Sldt’3I{! bl€ complement of rather splendid lead soldiers Everything was in excellent Condition. nothing was lacking to make it 8 fine present " But Waishow had added a brand~new box of gronaciiers "He explained. when we protested this extravagance, that to a boy it would not have been 3 present unless there was something new-—il would have been a thing given but not a present. " "The gardener in England. " writes Margaret Mead "lives upon newness and difference One flower or a border blooms earlier or later. and another is not there at all The light catches on a new clump of iarkspur. and the garden is new made And in New Guinea the dusty old woven baslreiry masks are hauled out of the attic oi the men's houses. and made new again with fresh leathers and bright flowers arranged in new combinations. with small. graceful. painted birds made of cordlike wood and poised lightly on swaying reed stems. " The magici'an's paraphernalia are always freshly paznted lie creates" what he pulls from a hat is new- iust now called into being
  20. 20. . I“
  21. 21. :GN0R| NG 01-0 AUDIENCE. CREATING NEW «~ r»; '+‘-'= .:r'r; st13CmN". .rv fig. -4,5, P. "v'€’Y‘_. ’ detail N‘ exu| cs: I'. ~'-:2 ‘Na! 5 !1«; ”:! I;. ' 9'1f‘. DC"-VIE! ” urer‘1;. 'e. -U356") ' ' ‘:3’. n 'L"! "L~» at ‘m3-“"ICC‘ J Sjncn[IV{§y‘;1"bf'1!'1‘, '(fl| Z‘»'i "n I-«ml can 5. 0. Q J‘! 62"’ A: ll) p11‘J"S? ‘rf , ‘Presto’ 2. {§a*"—b~- we . '. *cr:2c'3h LN: -o: ;:1t: r :3 031*. in C’-: :dt= r ; I V‘ 0'" 9'1"‘ ‘ g thus may '1:Wc r. <=n” H~_er: a r: <.. l a: :1c". ~ «:1.-cI; zsssYy""; "w inert: -“ the [‘[Q""‘| ,'1!f'' ‘: 'C15."I. ”'. 'If3'£. 'Z, ‘ c. o'I'c« 1 DECLASSIFYING THE AUDIENCE . .V ‘_ 7‘ , - - 4 ‘ . _._q “ r [,3 am‘: p; .:: l1:» ': tn: -r~, ~ . , «H _ _= -- : I" *1 'c*n: rr'm~‘: '*c1|‘v£II-: 21rw-zrfini‘ '11 0‘ CZILHE-C‘ C "r: *. ":m'M7_~ 4 : :”: i | ?‘| "Jr‘T1T: H,‘ ad. WP‘ *n5.": y‘ C‘ HM, ‘ _. ,7 ' ‘ , .“_, u-. - —r» ‘_ 3 . ‘ - -. . about —— — . ' . . . '.”-: "1x’. fi 3:M~. '-v»’_' : ? ‘l{"H": l T‘: 2'.
  22. 22. HUMOR AS DECLASSIFIEI-I One of Will Rogers funniest acts was simply to read the daily newspaper aloud in a night club. Audiences were convulsed. Mort Sahl‘s only prop was a copy at the Los Angeles Times. when Frank Sinatra played the tape oi Nixon's 1962 Farewell Speech in a night club. the combination of speech 8. laughter was so tunny. it was released as an LP record. Today the Yippies. instead or putting politics into the night club. put the night club into politics. When Jerry Rubin. dressed as Santa Claus with a plastic burp gun. appeared before the House Un-American Activities Committee. the comic nature ol this Committee was suddenly exposed. In less than an hour. the Committee lost its identity. It tried to solve this by renaming itsell. TRANSLANON One ot the most ellective means oi declassification is translation, lor language is itself a classificatory syslerr When you translate from one medium to another yg declassily. When you print an oral tradition. show 3 ' movie on TV. film Greek drama, or put a classroom lecture on TV. you declassily both content & medium and expose both to scrutiny. ' Recently in Houston an artist announced a Happening, complete with lights, sound. drama. Alter the audience had assembled. he wheeled a TV set on stage. plugged it in. turned it on & tell. The audience watched TV with growing uneasiness and. for many, growing awareness.
  23. 23. ENTHRONING A NEW MEDIUM. DETHRONING AN OLD The appearance ol any new medium leads to a shift in media ratios. recasting the roles of all older media. Every culture has a primary medium for the classification of that culture's basic cliches. When a new medium replaces it, the old one is freed and takes up its role as a declassifier. The coming of writing enabled one to say what could not be written. and with the coming of print. one could write what couldn't be printed. The coming of films freed the stage for new & bolder drama. just as the appearance of TV freed films. The older medium is thus free to play a subversive role. much favored by artists but deplored by those grown accustomed to speak with the voice oi authority. The New York Times & Life magazine now find themselves uneasy in their role as critic. Before TV. both spoke in the name of the Establishment. Emmett Hughes. editor oi Life, was Eisenhower's chief speech writer: his editorials & Presidential speeches were identical. The New York Times knew of Kennedy's plan to build up forces in Vietnam. but chose. in the interests of national security. "to minimize its coverage oi this crucial event. " James Reston knew of the U-2 llights fourteen months before the story broke. In the past. the White House felt free to confide to the Establishment press. No more. Life now exposes corruption in government. and the New York Times no longer suppresses news on request from the White House. The White House is reported to share classified information now only with TV networks. Print has joined the declassitiers. The press has gone underground.
  24. 24. """"' MATING MEDIA Mating two media can simultaneously declassily old cliché & reclassify new cliche. The marriage of the telegraph & press created the front page oi the daily newspaper with its discontinuous tuxtapositiort of images. _ _ _ Hot-liners cross public radio with private telephone‘ Much of the power of this medium derives, I believe, trom its newness & is therefore temporary. Joyce crossed cinema & bookvln Ulysses, radio 8. book in Finnegans Wake; in so doing. he not only threw light on these three media. but he used each as a means of retrieving that wealth of perception & experience stored in the English language. Crossing tape recorder & book produced the nonliterary autobiography: Oscar Lewis's books, Kramer's Instant Replay, etc. Crossing the tape recorder & still camera 8i book produced such works as Black & Guy Carawan‘s book on the Sea Islanders. lnthe 1968 elections the McCarthy campaign stattwas approached with a suggestion for crossing media. In the United States no law prohibits the mating of radio & TV. in Southern California. for example, Spanish-speaking sportsiaris watch the picture on TV but listen to a Spanish-speaking sports broadcaster on radio. 80 it was proposed that the New York-New Jersey area be offered a night of radio sound & TV picture. Five commentators were to provide the audio: John Culkln, Jean Shepherd. Marshall McLuhan, myself 8. Tony Schwartz. who originated the idea and had a sound studio equipped to handle the project. A bank of small TV sets offered simultaneous coverage of all principal TV stations in the
  25. 25. area: 930“ W°”'d be Rep‘ 0“ '18 Darticular channel. From these the commentators would select programs shown on a master TV set 8. toward these programs would direct their comments. The plan was to announce in the New York-New Jersey newspapers that at 7 P. M. on a certain night a local radio station would provide that evening's TV audio. For example, the audio for a TV cigarette commercial would be one minute of coughing via radio. if there was a Iaughshow, it would be pointed out that the laughtracks-were copyrighted in 1935 & that most of the people one heard laughing had been dead for some time. Then listeners would be asked to turn to a channel showing Walter Cronkite. at which point they would hear a taped "countdown. " first in English, followed by an A—blast: then in Russian, then Chinese. each iollowed by blasts 8. more blasts & tinally only a child's cry. Finally, and this was the point of the whole project. listeners would be encouraged to turn to a channel with Hubert Humphrey speaking. instead of his speech however, they would hear—on radio—the four letters he wrote to his draft board gaining exemption from , ‘.‘u'l_, l in the Second War-—one letter citing two le(“. '.~3s he had delivered to an ROTC class, while in the ': 'e‘-. Lb'_i'-fund would be played Hitler‘s ranting. bombs & earns, then Humphrey's pro-Vietnam War speeches —“/ A olririous adventure and great fun. isn't it? "—while in oackground the guns & screams continued. ‘ he McCarthy team. mostly literary men, saw Si‘. ifT7E. '.. ".t'tg profoundly immoral in the suggestion. New it 'n'»': t. ‘~. -rays seem immoral or chaotic since they are unccrisciously judged by reference to consecrated forms. But a curious contradiction arises: new forms are condemned. but the information they disseminate is believed. while the old & valued aren't even 868“-
  26. 26. V7 -mg TRIBE THAT SWALLOW THE ' “ new regard themselves as] mm” Tegtfirgrmey belong to a seamless web partzo gresponsmiiiiy. They merge the indlvld ‘ , l KIHS. /hlzflp society They re involved with life. they 4 {he ‘erienuce a earlicipéfi/0” ’"V5”‘7“e‘ Th's. °xp°” . . ' LL‘; In mhlrh people are eager to merge with cosmfg U " ' D33‘/ e{S , ?‘; l¥‘li'll 3 . ' . ,M, E:{f, .,, ,; ,1 of detachment 8. noninvolvemeng: , . . . i i. ~.—. iii; ~«~i. :ilive qesluretoward the universe; " "" ’ ‘ “ ' . .i-fmlverl in the word hellvedi’. ’3Chi'Tlel'tl 8. objectivity. He _ . ,, , _ , 'ri: s environment, even lromhls , W 1 . . l"i"-rL“. ‘i’ftS an elegance in detach ; ~ i1: jh _ . ,.y i —; t-l. :- irniled self. esoeciallythe ‘ ‘f , . i (t'lT. 'Jl€l€ unto himself. .v9'y dlfll resonating a tin r: r: -xtensions of ' _r "l'T‘ rrply in all other lives. ‘ li'"»: riian out of the '; ‘.. Sv‘Cl". IC alienation, . 'i7!"rlC media hasten‘ Vilil“ Eleelricitybirtds "C! e tribe with , , v ‘ i-3"'ill'y of many i : a 'li"f" of the shape V ‘ r, «: ri: »n~. i: sensitivity: . . .23. to be living
  27. 27. J”
  28. 28. .. -. TRIBAL ARTIST “Art" is a title traditionally reserved for works 01 _ sell-expression. Aestheticians & art collectors. takln9 a belated interest in ethnic & electronic art. now accord both fields the dignity at this title on the grounds that both meet this requirement. They reluse to believe “true art" can be achieved. by other means. . But sett-expression. a product oi literacy. is alien to the tribal world. Everyone in a tribe is involved with everybody. simultaneously. Tribal societies are imploslve. There is no isolating individualism. no private consciousness, no private point ot view. These are _ products at goals of literacy. The image oi a tribal artist as a specialized, fragmented. role-less individual who seeks to discover himsell & to reveal his private point oi view. is nonsense. The private wits or senses ol men were released irom their corporate restraints by the iragmenting power oi print. Today we experience this in reverse: the explosive individual energies oi literate men are being compressed & imploded by electronic circuitry. individualism means tragmentation. sell-expression. private point at view. People who lill integral roles have no private point ot view: they share group awareness & wear corporate masks. Tribal man is the conventional role player. the laithlui mask wearer. Wearing a mask means to divest. not to express. onesell. A mask or role is not an extension oi its wearer so much as putting on the collective powers of the audience. The speaker assumes the collective mask ol the image he presents. He maniiests a corporate attitude toward lite. Among the Pygmies. writes Colin Turnbull. the solo song doesn't exist "except in the lorm oi lullabies: Their songs may be begun by anyone, no matter what his talent. Leadership . . . shifts irom an accomplished to a less accomplished singer with no apparent lessening of support from the whole group. The chlel deli ‘ singers is to listen to the effect oi group. p,°duc‘; ; °' the 1 counterpoint as it echoes through the dark cathggm ‘ oi the jungle. " "As the American Negro becomes more literate . . writes Alan Lomax. "he loses his former ability to ' improvise collectively. to become part ot a many. yo; cw i ' but unliied chorus or orchestra. The shift from the hi original polyphonic New Orleans style to imitative, WV solo-voiced ‘cool' iazz—the changeover irom the old-time congregational spiritual to the modem solo gospel songs are merely the two most lamiliar example, at this trend. " Some writers assert that anonymity in tribal an is a myth. that specialists can identity with confidence works by individual artists. But the marks ol identity generally turn out to be details oi craltsrnanship or minor stylistic innovations. Occasionally. works of specillc artists can be identilled on the basis of exceptional aesthetic achievement. But even these are not examples or sell-expression. Carver 8- dancer merely interpret traditional design; the way actors interpret parts. There is a vital ditlerence between variations which maintain the lreshness ot a style. perhaps bringing it to perfection. and changes which destroy & replace that style. The real question is: does the artist manifest a corporate view ol tile or otter a private point oi view’? Does he ellace himsell & identity completely with large iorces. or does he become an innovator who regards his uniqueness as more important than tribal conventions? "i llew by the nets. " said Joyce. Did he mean past the nets of iamily. church at country. or by means at them? Literate artists lly past the nets: tribal artists by means ot them. ‘'I'd like to be remembered as somebody who told you something you already know. " woody Guthrie
  29. 29. "Is it :1 lttct—-or havel drea ONE TOUCH OF NATURE MAKES THE WHOLE WORLD KIN mt it-—thal by means ol electricity. the world ol matter has become a great nerve. vibrating thousands oi miles in a breathless point of time " The House or the Seven Gables We owe a great deal to that lrog whose croak was heard ‘round the world one summer evening in 1800. By jerking at twitching every time a distant lightning bolt flashed through the sky. the dead lrog made possible Galvanrs momentous discovery: active nerves & muscles generate electric current. we‘re all electric generators Electronic media outer our senses they extend the human sensorium. That extension is shared: electronic media join us to a common nervous system. Just as a blind man's cane extends his body. providing lnlormation a hand or tool ""9"! provide. so electric media extend our senses. to a global scale. Our electronic nerve endings now reach every part ol the world 8. we lunction as humans acting °" 5?”? dfllfl provided by these electronic extensions “"5 '5" ‘metaphor? it's man‘s biochemical term. a" vgfiglgmrirtedra have created a global village where dawn rk fl Deooies. ans. cultures come tumbling i e the walls ot Jericho. Sight lsolates_ but soung unites. The American N ro w world oi literate man. bufigin lhea: ,§, °}g'°9ateq . ,, music & speech became the music 3, 0' 3° . ru; Americans. Litre sound. electricity pe, :"°°¢h at an dissolves barriers. Eegregation no ton "M5 Walls’ in any sense: it survives today "Re a wager has mean‘ the pocket at a dead man. °“ "Citing . ., "9 Electricity makes vast amounts at int available to all. Photography is a mass ormation in this vastly confusing environment ; h° data in a tram becomes one ol data selection 3. m')ce‘; tirobtem everyone to abandon the posmon 0, cm ‘Wt lorcmg instead a co-producer. s”"’°’ 5 became Everyone is lorced to play the total lieta maki , even in its im Decision demgfding. s plest torm, becomes mgmy As electric circuitry eliminat - public sectors. we encounter theess¢f§: ;‘: "¥, :", °"V°” 5 haunted the rich: the scarcity oi lite itseltyto a has "WY! richness provided by nature & achieved by °""? Y the now possess the means to relieve conflicts 39”" we hunger & irom competition lor limited resour ed "om inner conllicts become more severe callln ties am orchestration of resources in harmony wgrhghu ran laculties We're only beginning to realize whatzzfl slice ol human potentialities we now educate W
  30. 30. THE WORLD IS NOW A HAPPENING . _.l, ‘ . , _ . . . . , . . ‘ v, '. - . .
  31. 31. an. ..» 1112 A‘!
  32. 32. .‘ V ART AS ACT ‘NH . , we :00!-< at a {)ar', |(jI_; |ar -_g. ,,. ,< no ~: a,{. _,(, V. ’ .1, , _ 30 pi . '1'“ " mp‘-7 W *3 W3 H’: only !0.'Jk<rm at Its . ”«. ‘»! .~: »r£ 1'7, v-iual , 5 __ _ —' .1 C .55‘ rH{, n'Q_: n}efn . _.. .n| Ch lg by} I“, ,'fiI 13' (139 Nr. “-1IV<3S Oftcm discard carwrwrls:1r: 'me:3:: m:'. ~,'wasr-a:2%: r"t; them. " ’ TWOCQV7 '7'-'31 ? .nri*. "' Y“ "1 "1? ; ~r«"T= .; " ‘: ‘ m. ‘a'. ~.'@zwixrmrza E’-ut'. 'P~. '~"“1r= :: "‘F-nr? "‘ 1" . : ‘.1’. .2 ’. i‘”. ’,, .., . 5. : «; : ~ U. n T, ‘ - _. . ‘j , . 1 »f», ~.- 1 I I. n.x‘l’w , F _ . _ _. ' x-ur -T . ,v. - . p . - v 1‘. . I . .. -. ._ . - " ‘ 43' I " . «. . ..~» ' 7 __ . ‘ 9 4 v, . , §- [ ‘ HI . ~v-“ ufl '¢H5’ . - . V 7!“ : v.-, - . .,. n, [j, _~r -«:1. , , . .. ..u «- . .— . .. y“ ‘. .- . (‘ , -, . i '. 1 . » «_-; ~,, .‘v| .'4{; "L-'2 ‘hi’ 1': 4" . r5-W mm fu‘wuJm: j~«
  33. 33. ndy Warhof . /*. ores. esf“~ 5c. u.= .rd: a«’7 5.3”” WhenA , . . m. ‘,_, p.h, O, .ere‘1 {C 32,: ., aw object >r'. c!uc1ng ‘dinners. Wm 5‘ ‘. .. e Imstraxed a point names 9 ‘~merchangeab’e. Ford cars babies. a-an: -ws° Suddeniy art "myv. -:10 identify art. York tra’. ‘ic sign . Vv s: ;~». w:r Harry A. Barnes around with a 'Lha‘. ~e«~, «m. . h ‘ ‘ ’t 3. LI‘ ' '. E‘{. ‘ ‘:1 5 gm ng M o‘tr~3 ordinary V "43. Cvfirevt % is an inmortam way of ~w: _a. '1t nself is an art form. mar‘ can be CO"1s'der5-d as “S 71.1 ma: 1%” -Dnvxrcm "1Jr7‘Er‘. :Qn«_; 4,; -;: Z‘T11n<, g~1‘: Fr', J:”: rP. L‘-| i_3‘(Om (13513, ; ,mQ_, 9 smrzaks in wer ‘ love), !a; g}-5 _
  34. 34. V * bi . . , II Z‘ I _, . ' I §: ‘ I’ l, ' I . - . r I "I . __ _ _ _ 21.
  35. 35. 7 my A8 Arrrtsnvtaormerrr ming in classical times. i. e.. the coming or literacy. mg ans were set apart from daily living. lrnpermanem arts like 000k| |'l9- 9l00l'lll| 'lg. gardening weren't highly valued & those who practiced them weren't accorded the title “anist. " What was valued was permanent art. ly produced by men. These provided exemplary orvisionary models. Constructed as countersituations to daily living. they provided both a comparison 3. a position irom which to examine daily lite. They acted in the role cl antienvironments. enabling one to perceive his environment with detachment at clarity. “The great quality oi true an. “ wrote Proust. "is that it rediscovsrs. grasps and reveals to us the reality tar lrom which we live. irom which we get turther 8. further away as the conventional knowledge we substitute tor it becomes thicker and more impenetrable. the reality that we might die without having known and which is simply our lite. Itrc- t-naily discovered and cleritied. c: :_ect irom our daily environment as it it were 5 whenvironmental. We put it in a museum or con_ art hall ‘tore. tor the lirst time. we perceive it. P09 M t ‘' remind us. however. that electronic man has leshioned_ ' . . himsell a world ol artilacts & images intended not to “awn his perception or awareness but to insist that he nerge with these artllacts 8. images. lust as the native merges with his environment. . Speech structures the abyss ol mental space. it earl Invisible architecture ol the human dark. "$999" ‘"9’ i may see you. " Writing turned a spotlight on the hl9l‘l). ' dim Sierras of speech; writing was the visuallztglon k acoustic space. it lit up the dark. it gave us the rec Mmdyiering was the lirst real antlenvlronment. Plato's Ac gmy 3. all schools lounded on literacy were -9 13.4 t ri antienvironmen pumvolryl t: ev‘l; r‘8e. gxmfieg or grammar. literate people are conscious ol these rul s°°'"9 SDGGCN detaches you irom it 5. its lorm "How not - . ?°“ °‘'" . °°'°°"’° "till I see what I satgew mm ‘o "W" “R3 A"°°' And how do I know who i am seeing one's name can be eIactn“€i‘r'ilg: .£: §gl: t)fl‘y: vi‘:3': -,1rEi‘g': ;'I'r‘5 °' '°°°“1'"9 8 deposition lor an illiterate Kikuyu’ "When Jogona had at last come to the and ot his late, and I had got it all down. I told him that I was going to read it to him. He turned away lrom me while I was reading. as it to avoid all distractions. "But asl read out his own name. ‘And he sent to: Jotlona Kartyagga. who was his friend and who was not lar away. ‘ he swiltly turned his lace to me. and gave me 8 great fierce flaming glance. so exuberant with laughter that it changed the old man into a boy. into the very symbol oi youth. Again as I had iinished the document and was reading out his name. where it figured as a verlllcation below his thurnbmark. the vital glance was repeated. this time deepened and calmed. with a new created him and shown him himsell: Jogona Kanyagga ol life everlasting. When i handed him the paper. he look it reverently and greedily. lolded it up in a corner ol his cloak and kept his hand upon it. He could not allord to among us lull-ol grace and truth. Literacy at its attendant technology promoted detachment 8. oblectivity. detrlbalizatlon 8. individuality Electric circuitry has the opposite ellect: it involves in depth. lt merges individual 8. environment. Advertising produces ellects tor the total economy. but doesn't increase human awareness As ih native culture. ert~music-ritual are integral pans ol the daily sensory environment. In these circumstances. awareness G. opposition ol the individual are irrelevant at lutile
  36. 36. E SERVICE ENVIRONMENTS Monarchs & millionaires created private wo. r=g3 M private wealth. Morgan 8. Astor, imitating EU, CCeE; princes, had private libraries, art collections, Cggva boxes. parks. Both had private Pullman Cars’ 54, ,5 , ’ was wealthy enough to own aprivale railroad. Sw; .. , administered railways & derived profits from they-J” they probably suiferedfrom an illusion of ownersn ownership was essentially public: railways sewed pub| lC & were financed by passengers & Shippers , -_ Henry Ford pointed out, private profit from techfic was negligible compared to public profit. “ ’ The moment any service exceeds what any Slfic individual can control, that service is environment '1 When environmental services exceed the reach c‘ 1» greatest private wealth. that society is COmmU. ":iS'_ By 1830, i. e., long before Marx. a majority or Cifijzgns in England & especially the United States, had more: into service environments: they could avail lhemS€. '.‘5S of postal, shipping. travel. publishing services that not even the wealthiest capitalist or most powerful mofiart” could possess. Rich & poor. young & old shared this environment. Like all utopias. Marx's was a rear-vex-. ‘ lTl1l’i'OF. The short-range view—disparity of profit between r. an§ta'ist & worker—was easier to recognize & resoor: ‘nan the far greater factor of total environment marge li media are environmental. A language is a Li'lC£‘ common to all who speak it. The “King's 5“~. “3 f—""' meant, not proper English, but the language l r’: ~E‘. r7.‘. -ertl shared by the King's subjects. ‘ Television is part of the only environment today's
  37. 37. labor. is equally nonsensical. The unemployed Negro youth who demands admission into this environment white who strives to exclude him. The unskilled-uneducated-unemployed of 1830 London lacked even minimal resources to panicipate in the service environment. They lacked not only the penny challenge: expanding membership in the service environment Electronic media have made all the arts environmental. Everyone can avail himsell ot cultural riches beyond what any millionaire has ever known. Today no serious scholar limits himself to Morgan's Library when the entire New York Public Library is open -: a—= y & paperbacks are everywhere at hand. No on lam restricts himself to Morgan's collection. Morgan’: crate was nothing compared to any national park. and 'r-: - cheapest radio offers inlinitoly more & better music t" : - Morgan ever heard in his exclusive opera box. L: 3 5 magnetic tapes make environmental all music ‘r; ' all times: music. like a wild bird's song. now : “gs to the environment. ‘.5 one can own an environment: one can only own " ' :5 in an environment. To natives, nature was the service environment. No one owned it while settlers. believing they had purchased land from Indians. tound they had been granted only access to this environment (hence the term "Indian givor")- _ The moment your environment begins to provide services beyond what a private individual can control. you are entering the state at communism. In this sense. the United States has been communistic tor some time. more fully than any other country. only a bookkeeping smokescroon conceals this tact. America reached this state via tachnoiogy. not propaganda or revolution. Today in the United States there are no longer any significant areas of private wealth. The multibillion dollar service environment of electric information is free for all Knowledge industries are the only significant ones now. Education. news. transportation. entertainment. medicine. arts, telephone are all environmental. J. Paul Getty complained that his riches didn't distinguish him from junior executives who drove the same car. ate the same comtlakes. watched the same TV programs. it wasn‘t his immense wealth that made him a public figure but his essays in Playboy. we tend to see this new service environment as a people persist in the belief that power & pleasure reside in possessions. But the trend is othanrrisa. Even houses & cars are becoming services. People want clean clothes. not washing machines: transportation, not cars. Ono calilornia company advertises. "Sell us your car. we'll rent it back to Possession: become encumbrances in a world of services. Power no longer lies private properly but in the service environment itsat .
  38. 38. * M| N|-ENVIRONMENTS Aural, tribal man lives in multiple mini-states, not ih homogenized state of literate, commercial man_ Print technology, with its attendant mass production of goods & attitudes, produced a uniform, homogenized America where a drugstore in Atlanta was indistinguishable from one in Cheyenne. Only New York City, and only to a limited extent. resisted this: in spite of the uniformity of streets & buildings, one moved in & out of different environments in the Course of a brief stroll—hence New York was often said to be “not an American city. " In the past, the sounds & movements of the streets provided the drama of city life. People played out that drama in the streets or watched from windows & doorsteps. Stores displayed wares in windows for passerbys. Stores today are often windowless; their displays are inside. People watch parades on TV; they hear the cries of peddlers on radio. Street sounds have become interference, noise, preventing even conversations out-of-doors. Talking-while-walking is now almost impossible in big cities (will the rhythms of speech change? ). The street as a river of commerce 8 big‘
  39. 39. 7 Wm" n—rise buildings are mini-environments, No g[hOOdS surround them. Each must be governed . within: all efforts at outside control fail, with much flogiiing abuse of buildings. Kitty Genovese's screams résmefrom outside; would they have been ignored if they had come from inside’? All overthe world. electric media stimulate the rise oimini-states: in Great Britain, Welsh & Scottish nationalism are rescrudescing powerfully; in Spain, Basques demand autonomy; in Belgium. Flemings insist on separation from the Waldons; in Canada, Quebecois are in the first stages of a war of independence; in Africa. weve witnessed the germination of several min‘: -states & the collapse of several ambitiously unrealistic schemes for regional coniederation. These m. ni-states are just the opposite of the traditional ceritralizlr riationalisms of the past. The later forged fitass S'iaiE*3 that homogenized disparate ethnic & llllgutstir »'; ii3LipS within one national boundary. The new ‘llTl! Tti—ST. P.‘£-’ are decentralizing tribal conglomerates of nose sa ethnic & linguistic groups.
  40. 40. END I REBIRTH OF EXPERIENCE Experience is now useless. It's no good at high SP9“- Wlth speed up at information, practical men become obsolete. Experience isn't enough. only knowledge avails. "Experience is the schoolmaster 0! tools. " "Experience is a poor guide to man. and is seldom followed. A man really learns little by it. tor it is narrowly limited in range. What does a taiihtui husband know of women. or a laithtul wife of men. The generalizations of such people are always inaccurate. What really teaches man is not experience. but observation. it is observation that enables him to make use of the vastly greater experience of other men. oi men taken in the mass. He learns by noting what happens to them. Confined to what happened to himsell, he labors etemally under an insuiliciency of data. " H. L. Mencken lnlormation speed-up reveals lorm & meaning. Any new technology. e. g., print. going last around an old technology. releases a llood of perception. Condensing time at data-—spoeding up experience —raveals process. Archeology 8. history are instant playback. All mnemonlcs is playback ol awareness. Art is playback. lnlormation overload requires speed up which permits recognition. We live in the first age when inlorrnatlon is so abundant & change so rapid. pattern recognition becomes possible for every one. Until the present are. this awareness was limited to the artist, who had the power it courage to read the language of the outer world 8. rotate it to the inner world. But today. for survival. every one must become iizvare of what is hflllpening to riirr despite the attendant pain at such comprehension. Pattern recognition is hignty afigggagg it roqwes detachment irom immediate. nanieuiar g-, .;n5o, y_ experiences. It renders sensory experience obso, sensory experience is now junk a. garbage‘ As mg‘: -‘ serves as art. We now enjoy a real twoflmy SW6’ . ii a sensate. tribal world has been re-created as M an today serves as antlenvironrnent to the abstract nonsonsory world of pattern recognition. vouné De _ value intense. extraordinary sensory expmences Sire as Navaho: prepare native dishes; work at handicral; ‘ts "The only thing that matters. " says Antonio, " 5 "is experience. " ‘
  41. 41. I ! . I; WORLD OF DIVIDED SENSES / ‘.2 ~ I ‘ . "- i .1 v r- ‘ / , ‘ ; /I‘ '/ L I ‘, l- "" 4:. "‘~ ‘U ’_/ _’r ’ I
  42. 42. THE CROWDED STAGE The senses aren't mere input channels: they make their own worlds of_ spaces & relations. _ Every sense has its own paradigm of_ pleasure 8.‘ pain. creates its own time & space-—is. in ‘fact. ’ a unique environment. Similarly, each medium has its bias. creates its environment, produces its effects. Media interpenetrate & interplay with one another, muchas senses do. But the bias of each can be isolated & its effects, achieved separzla/ tel; /V or| i'r<i corrtnfbination with other media. can be studied. e la. I e 8 Ofms. ale models of sensory programming. ‘ I Remove an organ from a body & the remaining organs play new roles; add an organ & reorganization also occurs. This is true of media as well: new media recast old media in new roles. The appearance of television, for example. forced all other media to play new roles: radio brought back “theater in the round. " classroom seats were unscrewed from the floor. and we all became “wired for sound. " For 2500 years, under literacy. Western civilization was dominated by one medium: language. All truth, it was believed. could be housed inside its walls. Writers attempted to enclose the sum of human experience within the walls of rational discourse; scientists attempted to order reality within the goverance of language. Nonverbal media became subservient to verbal categories. But the synthesis of understanding which once made common speech possible. today no longer works. As George Steiner points out, large areas of meaning are HOW ru| ed_by nonverbal languages such as mathematics 0’ 3YmbOllC logic or film. Little or nothing is "verbal" in giaondbern music or art. Both are languages, yet nothing e said about either that is pertinent to the traditional
  43. 43. habits or linguistic sense Absolutely nothing can be said about a Franz Kline painting A or; Kogmnq cam, ‘-,5 has no subject ol which one can render it verbal account: it bypasses language & seems to play directly on our nerve ends "Whereol one cannot speak. " -. -.-rites Wittgenstein. "thereof one must be silent. " The same applies to much contemporary dance, lilm 8. music. especially electronic music when we ask the contemporary artist to explain himsell, he raters us back to h. ‘S work. He's reluctant to translate his etlort into words, that is. into a wholly dillerent medium. "It I could to? ! you what it meant. " said Isadora Duncan. "there would be no point in dancing it)‘ "t have delined poetry. " wrote Frost. "as ‘that which is lost in translation‘ and nothing is lost in translating Sandburg. " The New Criticism in poetry was based on the GISCO’i. ‘C‘ly oi the impossibility to paraphrase. One cannot translate modern mathematics into . -iords One cannot even paraphrase The two are independent systems of notation This applies to other media as well To copyright music. one publishes it. but much contemporary music zanncit be recorded visually, it is its own language’ A baby crying in the night, ‘ln no language but a cry ‘ The monopoly. even tyranny language enioyed i. in3~. i- literacy. was shattered by electricity Language -'-‘J5 once the sole or at least dominant. actor on stage Today the stage is crowded No medium dominates the others All are tree to develop into languages of their o. -ir‘. as articulate & elaborate as those or verbal discourse. ‘ to go on from there. I can't use words; they don't say enough ‘ Jellerson Airplane Vile might liken it to the ditterence between synchronized music played by musicians OD4.'dl('Fll to it strict conductor. and music with interweaving rhythm patterns played by Irnp(o‘, Ii$oI; ', each with ti : —. own downbeat Ci; -rttiin Amen” rnU5lC!3n1$ carry on live SltY| llI3fiC'OLi. - ll'lylh! l‘: ‘-. the me. ’ody 8. tour ['. 'f, ‘!CU‘; iSl')fl parts Thrci: rhythms are common in Dl'C"llf. 'f£lIC mii: ..i: .-ivilody handclaoping 8i tapping the feet, the individual performs all three '5lf71U"an€0U5l"‘_ though not in synchronization Most literate men. conditioned to lake one-thing-at-a-time. simply cannot do this But postlilorate men can The gap between generations is a gap between sensory oroliles Electronic media have eroded traditional individualism, weakened representative government 6 led to a general loss or those treedoms G. protections enjoyed under literacy The ballot box simply can‘l create images for the electronic world. Freedom has shifted trom government to an. Today's varied media each a unique codification of reality, cller range 8. depth for human expression & lultillment perhaps equal to those abandoned. Man used tools to unlock the resources of the earth Now he uses language 8. art to unlock resources within himsell. Mating a language or an art with electricity creates new media of astronomical poi. -ier These media aren't toys: they shouldn't be in the hands ol Peter Pan executives. They can be entrusted only to new artists. because they are art lorms Harnessing the Tennessee is kid stull compared to curbing tilms or television to human ends The wild broncos ot technological culture have yet to lind their busters or masters. They have tound only their P T Barnums.
  44. 44. ‘- ‘I THE LIVING TRUTH OF THE HUMAN FACE mu M . r‘-" 1
  45. 45. — < —~ - ---—. -.+; £.. ._, ,o~. ~ -, .— _ ‘Vi : - . ' i I ”v Q J T I ~~__". 3»; .‘; . ‘ mi . I | I it tn-:3 interrnediary of words. A : :“, i'>? €1I£? Ci the drive for self-expression. vita ‘me iii'iontaigne, Rembrandti. but in time . t i - gihie the faces of men. Silent reading 'i'? "WkiT‘Q divorced from both emotions 8. ‘~. ~‘~u'i‘r-vi s= _nrt; w=Ch began to imitate printed language. gurcession fell into c: ‘esuetude ~. ':~, r~, ra, ':~h~, r ‘rlrn TV. aided us in the recovery of "i. i%"iECiT]i'{1‘. '.'F}Y€r1eSS* Ft Eangiiage of moods 8. ‘ii v is: nmrer ziriraquately e>: _orcssec‘ in words and . <;: ~st in print‘
  46. 46. ‘ 1 ALIENATION Alienation from all senses save; - detachment-—the inability to teelat Literate man not only concealed e __ experienced them less" "unmoved. coll t. .nr~ slow " Psychiatrists tell us that g _, ,, .q, ,.; gs ~? m(3llQf'lS can more readily ex 1 ,2‘. mt tlugse who cannot express th ‘ In ttlhni societies especially. DBICB‘ V . ~m_; it hflll is associated with. or lmmedfaj at ‘ {: "‘i. ’5llO7'l “ Every idea is not on! V ~. -t tic: Lltzl a tendency to movement: "T" ‘, ll lnt. » imr , ' I snuddered at the thought. " E 'lllflTllT-F7 affects both heart & lungs. ' _' ‘ -‘-or . ~ '. flt35.C1‘: CJT ol the heart and with [H . . 1,1? l’ ; 't! ;»servet,1 Darwin. "When af ’ : ll‘ l. ‘ ~. -.t-. ~ ; ,)£! .'ti and Cannot deeply insp - '7: 3 . : : »~: ~=: :i it: we-get bodily motion. In! -I , ' : '1- V : ’7l . -.'ept openly. beat theireh , _ to
  47. 47. - ~ ii’, and when this was sung nboutbt i— miiets. it's probable listeners iolnod ~ - :1 inese emotions. Hearing these tperiencing them. But one can read {ion Any newspaper tront page In ym we read unmoved. We could Ch tragedies without emotion. press them as poetry. But 9 ni reading is thinking deserted . high degree ol separation : r". the plurality ot the concrete y oh boy . » i‘ And though weii I iusr had to laugh. " '1 r r‘ t not emotionally involved in . i <43:-isory detachment-—i: tn it But printed news may Accounts 0! hotel
  48. 48. VISUAL BIAS Literate man divided up the senses and developed separate art forms around each. Writer. musician‘. sculptor worked independently; rarely was one gifted in two fields. Literate man valued the individual experience of the individual sense, especially sight. When an octopus stretches out one tentacle. the other tentacles come in. When a dominant sense comes into play, the other senses become junk. For five hundred years. print culture depressed all sensory life except sight. Literate man ca‘Ied painters, poets, and musicians "artists, " but cocks, gardeners. and hairdressers were seldom more than servants. Appearance became everything. Fashion was concerned only with siglwt. Fashion models lookec like zrianikins. the clothes, not the girl. mattered. “Cic>tlies ~rial<eth the niari " . /:sual values became lTl8"l‘ er’ cimlized -nar as cmipared to the ‘-. v'»'. ‘:iLl€S of almost entirely ‘v. ’5S‘u‘E": i. '5 ' seeping io'“. .s. Lit»: -2r'£tC= ,-' - : . Gfirl & "r'-aisles. " ‘Ti H
  49. 49. ‘I'II'r i .7 raI'lI. uIlo u . la. i. 7-‘III-In4Fil. .b'c~. I . . r . ‘ . r I 1 . ._ , 1. _. 2.. . I u 4 . .. .r U s. . i - . i In — . vi . i . . . ii. iii . .r. . . l. : . . , . . fl.n. w,n. ._. .. w . .§. ..e. yam» . . ..W l ll
  50. 50. POINT OF VIEW “Point of view" became obsolete with electricity. Just as one can receive & process many sounds from many sources simultaneously. so computers process information from many tapes sirriultaneously, Having a "point of view" means being visually oriented. it means focusing on a particular, forcing everything else into the subliminal. Under electricity, point of view gave way to total awareness. Point of view survives today like the pin up. among the aged & the isolated.
  51. 51. Q 2
  52. 52. rt 19,1 _ . ' - w . . __. .5:' . ‘ ii.
  53. 53. =)I(P’él: it: -IN: .'llr. .¢‘A_ _:1u "fnli | '-i ‘A539.’ IIH. -trial: In: -/ :iI“y: «jaiII, a: niaiui ’-'. Z'. i" L l, <Z’5 ‘. i.ii: lr: UNI: u Fl: stint lIoi(. , uiwlal ‘ zll : >QO—C1‘. ’l‘. y'lll<. ’ Hm: uilaiuf: u: I:u': -Iil; io: 31!: I| n'Atnl; :o II! ":}o1(1l| J“—; * "HI! ;4x; :‘t: :-ts. UHUHSGDIIT tutu-o4.oinln'iIit: ‘ i-all: ui: li ‘: azo : <;i: ,<<; lb Vitamin: tuioI: ’;- '. 'inio mi-iioi: i~‘: :il Ilfallllzluk‘ elilzlegll :1: 1‘ oloiom~: l(eiii'i: . ‘tiny -. «:: : ; i : gii: iiii-1: Hat‘; 1: ziol-ii: ..»i; Ql: t:toi': ; L‘ o: :.l, ¢ll: .'lItr: It I: iIl: i‘. ‘r: If I¢: :_; :1:: : CIP21~w. |‘l>tiJ . ' ;1u| a)| I}: :l! |(: -: yv—: <ln'[: Hits Hun; (‘is at . igi. i: ‘Jill, -. ;,. .;; x: >0) Iniolught I| >;i II ’ st: t: l;1|I_§ cut: Iain. » : I : tin: . -11:1: I’: iI1,‘0 -3, ' oi‘et~; Iiirir: hi-. in lai. iii ii-; i:io. ': <3iot: 'IIa-3' vi o—iolri'i: :oq_i, ", )g Inez: aim»; ' ‘vi Hi . f.~li| u iim.1;~; s ; »flIIIIl. ‘ J51:-n Iii; htin’ it: Hit: all-. .'o«: oi - to :1: max: {I zimitcui Ol. L‘1€| I . I ¢_; l!. ‘t: ig ii . .i, . -| lot: t min In r~: Ioi: : mic gin)! " . vi’: . in
  54. 54. them more attractive). these are corporate W A T . ’ . PUTTING Ott Tl-IE AUt)tENt: E . h '3 d M! corporate images’; ‘subject to public deiintiim. Charlie Chaplin put on'his audience. 9 D Y9 They als'i: ‘s'; :: c; )s'enX; )s8Ll8I'lC$r8 Dflfllclpnrim, audience back to title! . I ' h "addresses mystique wt _ y pu ing on the ¢os, ,_, J, .7. In New Guinea. dancers with cat er in astrology. occultism. light shows. etc. * 8. ttoral costumes put on the jungle. mask "Dear God. help me to act in harmony Wm, ,, ,,_, Anyone who puts on a unilorrn or wears a musk: ,0 winch you have set this W0,” . . or plays a role. dlvosts himsell ol private identity. To wear a untlorm is to assume a corporate role. V A perlomler steps into a rota the way he steps ""0 a costume. He puts on his audience. I-is re-‘presents that audience to itself. How natural that Calilomlarls would elect actors to public otltce. “Eisenhower was not a rather image. but a mirror image to the mass audience. It was themselves they saw in ‘ll<e'—thelr own unwillingness to make Qfl6ml8S. their own cheerful superticiality. their own vanity. their own limitations. The tact that he was a war hero gave the mass audience a moral excuse for identifying with him and seemed to put their enthusiasm on a much higher plane. It was not. however. his competence. but the fact that he was not competent that was the real base of his popularity. For the mass audience. Eisenhower represented an enlarged sell in a position of his office. . . [He was} neither a man of goodwill nor a man or bad will. but a man ol no will . . . inert and un«inllecled—a piece of chewing gum rolling around in the laws of history. . Margaret Halsey "When Nixon is alone in a room. is anyone there? " Gloria Steinem The real star today is no longer the performer. but the public. A public relations man can now mold a public as he used to mold a star. A public is boml The role an actor plays & the mask he wears are familiar to the audience. Often they are age old. He may instill lreshness in them; he may give greater depth to their form: but he must not violate this form by giving expression to a private point of view. Today the young want roles. Though they may mistake these tor private statements (which makes
  55. 55. u£DlA its oootsiens . .wnen Kennedy's body was brought back to New York irom Los Angeles. one cl us was at the airport to see it arrive. Standing with a group ol reporters. he noticed that they almost all watched the event on a sggcially rigged television screen. The actual collin W33 passing behind their back scarcely any tanner away than the small-screen version. On these occasions. the tenuous connections between gournalism. written or visual. and the real texture at events usually ruptures completely. An American Melodrama By "the real texture" is presumably meant the initial sensory experience. devoid at all resonances & reltections. But why. on this occasion. the "connection" between that event at its image on TV was said to be "ruptur " escapes me. Any medium abstracts irom the given & oodllies in terms ol that mediurn's grammar. it converts "given reality" into experienced reality. This is one of its functions. Without such structuring at classitying there could be no meaninglul experience. The "real" is in no sense immediately given to us. What is given is too complex. too ambiguous. too raw. It must lirst be cooked. instincts aid lower animals in selecting at responding to stimuli. Man has culture. culture is his means ol selectirig—structuring—-classilylng reality, and media are his principal tools tor this and. we regard It as "natural" to think in verbal categories. but not in TV categories. yet language is as much a technology as TV. in TV studios, idle employees watch programs on monitor sets. though the live shows are just as close. Billy Graham reports a higher percentage ol convene on closed circuit TV than among those watching him "live. " In New Guinea when a village leader is ignored by his people. the Papuan Govemrnerit sometimes records his speech on tape. then releases it on radio. to be heard by now respectful villagers. played to them by the village leader himself. probably on his own radio. in the Highlands ol New Guinea l saw men with Dhotographs ol themselves mounted on their loreheads. in lront ol their head-leathers Friends greeted them by examining the photographs.
  56. 56. i» * W ' j . at. .. _. . , .._c. -, *-. ,-. ..< _. _.‘-. ~:. _.___a — . ._ ‘-—. _'r THEY BECAME WHAT THEY BEHELD "Oh, what a bcautrttr? baby" "Th3?'5 “0°thi”9-H "evnhed the rrtotheh “You sttotttd sea hrs phOT0Q'8Dh ' AH DE-? ODletmt£l1C1.‘teIf creattons Javanese dancers tmttate the terky movcrrtents of Javanese puppets. Jazz s-ngers imrtate tnstrurr-ents "I never smg anythzng I cant pt: .t~, '." says Lrgure Arrnstmng. "and I never play ar‘tyttt: ng I cant srng, " Vtctortans moved ttke steam ongtnes the Gibson girl commg through an arch‘. -xay {her bustfr: a coat cart Iookea I ke a tocomotwe errzergtrtg from a ttmrtol. Today's rash on: mutate r: ».t. r nrt:1c: p:s‘crr? atrLtrts, wtrtctt eteC. t.v‘rj: »:trC z‘. ~'Omen rrmtate tight buttias 0' TV ‘ sets‘ that. ’ clothes tf: t'. '.'. ' thmr tum’ :5: lurrtrrous they rad ate *h dart be txsrrect on or of? |t! Jr'tr't<; ‘n: »n mrrtes Mjrtt wthrz‘. t: has no ‘. /l3|‘D| €? ‘ ‘ s: n.; 'Cr. = t wncte'1EtJ;3t: )n -: :ILttSiCO erwergy. ‘ t Tctdefs 'r. ':«rr: crt a’ 0-‘rt-‘ess ' ‘ 3:‘: -€ae~‘~, 'ea= ;r—o| r.: ' hoirtshrt rot v.
  57. 57. ‘ I . ‘ t f*" : ' 1 2' Beautiful " T. V.r~'. t‘ .2 E , ; DA RIETTE Qié 7 97 J»; TNCER» e_ALt. ouET. '. K Jdlrgecf from Parts I l
  58. 58. TELEPHONE "Hettc. Centraf. Give me Dr J22? “ Je-‘iv PW‘ "'-“"’9”°”- The teteuhorte 3 said to be the only thtrg that can trwterrttnt that most prec‘o= .:s of al’ moments Amoe Set-rvpte Mc: Phers0rt was Durtcd twfh a We telephone tn twr coffin. I I or‘: ‘,c C'bS~’? r|L"Cd :3 rm“ ~. =.v': ,--2"-mg atone past a DLtD'iC shcrie '. *:. ".c? r | L.'3'. 7”: passed. He hesitates El". C than after tnc seconrz rmg. answerec: rt It <: ou‘dn‘t QOSStZ}| ‘,r’ have ':7:n<: rrt tor "trm ica‘l»: c. = .t—. vt: x.. <_= [‘; tt3‘ttC : )'rtCttT»’. ‘S on streets & in thin‘ ". »"-‘:3 cat‘: -:1 . -.'hr2r‘t St’W. rt‘CO": r9 z-inswere-Lt, Et'rrtnst " “is. I . _-'t8K:3(: ct. -'r“, y he ‘H11: 2': ‘. S't. 'v/ C":3d. " :0’ I8I*tI)Zi{; C or: ttta streets 0‘ l<tr'»3:3 It'tt. 't"' '7 pr: -:: ;7'e arm‘ -_. I’t :3: rratxe i. U. -‘.5,
  59. 59. VIOLENCE & THE QUEST FOR IDENTITY William James once wrote that no more liendish torture could be devised than when you speak. no one answers: when you wave. no one turns: but everyone simply cuts you dead. Soon. he said. there wells up within you such hostility you attack those who ignore you and. it that lails to bring recognition. you turn your hostility inward. upon yourself. in an effort to prove you really do exist. Violence otters immediate public recognition. This is especially true tor "invisibles" who thereby become —instantty—~very visiblo. In 1967. when armed Black Panthers entered the Calilomia State Assembly. pandemonium occurred. Even the threat ol violence is a powerful torce in any quest tor identity. Detribalizing the Alrican slave robbed him ot all identity. creating great misery ot psychic alienation. Racism brainwashed him ol his past, leaving him "Wandering between two worlds. one dead / the other powerless to be born. " He became an invisible stranger in a strange land. Though an estimated one third or in war American cowboys were black. onicpr: ‘rtchV‘l turned white. The Black was erased trom histo 1 67 an unseen in adv'ertlsamsnls and admitted ta , adg'& ' I . . . _ ‘m grt‘tyr: ;t comic orm He made his first appeamnce T oday‘s "lnvisibles" demand visible . in a society that has hitherto ignored tn'3%mt{f"‘hm to participate in society lrom the inside & may w§. ’,, ”'°" that society to be reconstituted to allow memberslt tor alt. Above all. they want to be acknowledged '9 publicly, on their own terms. Electronic media make possible tn‘ . . of society. But this also leads to a corr: s;r3‘: ;‘: t<:3f: g'm'°" loss oi identity among those whose identity was defined by the old society. This upheaval generates great pain 8. Identity toss. As man is tribally metamorphosed by electric media. people scurry around frantically in search of their lormer identities and in the process they unleash tremendous violence,
  60. 60. II . <‘
  61. 61. PUTTING ON THE DOG arch '. )'. '."‘y9rS P9! osznmoanalysts > —. :«r rag»: -tvrer on the assurnphon they
  62. 62. T E. E . __. i': :1: V . .I -4 E — 3 _.2. - __ s F! . 1 . ..o. L A ‘ . . H E . Y I I I a
  63. 63. .-—. .s 1 . r. .. _, _ _. . . .. A _ 1 . _ , u_ . . J.
  64. 64. VEHICLES AS EXTENSION OF SELF ». v ‘ ‘vunsnsnons carad. - ‘ . -4 aneround " flu: driver locks up his car v ‘- . -1 vw, !hn11vurx'3p-C-rt‘. .,1 . » ‘ ». ‘., ‘ H4‘ "H5
  65. 65. I mgiy wear Gus ~ ocular in En . O my servingh_ equtstle fora - Rcrnan Empire. ‘ v~«; e1-. -es in the s1yIeo§
  66. 66. yo fig have suddenly: «ety 8. getting a reacfian - acknowledged. _ mu weapons because 1‘ J the customer remai ur society to degrade. ‘t ve way to neutralize
  67. 67. BODY AS SCULPTURE “In the native world, " writes Alan Lomax, “painting lives on the body, sculpture is something you use or worship. architecture you do yourself, and literature you recite or dance. " Grooming & dress are primary arts. Few activities involve more effort. Yet people rarely think of themselves as sculptors or painters, no matter how much effort they devote to making themselves into living art. in the electronic environment. everyone is constantly bombarded by light images emanating from the cathode tu'oe«—A. loyce‘s "Charge of the Light Bri_c; ade"_pEaying on us, going inside us, making us all The Lord of the Fi'i'es, engulted by flickering images. As’«. ed'i1'she had anything on when posing for nude cafe-nclar sf-iots, Marilyn Monroe reoliedt “the radio. " ‘. -We wear our media: they are our new clothes. TV C? frllt: :'-'3 our DGCI'lt, ":SiEl:1OU style. It writes on our skins. It »: :"w: t-llznz . .is in lf‘. iC3l’F‘fl73ilOll_ ti r: -.-‘ograms us. :'udity c s to . "l“‘F': "!li'7I; _F, llew *iati. .-ral that we would f“i_. ..l ‘cf -_': .,- '1: ' : u.fii"i”_: .i1.: vrt nudes.
  68. 68. ‘I 9 A J VI l)‘ i i -‘l 'i. i. t l l . i l I I l at t" I It 9 l -2» _. , «/ i f T " 4-- we rt-—-—-. ‘
  69. 69. DRESS AS CELEBRATION OF IDENTITY Man is the great pattern-maker & pattemperceiver. No matter how primitive his situation. no matter how tormented. he cannot live in a world ol chaos. Everywhere he imposes iorm. And the primary iorm he imposes is himsell. Dress 38 his celebration oi ideniiiy In the mid-winter or 1772. in the desolate Canadian tundra. Samuel Hearne 8. his native companions saw the track 0! a strange snowshoe. They followed it to a little hut where they discovered a young woman sitting alone. She told at her capture by a hostile band. oi the murder oi her parents. husband 5. intent. and 01 her escape nearly seven months bstore. Living alone. without seeing a human taco. she supported heisell by snaring small game, ‘'It is scarcely possible to conco . . Hoame. "that a person in her toilornvfiiuafibseim so composed as to comma. or execute mmcouig be absolutely essential to her existence N}_M, ,", ‘"9 "°l her clothing. besides being calculated lor re flees. all showed great taste. and no little varigiy 0' ma. service. The materials. though crude. we“, very cuflonamarii, wrought. and so iudlciousiy placed as to maitmy whole of her garb have a very pleasing tho ghm romantic appearance. " ' "9 '‘‘“'‘°' "The mystery is not that someone snow . . so by chance into this desolate waste": it is raiiie; ‘mm within this prison oi ice 8. wind. she was able to ‘cm irom within herself images powenui noihlngness. °"°"9" ‘° “W
  70. 70. 3. ‘ _'. . . _. __ . .,_ . ,t. “__. _., ‘ ’ ~ ' _‘ 77¥; I
  71. 71. . » i. ‘V . x ‘I _ :0 . 4 7 -, ~—. '.—”’ ““t-. ~—. ___ , ., . ‘ ' ; —x '3'. ‘ _ x. --' 75:7 *- 7 ‘T: "-1 " ‘ - 1~. ;.: -: -——- , ., _, _ . ,a
  72. 72. ? LOVE MY LABEL LIKE MYSELF m min L; ;,gg-31pOl»’flS out, how mxhe lx1cga[c-flugfd‘ , ;3;, » Lvgc ddfered rajncallyv ‘rorn me fermn no at-go m 'M. W.‘.1 tome may Man 5 mner s; nns. ’ahom; -. -mm ‘ . d HE ‘CFQOTWS ’J€>fJ', ' excep1:n«2x1vey~vg re By <: rJr‘.1r.2:; :, the K-rna| t3cn1A; w0d a ~§1bh! ',' ‘'91’ 1509-5052 mrxert Her a11('~n1<. ’_)n , ".'. x‘-' cfanmec my . 'mC! S‘3!1S<'Hxor‘.5 Her 5-, -hgflyg ‘ ; ;‘. '.. ‘1:§11.*1j¢SIC£lH[. ‘N1VOl. 'e(1 She was always 3; ~. _«, - iyojy as mteraosed bC‘1‘. '.‘f. ’(“. '1 her mr~e' self :3 wasun was mat sh) app-33193 to 11%: -rate ma’: __(}V 91,; He! body was ‘um but trier: '. -nth "C'"‘>U'U. »'S Sum! Sfzn mrraI<': «1 an IH‘;1'c_"; "'i1U7‘ L" ‘-'-‘Pal-<nr~: .5 7f‘. ‘."L"r». '.~tr‘. .1llv«_| r;K‘ . ~ srw um in-. wr‘. rt-‘W W515 ".0! ar(; u::0r. ! by hm l_‘, r‘. r_}-, .15’. l)f1.’! y (MI by 3713! ‘H sh: -rm~. .5 r. n1rn! zN. 'vrm).3[. :; ; ‘I 1:1c‘r. |lc-rnzm2;{. :v-A043’ "WNW-Hr’ -'vw. €.! u,; :.zr, —," ! m-mmnnrz untumnn BLJHY1lSI| ’1H£‘¥fSC"SL')Y‘, ‘ "(). ".: e.'1 nu"! ;xr‘H(n. >r-1', lnrnurmno; In a who 1lr_: hm. ’J(: I('r N. -st): m1 5;: -wt-; -ti W. ’"C‘. .‘ all mnrntJv: '". adorn 5:)r'v:1r1:e~'! Hr: m!: ):1:: rr)‘~ F-. ‘<: mwmr; Could be rnou: - "atuzas The print): Mn 4m: v.')5I'S on «"v~. '1‘v‘ ! r:ba1mt. -rut‘. -e:1h(~ hah.1<1fnr. :'. u.'; nnq F. ‘: m;n. ~!: !y. r:g1rm Dost. ‘ wf"-'5': ends by vemg the ci: >s(. -3:1 ohms! m me. - Dersccczweof a person 3 wovld Ant: s; o1r: b:a1 : no2rnb(= rb evevwthurc createlhalremavkauluc: -4!! u'or;1me may adUrnmen1_ cicanluness and lmafi-,1‘ caurzes-, r Xhat wvsmrcc mvermon -. -mrch ‘S sutJt'e qesmre
  73. 73. l. . . g Q . . K. _ _ _ .
  74. 74. .. . . ’ - 4 . . v * . .‘ . . Y. -'1'? ‘ . , 1"‘ . . V ' I’! - . -. u , _ . ’ _ _ _ ‘ '- ‘ ‘ 1 I. ‘4‘i . . '. " ' V: - Q, - N. v . ,, -, ‘ v -- . . V09" 1. . . _ '. _,. ~‘3_; _ , .Y, , . . v . . _ W , , ‘ , ‘ ‘_' V. ‘ 1 - -, , v. ‘,, 1 . , , , . u . . V V . x . . ‘. . v" " ‘ M ‘ ' . .V . Y, . . 1 W . ., Y , Y . .y . Y. -‘ V 1 . - v , v; r' «'_-Y «'xv* r. .- . . .1 , , .4‘ , . . . . V. . , . .1 . ' ’ . ' n'. ‘'. Y -, . , , _— . -- V’, , . . . . Y . .Y . Y ‘, 9 . » IV fvrm r~, Y,nr 1» . . . .a. . L. ’ . X, ;. 1 ' . ._y. I‘ , ,‘ H. - H X y. . . . 1 Y, N. Y “K . : .4. 1 . ; , Y v , V’ - . .‘_ I: W V’. ‘ - 1- V‘? ’xA‘I . |A‘ H, 1 V Y, .‘ 1.: . Y r Y. ,‘ — . . ,1, H V _. . . . 2' . .‘ . ; , .. . ,‘ . . s . Y Y . , . . _ . .. v
  75. 75. II-'-"1 €—u mi'_| .Al‘: ._ -. I! : ' ‘:7 ' i’ '—‘ ‘ ' :1‘, V‘ '7 ‘V I ‘ ' 1:“ 1: ‘ ll 7 " ‘ ‘ V r ‘V -: ‘ ‘A-V‘ - V:
  76. 76. ‘L in L _ _ Y. Y 7- YE _ W . » «E Y” L H _ . L Y H _ mm H . ,_ _“ , _ _. Y.
  77. 77. TO BE UGLY IS TO BE UNSPECIFIED (ios"‘ "ms 8. Com r-3 ram-‘ertise'. <. assume everybody he bcau: :'; :I . -xc: uaH'~, ~: us don't, Be‘ng . d. A i. N', ‘:'uf"u! wnrvwan Es; ,_. 'cYr‘, t_: I;. ~“~—: h.: at E3 to fiil a ‘ . .Y"gc of sorts which . an 'n mréeimg. "Leda, wur gnrdfe gr-ow’7" ". '7t: nner m»: ‘- :5 ivner ‘. '.": Z"I1hCtI'nC“
  78. 78. L}
  79. 79. c DRESS UNDER DURE88 Mr [Henry Luce is like 3 man that OWN I'D ; ,.y_g buys an me shoes to In rmnson. Then by - peowe :0 buy lhem " Governor Earl a . c, [w n: ;;(,1g(_11 of uxentacal goods YOQIHIDC ' «V. 2;, 1(‘. P!'1hCI{J| consumers The enact ' V, g 1» . --mvvrvxg-_Yr: v,4r aumences Wulhlhe ‘ -—-nr; mw= g women pursued = "‘ ‘ ,5‘. r. -339.3!-TIbIh! y [hi]! print a ' . ' ‘ - oi-N styles" the tyranny ; . 2. -Y We rnadeawomanl, 1 : :-- : ' ‘-. l‘f""' A She changed unl . ‘ " 5 moduce new . r.. ~uld create a magi ‘ ‘mnx A woman W. ‘ dvess. simply 2 nrenause . _r‘ but snrnply ‘ -. as a 0:9 '‘ —'«'"», «r ‘if!
  80. 80. _H__ . . .7 ~ . ««: .
  81. 81. U‘ 7 -~ -. -=. .—2-u‘ —: —_ ‘. 7 _ fi-—- L _— i 7-. . K :2
  82. 82. REDISCOVERY OF ‘ma aopy Literate man valued the delimited, controlling self W': ll<‘: l"l_lle equated with the rational mind. He portrayed this I as detached from the body & emotions, and in control of both. He said: “/ lift my foot, " with the "i" controlling me & my. He excluded passions from the I l : these lay below: I lost my temper. fell in love, delved into my unconscious. but I exercised my reason. Early analysts were called "Alienists. " Alienation begins when one feels revulsion with one's body, and fears the sensate world. Trudie Shoop, the dancer. helped schizophrenics rediscover themselves by reteaching them the earliest movements of the child. The story is told of a group of Jews, with downcast eyes, entering gas chambers. One girl, a dancer, was ordered by a guard to dance for his amusement. Naked. shorn of her hair, she had no identity. But as she danced. she rediscovered herself in the dance, in her body: this gave her the courage to act: in a magnificent gesture, she attacked hertormentor. If you manipulate people, you must first control their environment. Pavlov couldn't make dogs salivate on signal until he put them in artificial, controlled environments. Literate man was easily manipulated. He lived in a centrally heated. air-conditioned,
  83. 83. canned-food world, out off from personal sensations_ He was ashamed of his body. He avoided nudity; was obsessed by toilet etiquette: made sex a sin & gluttony close to it. He became aware of his body only in sports & sex, and sometimes not even then. Today’s youths have rediscovered the body. They rebel against all controlled environments; they create personal sensory environments. Sharp differences between sexes, which marked the past, today disappear. Sex is cooled down. Men 8. women dress more alike. They share common hair styles. Men wear jewelry. They're interested in lotions, hair dyes, cosmetics. This disturbs older people who keep saying “You can't tell the difference" and then guffaw. Obviously that difference must have meant a great deal to them or they wouldn't be so hung up on this stale joke. It’s a difference that's totally meaningless to the young. Young men & women today share a common sensate world. Their feelings about themselves & about this world are much alike. They can talk together. Sex polarization at social gatherings—so “men can talk, women visit"—is meaningless to the young. . . and everybilly lived alove with everybiddy else. . .
  84. 84. u. ... x 1.1,-
  85. 85. - . . m. i i i ll l i - i. H i. m. .. - . . _. mil. .3. l z . .. l. .. x. 1‘. .. . i n 4 . 4 . i:} r. UW . .. . .2 i . .. . . . N. .. x j . |L . 7. ii. . . ... r.. .. . . re _v if . r.. ..< . ..W . ‘ . ... l . i . ,o. ..n. ... . l i . FlW5 . uw . . .1.) . ... _ M. . . .. ,i m . . . .. /. . . w H . . . . is if , s, e /1 l I s . H _ —. H . .__ , . 1. x . . . _. . i. s . 5 Au t A 7. . >4 T nI . _ . . . _ _ _ _: __ - H. .1 . .. - . r _ . , 1 . ._ W V1 it - . _ _. . . . _; __ _ Klan . A. H : ._. .. ~.. __, _ M, . . . Tm. . . . . ,_ .4. . .. . . .. . _. . . M». i ii . E i- Nllllllivl ' { ‘ S/ .4. . . tlilul llil 2 S - i. . i. : . : = :. __ _. L . Li 5 . . L. .. _
  86. 86. BEAUTY LIFE IS BODY LOVE . . and what do you think that pride was drest in? " Pride of self dresses itself in pride of body. Beauty life is body love.
  87. 87. SWINGING ‘r'. 'l -' i-‘"8 '? ..‘. ir‘ 2- r. .« -. .: r: :i~ir~' __ . . . _ , —,: ~,i‘. '. Tr‘-fr
  88. 88. PLAY in the mechanical. fragmented world of literate man. leisure meant the absence oi work. or mere idleness. The reverse is true in the electronic age: the age of information demands simultaneous use of all facilities. Today we are most at leisure when we are most intensely involved. very much as with the artists in all ages. A job is a fragmented, specialized activity. A man using all his faculties is at leisure or play. The artist doesn't have a lob because he uses all his powers at once. were he to pause to work out his income tax. he would be using only a law oi his powers. That would be a "job. " A mother doesn't have a "job" because she does forty jobs at once. so with the top executive or surgeon. Under conditions of electric circuitry. all fragmented job patterns tend to blend into involving. demanding activities that more and more resemble teaching 8. learning & "human service" in its older sense of dedicated service. "Work" means specialism. it equals iragmented task 8. consequent rioninvolvement ol whole person. Play equals involvement. as in hobbies or conversation. Where involvement is low. work is high. Tribal man doesn't work. hence has no need for leisure. no need to re-create whole self. His whole sell is already totally involved in living. Dreams. myths. rituals are all forms oi total involvement. The dreamer divests himsell of private identity & unites with the corporate image of his group. Tribal Africans are reported to require less steep than literate wage earners. The nine to live African civil servant needs eight hours sleep. though his physical labor is minimal. What he requires is dreaming. Apparently dreaming is mandatory for human lite. _ Literate man. in dreams. is able to suspend temporarily the unbearable strain of Individual identity: he can efiace himsell by merging with cosmic forces. Tribal man requires less night-dreaming because he achieves this corporate identification through daytime rituals. myths. art, language. We're reentering the tribal world but this time we're going through the tribal dance 8. drama wide awake.
  89. 89. SENSATE WORLD OF THE CHILD N01 mg acfz »‘. u‘u‘: r' ; ;:)rnr: F, rllls. =.l1cl‘l | r.2r-3:‘-
  90. 90. Q. 1&4
  91. 91. — -7‘ "‘ ‘T’ ’-_| r= _r— — . _q__ 1} r _ , _] l__ ll 7 ' _ . » lk E . _ _ _ , _-[.5-: - - - -ix; l ———+ A - ~3"""’ ‘ “l nu“ ‘ ‘ ‘ ’ ’ V‘ _‘_ , ‘_1 l wow ; ‘¥‘- —. l l . '7 4;" ; rll .1 {E7 ‘"3’ H ‘ . v - ’*— 2» {r 3'“, ’, l‘ L l: ~»: K . . ~ v ‘pt’. /‘-1’-/ ya l , <. — X. ..‘ . _ r. ~«l&, ,—- - ~. . n , - v l, ' ‘, , . . ‘ __; "X " r ~: C}: —: O ' _: ._. .‘é'€. -‘l. ’l’~g‘lrf’ ~ " ' Q": 5 ‘ I '” J . . . l ‘l » l L L” _l. J‘‘A”r) / t»_ = j— __ 7 ~ — -
  92. 92. .’J . I: . ‘ ’ - '. ‘ A‘ , . nr’ : * ; . 1_‘_ . ,.E_, _ ‘ ' '~, . _ ‘_ ‘ A31‘ _" _ _ _‘_ _, , _, ._ _ .4_. .m
  93. 93. SENSATE wonua OF NATIVES When natives talk about their own world, C}_ht: )'6:P93k about how things smell, taste, feel, soun . r food gripping roots along a slippery bank» peppefy enfle burning the rectum; . . he became avilare 0 Qke heat playing on his right cheek, and a fine sngo odd teasing his nostrils, while on the left he hear an ur ling sound. . . H 9 salt is pleasant, ” said a Vedda, for us to feel the[ nd rain beating over our shoulders, and good tO_ Q0 0” 3 dig yams. and come home wet, andseie the fire burning in the cave, and sit around it. ' . _ An Eskimo woman, Uvanuk, delighting in the JOY Of simply being moved by nature, sang: “The great sea Has sent me adrift It moves me As theweedin a great river. "Earth and the great weather Move me, Have carried me away And move my inward parts with joy. " Here the phrase translated “moves me” also means “to be in a natural state”; to be moved by nature is to be in i1ature, to belong there. Emotions are expressed as priysicei responses: anger—Ioosening bowels; fear ——r/ gnrenirg sinews; joy——f/ oating viscera. Man is small, no more than a weed moved endlessly by the current, but intensely aware of forces acting upon him, and delighting in even the most trivial. Toothless Kuilasar, an elderly Eskimo, told of starvation, of children born & husbands lost, of new lands and faces, and concluded, “How happy I have been! How good life has been to me! " She hadn't conquered life, nor been rewarded by it, but life had acted upon her, spoken through her, and this was joy.
  94. 94. __. . . Iil | . l . la ills. .. lflla. . . .. y , _ _. ., , ll «n . . . _ w _ v 4i‘: 4 . , . . . Q . , a. .. r . .5 , . T ; ... ,i . .. . a . s , .. , . e in. ‘ . _ T; ? , ~ it ix) . _ . _ . . . . ix, ? Tut. . 1‘ I _. ,.L . _ . ; : . .4. . 3. . _ , .. ..C . : -. . 4‘ . ' . 18.1» _i fll
  95. 95. orchestration. . Considertha Eskimo whomflh’ = navigates his kayak rapidlya_. l9n_g yr, ‘-_’ guided by the teel otwlnd &sme, ll, =-. . otsurt 8. nesting birds. andplflicll . , -' i pattern ol waves & current against hi; such interplay of the senses. Cite sense. A hunter who felled on ‘ return empty-handed. a traveler who igno -tds it sounds would soon be lost. y we irmr; Eskimo traveler often dozesoti _ “'3 item the wind. his parka h00d8", J E-. .' '. !‘. r.- tiirotthe parka. brushing =1‘ rm; mm at wind changes. and he no, ’ H the v_-ylfld :5 ci. ittinginto3fiOWdl‘m3 « t. ~ the slugs it necessary. and thenstn- ~ It ligttit it *‘. nn~r~. ie : ei: s at a Micronesian < - ' i. 't_'9."~ sea n'ir_: ht_ wentto slaepk ', . — - -l i‘r. -»: ;-l '. h-'. * dirrr. -c! ion—c-. irrent in his buttocks; 51:: 3 .2v- | ".'. ;')! '~. ‘.'! .'nCnl‘3f, comparing painti = ” * iisirm . '.‘ill1 those by seeing children. too . * ». i.i. :;~. iri; :i. :7.'7.—: !'l! t_). until the age of six, atwhlch . " 'tt: -;- ‘ ’"ild'-éri, being members otallte I : "—. i.’ii ii. .t. ;r-= l". ‘1f. i.'t“ij in thi‘. t’}1!eCItOnG‘OpflCa| ‘V , "I ‘i t‘ur. t~. ~r_- und-f"’S‘rinrz throat Sur9BTY8I9; ‘ '1' T: ‘. .» rt? ‘N1 ": ‘-r ‘iv’. -re IS a natural tendencyfof. '-’: —‘: ‘.-f'-' It’: ~? .iv’ii. »? . .tt:3<: "t sciiirrfs, and his throat mu a« -' I-2ii"? “‘ . as he scans the page , g . .,Jt: tHir: .:_, [~'! [lH*. ‘ a‘. .en to medievalism thansl! '_ on an = r -: 33:’ MAE}-~ " __. .,_. .-_--o_a—o. —nI'P
  96. 96. ,, ‘ . » : .,— 1. . ‘. '. ,, , . ' _‘, ._ I. . , _ V: 2 , , , “ . . ' - E 1' l . - l ‘ . , . . . . A 3 . . . -o». . . - 1 '. . . ii ll‘ ’ 4 l . ‘vv - ' 1 A ' - I : i , _ , __ . .‘. . y r . . i. . , , l u - A A . . K 1‘ F , _ , . . - ll ' c " . ' . . . .. . - . t P t 'i . . . .. 9 ~. l i ' l . . " “ . ‘l . -. -i . . i v . . , . . . . . -_ . _‘, . , . . 1' - " 1 i’ ‘ t . ,i ': A . y. , , n. ", ‘ . . 7 9 17 “ . v 1;

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