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Production of biopharmaceuticals in plants

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A brief introduction of medicine we can produce in plants by high throughput techniques.

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Production of biopharmaceuticals in plants

  1. 1. Production of biopharmaceuticals in plants By Muhammad Adil Salim
  2. 2. The production of pharmaceuticals in plants • recombinant human insulin from bacteria, was produced in 1982 • genetically modified plant in 1984 • human growth hormone fusion protein • Interferon- class of cytokines effective vs viral infections • monoclonal antibodies • serum albumin • pharmaceutical production in plants can be described in three broad categories of therapeutics: • antibodies, • vaccines, and • other therapeutics.
  3. 3. Antibodies Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) : therapeutic and diagnostic purposes Traditional therapeutic monoclonal antibodies have been derived from mice identified by the human immune system as foreign limiting the utility of these antibodies for therapeutic use, recombinant technologies have allowed murine antibodies to be replaced with partially humanized or chimeric antibodies.
  4. 4. Plants now have potential to produce mAbs, referred as ‘plantibodies’. Tobacco plants: used extensively for antibody expression systems. other plants :potatoes soybeans alfalfa rice and corn Antibody formats can be full-size, Fab fragments, single-chain antibody fragments, bi-specific scFv fragments, membrane anchored scFv, or chimeric antibodies.
  5. 5. Plant cells, unlike mammalian cell expression systems, can express recombinant secretory IgA (sIgA ). sIgA is a complex multi-subunit antibody that may be useful in topical immunotherapy (tobacco) producing humanized antibodies against herpes simplex virus-2 . (Soya bean) GE corn reportedly is capable of producing human antibodies at yields of up to a kg per acre, to preserve antibody function through five years of storage under ordinary conditions.
  6. 6. Recombinant antibodies expressed in transgenic plants Antibodies binding including: binding to pathogenic organisms, binding to serum or body fluid effector proteins (e.g. interleukins), or binding to a cellular receptor site to up- or down-regulate receptor function. four antibodies expressed in plants : 1. IgG/IgA antibody effective against a surface antigen of Streptococcus mutans effective against dental caries
  7. 7. 2.humanized anti-herpes simplex virus (HSV), : preventing the transmission of vaginal HSV-2 in animals 3. Rice and wheat expression systems can produce antibodies against carcinoembryonic antigen . 4. treatment of lymphoma No ‘plantibodies’ have currently reached the commercialized stage
  8. 8. Recombinant antibodies expressed in transgenic plants Year Format Antibody/Antigen Plant organ Cellular location Transformed species 1989 IgG1 Phosphonate ester Leaf 1990 IgMNP hapten 1992 scFv Phytochrome 1996 scFv Cutinase Leaf Leaf Leaf Leaf 1997 scFv Abscisic acid Seed Tuber Tobacco ER/chloroplast Tobacco 1997 scFv Abscisic acid 1998 scFv Oxazolone ER Cytosol ER ER ER ER Tobacco Tobacco Tobacco Tobacco Potato
  9. 9. Vaccines low production cost, increased safety, stability, versatility, and efficacy. grown locally where needed, avoiding storage and transportation costs. Relevant antigens are naturally stored in plant tissue, that refrigeration will not be needed to preserve vaccine efficacy free of contamination with mammalian viruses
  10. 10. Transgenic potatoes ….diarrhoea. ‘edible vaccines’ are under development for : rabies, foot and mouth disease(veterinary) cholera, and autoimmune diabetes. Transgenic lupin and lettuce plants can express hepatitis B surface antigen. Efforts are underway to develop an ‘edible vaccine’ against the measles virus using the tobacco plant .
  11. 11. Recombinant vaccines expressed in plants The plant species to be used for the production and delivery of an oral vaccine are:. alfalfa, apple, banana, cabbage, canola, carrots, cauliflower, cucumber, grape, lettuce, maize, melon, papaya, pea, peanut, plum, potato, rice,, soybean, squash, strawberry, sugar beet, sugarcane, sunflower, sweet potato, tomato, walnut, and wheat banana the best choice for infants. component of many diets consumed uncooked, eliminating the possibility of protein denaturation due to high temperatures
  12. 12. Recombinant vaccines expressed in plants 1992 Hepatitis virus B surface antigen Tobacco 1995 Rabies virus glycoprotein Tomato 1995 Escherichia coli heat-labile 1996 enterotoxinTobacco Norwalk virus capsid protein Tobacco Potato 1997 Diabetes-associated autoantigen TobaccoPotato 1997 Hepatitis B surface proteins Potato 1998 Human insulin-Cholera toxin B subunit fusion protein Potato 1999 Foot and mouth disease virus VP1 structural protein Alfalfa 1999 Hepatitis B virus surface antigen Yellow lupin, lettuce 1999 Human cytomegalovirus glycoprotein B 1999 Dental caries (S. mutans) 1999 Diabetes-associated autoantigen 2002 Respiratory syncytial virus Tobacco Tobacco TobaccoCarrot Tomato
  13. 13. Other therapeutic agents A wide variety of other therapeutic agents have been derived from plants : hormones (somatotropin) enzymes, interleukins interferons (IFN) and human serum albumin
  14. 14. Thanks and Questions ?? Muhammad Adil adilsaleem105@gmail.com @adil_salim

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