Country Profile Kosova


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Country Profile Kosova updated on March 8, 2011

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Country Profile Kosova

  1. 1. Country Profile: Republic of KosovaEurope :: Kosovo Page 1 of 10
  2. 2. Page last updated on March 8, 2011Introduction ::Kosovo Page 2 of 10
  3. 3. Background:The central Balkans were part of the Roman and Byzantine Empires before ethnic Serbs migratedto the territories of modern Kosovo in the 7th century. During the medieval period, Kosovo becamethe center of a Serbian Empire and saw the construction of many important Serb religious sites,including many architecturally significant Serbian Orthodox monasteries. The defeat of Serbianforces at the Battle of Kosovo in 1389 led to five centuries of Ottoman rule during which largenumbers of Turks and Albanians moved to Kosovo. By the end of the 19th century, Albaniansreplaced the Serbs as the dominant ethnic group in Kosovo. Serbia reacquired control over Kosovofrom the Ottoman Empire during the First Balkan War of 1912. After World War II, Kosovobecame an autonomous province of Serbia in the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia(S.F.R.Y.) with status almost equivalent to that of a republic under the 1974 S.F.R.Y. constitution.Despite legislative concessions, Albanian nationalism increased in the 1980s, which led to riots andcalls for Kosovos independence. At the same time, Serb nationalist leaders, such as SlobodanMILOSEVIC, exploited Kosovo Serb claims of maltreatment to secure votes from supporters,many of whom viewed Kosovo as their cultural heartland. Under MILOSEVICs leadership, Serbiainstituted a new constitution in 1989 that revoked Kosovos status as an autonomous province ofSerbia. Kosovo Albanian leaders responded in 1991 by organizing a referendum that declaredKosovo independent. Under MILOSEVIC, Serbia carried out repressive measures against theAlbanians in the early 1990s as the unofficial Kosovo government, led by Ibrahim RUGOVA, usedpassive resistance in an attempt to try to gain international assistance and recognition of anindependent Kosovo. Albanians dissatisfied with RUGOVAs passive strategy in the 1990s createdthe Kosovo Liberation Army and launched an insurgency. Starting in 1998, Serbian military,police, and paramilitary forces under MILOSEVIC conducted a brutal counterinsurgency campaignthat resulted in massacres and massive expulsions of ethnic Albanians. Approximately 800,000Albanians were forced from their homes in Kosovo during this time. International attempts tomediate the conflict failed, and MILOSEVICs rejection of a proposed settlement led to a three-month NATO military operation against Serbia beginning in March 1999 that forced Serbia toagree to withdraw its military and police forces from Kosovo. UN Security Council Resolution1244 (1999) placed Kosovo under a transitional administration, the UN Interim AdministrationMission in Kosovo (UNMIK), pending a determination of Kosovos future status. A UN-ledprocess began in late 2005 to determine Kosovos final status. The negotiations ran in stagesbetween 2006 and 2007, but ended without agreement between Belgrade and Pristina. On 17February 2008, the Kosovo Assembly declared Kosovo independent. Since then, over seventycountries have recognized Kosovo, and it has joined the International Monetary Fund and WorldBank. Serbia continues to reject Kosovos independence and in October 2008, it sought an advisoryopinion from the International Court of Justice (ICJ) on the legality under international law ofKosovos declaration of independence. The ICJ released the advisory opinion in July 2010affirming that Kosovos declaration of independence did not violate general principles ofinternational law, UN Security Council Resolution 1244, or the Constitutive Framework. Theopinion was closely tailored to Kosovos unique history and circumstances. Page 3 of 10
  4. 4. Geography ::KosovoLocation:Southeast Europe, between Serbia and MacedoniaGeographic coordinates:42 35 N, 21 00 EMap references:EuropeArea:total: 10,887 sq kmcountry comparison to the world: 168land: 10,887 sq kmwater: 0 sq kmArea - comparative:slightly larger than DelawareLand boundaries:total: 702 kmborder countries: Albania 112 km, Macedonia 159 km, Montenegro 79 km, Serbia 352 kmCoastline:0 km (landlocked)Maritime claims:none (landlocked)Climate:influenced by continental air masses resulting in relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall andhot, dry summers and autumns; Mediterranean and alpine influences create regional variation;maximum rainfall between October and DecemberTerrain:flat fluvial basin with an elevation of 400-700 m above sea level surrounded by several highmountain ranges with elevations of 2,000 to 2,500 mElevation extremes:lowest point: Drini i Bardhe/Beli Drim 297 m (located on the border with Albania)highest point: Gjeravica/Deravica 2,656 mNatural resources:nickel, lead, zinc, magnesium, lignite, kaolin, chrome, bauxite Page 4 of 10
  5. 5. People ::KosovoPopulation:1,825,632 (July 2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 147Age structure:0-14 years: 27.2% (male 258,078/female 237,987)15-64 years: 66.1% (male 630,350/female 576,946)65 years and over: 6.7% (male 51,668/female 70,603) (2011 est.)Median age:total: 26.7 yearsmale: 26.3 yearsfemale: 27.2 years (2011 est.)Sex ratio:at birth: 1.085 male(s)/femaleunder 15 years: 1.09 male(s)/female15-64 years: 1.09 male(s)/female65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/femaletotal population: 1.06 male(s)/female (2011 est.)Nationality:noun: Kosovar (Albanian), Kosovac (Serbian)adjective: Kosovar (Albanian), Kosovski (Serbian)note: Kosovan, a neutral term, is sometimes also used as a noun or adjectiveEthnic groups:Albanians 92%, other (Serb, Bosniak, Gorani, Roma, Turk, Ashkali, Egyptian) 8% (2008)Religions:Muslim, Serbian Orthodox, Roman CatholicLanguages:Albanian (official), Serbian (official), Bosnian, Turkish, RomaLiteracy:definition: age 15 and over can read and writetotal population: 91.9%male: 96.6%female: 87.5% (2007 Census) Page 5 of 10
  6. 6. Government ::KosovoCountry name:conventional long form: Republic of Kosovoconventional short form: Kosovolocal long form: Republika e Kosoves (Republika Kosovo)local short form: Kosova (Kosovo)Government type:republicCapital:name: Pristina (Prishtine, Prishtina)geographic coordinates: 42 40 N, 21 10 Etime difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in OctoberAdministrative divisions:30 municipalities (komunat, singular - komuna in Albanian; opstine, singular - opstina in Serbian);Decan (Decani), Dragash (Dragas), Ferizaj (Urosevac), Fushe Kosove (Kosovo Polje), Gjakove(Dakovica), Gjilan (Gnjilane), Gllogovc/Drenas (Glogovac), Istog (Istok), Kacanik,Kamenice/Dardana (Kamenica), Kline (Klina), Leposaviq (Leposavic), Lipjan (Lipljan), Malisheve(Malisevo), Mitrovice (Mitrovica), Novoberde (Novo Brdo), Obiliq (Obilic), Peje (Pec), Podujeve(Podujevo), Prishtine (Pristina), Prizren, Rahovec (Orahovac), Shterpce (Strpce), Shtime (Stimlje),Skenderaj (Srbica), Suhareke (Suva Reka), Viti (Vitina), Vushtrri (Vucitrn), Zubin Potok, Zvecannote - the Government of Kosovo has announced the establishment of eight additionalmunicipalities in accordance with UN Special Envoy AHTISAARIs mandated decentralizationprocess; the boundaries of several municipalities are pending final approval; the municipalities are:Gracanice (Gracanica), Hani i Elezit (Dzeneral Jankovic), Junik, Kllokot-Verboc (Klokot-Vrbovac), Mamushe (Mamusa), Partes, and Ranillug (Ranilug); in addition, the current Mitrovice(Mitrovica) municipality is to be split into Mitrovice (Mitrovica) North and Mitrovice (Mitrovica)SouthIndependence:17 February 2008 (from Serbia)National holiday:Independence Day, 17 February (2008)Constitution:adopted by the Kosovo Assembly on 9 April 2008; effective 15 June 2008Legal system:evolving legal system based on terms of former UN Special Envoy Martti AHTISAARIsComprehensive Status Proposal for Kosovos supervised independence; has not acceptedcompulsory ICJ jurisdictionSuffrage:18 years of age; universalExecutive branch:chief of state: President Behgjet PACOLLI (since 22 February 2011)head of government: Prime Minister Hashim THACI (since 9 January 2008)cabinet: ministers; elected by the Kosovo Assembly Page 6 of 10(For more information visit the World Leaders website )elections: the president is elected for a five-year term by the Kosovo Assembly; election last heldon 22 February 2011; note - the prime minister elected by the Kosovo Assembly
  7. 7. prime minister by the AssemblyLegislative branch:unicameral national Assembly (120 seats; 100 seats directly elected, 10 seats guaranteed for ethnicSerbs, 10 seats guaranteed for other ethnic minorities; members to serve four-year terms)elections: last held on 12 December 2010 with runoff elections in a few municipalities in JanuarySource: World Factbook held in 2015)2011 (next expected to beelection results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; note - 2010 extraordinaryassembly election results were annouced by the Central Elections Commission 30 Juanuary 2011;certification of the results was still pending as of 31 JanuaryJudicial branch:Supreme Court; Appellate Court; basic courtsnote: the Law on Courts, which went into effect on 1 January 2011, provided for a reorganizationof the court system; the Kosovo Constitution dictates that the Supreme Court of Kosovo is thehighest judicial authority, and provides for a Kosovo Judicial Council (KJC) that proposes to thepresident candidates for appointment or reappointment as judges and prosecutors; the KJC is alsoresponsible for decisions on the promotion and transfer of judges and disciplinary proceedingsagainst judges; at least 15 percent of Supreme Court and district court judges shall be from non-majority communitiesPolitical parties and leaders:Albanian Christian Democratic Party of Kosovo or PShDK [Marjan DEMAJ]; Alliance for a NewKosovo or AKR [Behgjet PACOLLI]; Alliance for the Future of Kosovo or AAK [RamushHARADINAJ]; Alliance of Independent Social Democrats of Kosovo and Metohija or SDSKIM[Ljubisa ZIVIC]; Bosniak Vakat Coalition or DSV [Sadik IDRIZI]; Citizens Initiative of Gora orGIG [Murselj HALJILJI]; Democratic Action Party or SDA [Numan BALIC]; Democratic Leagueof Dardania or LDD [Nexhat DACI]; Democratic League of Kosovo or LDK [Isa MUSTAFA];Democratic Party of Ashkali of Kosovo or PDAK [Berat QERIMI]; Democratic Party of Bosniaks[Dzezair MURATI]; Democratic Party of Kosovo or PDK [Hashim THACI]; Independent LiberalParty or SLS [Slobadan PETROVIC]; Kosovo Democratic Turkish Party of KDTP [MahirYAGCILAR]; Movement for Self-Determination (Vetevendosje) [Albin KKURTI]; NewDemocratic Initiative of Kosovo or IRDK [Xhevdet NEZIRAJ]; New Democratic Party or ND[Predrag JOVIC]; New Spirit or FER [Shpend AHMETI]; Serb National Party or SNS [MihailoSCEPANOVIC]; Serbian Democratic Party of Kosovo and Metohija or SDS KiM [SlavisaPETKOVIC]; Serbian Kosovo and Metohija Party or SKMS [Dragisa MIRIC]; Serbian NationalCouncil of Northern Kosovo and Metohija or SNV [Milan IVANOVIC]; Social Democratic Partyof Kosovo or PSDK [Agim CEKU]; Socialist Party of Kosovo or PSK [Emrush XHEMAJLI];United Roma Party of Kosovo or PREBK [Ilaz KADOLLI]Political pressure groups and leaders:Council for the Defense of Human Rights and Freedom (human rights); Organization forDemocracy, Anti-Corruption and Dignity Rise! [Avni ZOGIANI]; Serb National Council (SNV);The Speak Up Movement [Ramadan ILAZI]International organization participation:IBRD, IDA, IFC, IMF, ITUC, MIGADiplomatic representation in the US:chief of mission: Ambassador Avni SPAHIUchancery: 1101 30th Street NW, Suites 330/340, Washington, DC 20007telephone: 202-380-3581FAX: 202-380-3628consulate(s) general: New YorkDiplomatic representation from the US:chief of mission: Ambassador Christopher William DELLembassy: Arberia/Dragodan, Nazim Hikmet 30, Pristina, Kosovomailing address: use embassy street address Page 7 of 10telephone: [381] 38 59 59 3000FAX: [381] 38 549 890