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Psychological
Investigations
G541 Revision
www.holah.co.uk/page/investigations
www.psychblog.co.uk/powerpoints
The Exam!
• The exam is 1 hour long and you will have
to answer three questions.
• This unit is 30% of your total AS psychology
- paper marked out of 60.
• Although you will have to learn four
sections for this paper, you will only be
asked questions on three of the sections.
Experiments
Correlations
Observations
Self-Reports
You will be asked questions about:
•the piece of research including strengths and weaknesses.
•the data produced by the research.
•to design your own research
•the strengths and weaknesses of this proposed research.
EXPERIMENTS
Psychological Investigations
Experiments
Three types of experiments:
• Laboratory experiments
– Highly controlled / artificial
• Field experiments
– Controlled variables in a natural environment
• Quasi (natural) experiments
– We have no control over the independent
variable – it’s ‘naturally’ occurring (eg Gender)
Experiments
Independent
Variable
(IV)
Dependent
Variable
(DV)
Confounding Variable: a variable that effects the DV
Extraneous Variable: a variable that could affect the DV but
has been controlled for so it doesn’t.
Experiments
Extraneous Variables
Participant Variables
• Independent Measures = Individual
Differences
Situational Variables
• Any feature of the experiment that could
influence a participants behaviour
Single Blind – Double Blind – Control Groups
Experiments
• Independent
Measures
• Participants are only
in one condition.
Repeated Measures
• The same participants
repeat the two
conditions
Condition 1 Condition 2
Condition 1 Condition 2
Counter balancing – alter order of Pp’s
Experiments
Matched Pairs – make two groups of participants
as similar as possible.
Condition 1 Condition 2
Male (Bob)
21
IQ = 105
Male (Richard)
21
IQ = 105
Female (Dawn)
25
IQ = 115
Female (Cara)
25
IQ = 115
Strength Weakness
Independent
Measures
No Order Effects
Fewer Demand
Characteristics
Individual
Differences
Repeated
Measures
No Individual
Differences
Order Effects
(counter balancing)
Matched
Pairs
Controls for
Individual
Differences
Can be difficult
and costly.
Evaluation of Experimental Designs
Experimental
Methods
Experimental
Methods
±±
Independent &
Dependent Variables
Independent &
Dependent Variables
Confounding &
Extraneous Variables
Confounding &
Extraneous Variables
Cause &
Effect
Cause &
Effect
Types of
Experiments
Laboratory
Field
Quasi (natural)
Types of
Experiments
Laboratory
Field
Quasi (natural)
Independent
Measures
Repeated Measures
Matched-Pairs
Independent
Measures
Repeated Measures
Matched-Pairs
Sampling
Methods
Opportunity
Random
Snowball
Stratified
Self-Selected
Sampling
Methods
Opportunity
Random
Snowball
Stratified
Self-Selected
EthicsEthics
Ecological Validity
Reliability
Validity
Ecological Validity
Reliability
Validity
Experiments – Hypotheses
Participants memory will be much worse
when there is a distraction in the room than
when there is no distraction.
Participants memory will be much worse
when there is a distraction in the room than
when there is no distraction.
How are we
measuring
memory?
What’s better or
worse? Higher /
Lower? More / Less?
What is the
distraction? How are
we manipulating it?
Operationalising your hypothesis
How have you manipulated your IV?
How have you measured your DV?
Experiments – Hypotheses
Participants memory will be much worse
when there is a distraction in the room than
when there is no distraction.
Participants will remember significantly
more words from a list of 20 presented for
60 seconds when they are in a room with
no distractions than participants who are in
a room where rock music is playing in the
background.
Experiments – Hypotheses
Participants who [do something] will be
significantly [faster/better/quicker etc] at
[something] than participants who [do
something else].
There will be no significant difference
between participants who [do something]
and those who [do something else]. Any
difference will be down to chance.
AlternativeNull
Experiments – Hypotheses
Participants who [do something] will be
significantly [faster/better/quicker etc] at
[something] than participants who [do
something else].
There will be a significant difference
between participants who [do something]
and those who [do something else].
1Tailed
2Tailed
Key Terms - Experiments
• Laboratory Experiment
• Field Experiment
• Quasi Experiment
• Independent Variable
• Dependent Variable
• Confounding Variable
• Extraneous Variable
• Replication
• Cause and Effect
• Ecological Validity
• Alternative Hypothesis
• Demand Characteristics
• Ethics
• Independent Measures
• Repeated Measures
• Matched-Pairs
• Individual Differences
• Order Effects
• Counter Balancing
• Operationalising
Hypothesis
• Null Hypothesis
CORRELATIONS
Psychological Investigations
Correlation
• Positive Correlation
• Negative Correlation
• Zero Correlation
Can’t infer causation –
only relationships!
Correlation Coefficients
+1.0 Perfect Positive
+0.8 Strong
+0.2 Weak
0 Zero
-0.2 Weak
-0.8 Strong
-1.0 Perfect Negative
Correlation – Hypotheses
There will be a significant [direction]
correlation between [variable 1]
(measured by [something]) and [variable
2] (measured by [something])
There will be no significant correlation
between [variable 1] (measured by
[something]) and [variable 2] (measured
by [something])
Alternative.
Null
Correlation – Hypotheses
There will be a significant [direction]
correlation between [variable 1]
(measured by [something]) and [variable
2] (measured by [something])
There will be a significant correlation
between [variable 1] (measured by
[something]) and [variable 2] (measured
by [something])
1Tailed
2Tailed
No Direction
Data Analysis
Descriptive Statistics
• Summary of data to illustrate patterns and
relationships – BUT can’t infer conclusions
Inferential Statistics
• Statistical tests that allow us to make
conclusions in relation to our hypothesis.
eg. Mann-Whitney or Spearman’s Rho.
Data Analysis
Scattergram to show the
Correlation between variable
1 and variable 2
Titles are VERY important. Title your axis, the
integers and give the graph a title.
Data Analysis
Descriptive Statistics
• Summary of data to illustrate patterns and
relationships – BUT can’t infer conclusions
Inferential Statistics
• Statistical tests that allow us to make
conclusions in relation to our hypothesis.
eg. Mann-Whitney or Spearman’s Rho.
Data Analysis
Nominal - measure of central tendency: mode
Data in categories (finished, fell, started)
Ordinal - measure of central tendency: median
Data which are ranked or in order (1st
2nd
3rd
)
Interval - measure of central tendency: mean
Precise and measured using units of equal
intervals (1m54s, 1m59s, 2m03s)
Measure of dispersion = range (Highest – Lowest)
Key Terms - Correlation
• Positive Correlation
• Negative Correlation
• Zero Correlation
• Causation
• Correlation
Coefficient
• Operationalise
Variables
• Hypothesis
• One-tailed Hypothesis
• Two-tailed Hypothesis
• Alternate Hypothesis
• Null Hypothesis
• Descriptive Statistics
• Inferential Statistics
• Scattergram
• Cause-and-effect
SELF-REPORTS
Psychological Investigations
Self-Report
Data Types
Quantitative Data
Number data: easy to analyse – no meaning
Qualitative Data
Describing meaning: difficult to analyse
More valid – no interpretation needed
Self-Report
Questionnaires
• Open Questions = Qualitative Data
• Closed Questions = Quantitative Data
– Fixed Choice (yes / no)
– Rating Scales (Likert-type Scales)
• Social Desirability & fibbing
• Response rates & leading
questions
Types of SR
Hand Out
Face-to-face
Phone
Email / Internet
Postal
Self-Report
Interviews
• Structured / Unstructured Interviews
• Demand Characteristics / Social Desirability
Reliability – how consistent are the findings
Validity – does the question measure what is
claims to measure?
Questionnaires: Split-Half Method
Interviews: Replicate them
Ask OPEN questions – more valid
Conduct an observation of behaviour
±±
Self
Reports
Self
Reports
Interviews
Structured
Unstructured
Interviews
Structured
Unstructured
Data-Types
Quantitative
Qualitative
Data-Types
Quantitative
Qualitative
Types of
SR’s
Postal / Mail
Email / Web
Handout
Telephone
Face-to-Face
Types of
SR’s
Postal / Mail
Email / Web
Handout
Telephone
Face-to-Face
Sampling
Opportunity
Self-Selected
Random
Stratified
Snowball
Sampling
Opportunity
Self-Selected
Random
Stratified
Snowball
Reliability &
Validity
Social Desirability
Reliability &
Validity
Social Desirability
Question
Types
Open / Closed
Fixed Choice / Likert
Question
Types
Open / Closed
Fixed Choice / Likert
Sampling
General Population
Sample
Representative Sample
Generalisations
Sampling Techniques
Sampling
Opportunity Sample
• People who are there
at the time.
• Quick / Cheap / Easy
• Not representative
Random Sample
• Each person in the GP
has an equal chance of
being chosen.
• Expensive and time
consuming.
• Representative sample
Sampling
Self-Selected
• Participants volunteer to
be in the sample following
advert etc.
• Quick / Cheap / Easy
• Not representative
What kind of person volunteers
for a psychology experiment?
Snowball Sampling
• One person tells others
who tell others …
• Allows us to collect
-difficult to locate people
• Time consuming
Key Terms - Self-Report
• Questionnaires
• Interviews
• Open Questions
• Closed Questions
• Social Desirability
• Response Rate
• Leading Questions
• Unstructured Interviews
• Quantitative Data
• Qualitative Data
• Likert Scales
• Fixed Choice
• Reliability
• Validity
• Split-half method
• Sampling
• Opportunity Sample
• Random Sample
• Self-selected Sample
• Stratified Sample
• Snowball Sample
OBSERVATIONS
Psychological Investigations
Observation
• Participant Observations
– Take part in what you’re observing
• Non-Participant Observations
– Just observe – no interaction
• Disclosed (overt) Observations
– Participants aware of observer
• Undisclosed (covert) Observations
– Participants unaware of observer Ethics!
Observer effect
Act differently
Objectivity?
Observation
• Structured Observation
– Coding scheme is used to record behaviour
– Quantitative data collected
• Unstructured Observation
– Researchers just record what’s going on
– Qualitative data collected (usually)
• Controlled Observations
– Researchers manipulate some variables
Event Sampling
Time Sampling
Observation - Sampling
Event Sampling
• Coding Scheme
• Researcher records
an event every time it
happens.
• If too many things
happen at once it may
be difficult to record
everything.
Time Sampling
• Researcher decides
on a time and then
records what is
occurring at that time
• Some behaviours will
be missed therefore
the observation may
not be representative.
Observation
Reliability
• Difficult to replicate
observation –
confounding variables.
• Check consistency within
observations with inter-
rater reliability (≥ 0.8)
• Improve reliability by
using good coding
scheme
Validity
• If participants know = low
validity
• Observer bias = low
validity
• Improve by using wider
categories or single-blind
technique
• Check validity by asking
participants – self-report
Ethics
• Consent
• Withdrawal
• Debriefing
• Deception
• Confidentiality
• Observation
• Protection
• Advice
• Colleagues
Key Terms - Observation
• Ecological Validity
• Non-participant Obs.
• Participant Obs.
• Undisclosed (covert)
• Disclosed (overt)
• Structured
• Unstructured
• Coding Scheme
• Controlled Observation
• Event Sampling
• Time Sampling
• Reliability
• Inter-rater Reliability
• Validity
• Categories
• Ethics
• Quantitative Data
• Qualitative Data

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psychological investigations

  • 2. The Exam! • The exam is 1 hour long and you will have to answer three questions. • This unit is 30% of your total AS psychology - paper marked out of 60. • Although you will have to learn four sections for this paper, you will only be asked questions on three of the sections. Experiments Correlations Observations Self-Reports You will be asked questions about: •the piece of research including strengths and weaknesses. •the data produced by the research. •to design your own research •the strengths and weaknesses of this proposed research.
  • 4. Experiments Three types of experiments: • Laboratory experiments – Highly controlled / artificial • Field experiments – Controlled variables in a natural environment • Quasi (natural) experiments – We have no control over the independent variable – it’s ‘naturally’ occurring (eg Gender)
  • 5. Experiments Independent Variable (IV) Dependent Variable (DV) Confounding Variable: a variable that effects the DV Extraneous Variable: a variable that could affect the DV but has been controlled for so it doesn’t.
  • 6. Experiments Extraneous Variables Participant Variables • Independent Measures = Individual Differences Situational Variables • Any feature of the experiment that could influence a participants behaviour Single Blind – Double Blind – Control Groups
  • 7. Experiments • Independent Measures • Participants are only in one condition. Repeated Measures • The same participants repeat the two conditions Condition 1 Condition 2 Condition 1 Condition 2 Counter balancing – alter order of Pp’s
  • 8. Experiments Matched Pairs – make two groups of participants as similar as possible. Condition 1 Condition 2 Male (Bob) 21 IQ = 105 Male (Richard) 21 IQ = 105 Female (Dawn) 25 IQ = 115 Female (Cara) 25 IQ = 115
  • 9. Strength Weakness Independent Measures No Order Effects Fewer Demand Characteristics Individual Differences Repeated Measures No Individual Differences Order Effects (counter balancing) Matched Pairs Controls for Individual Differences Can be difficult and costly. Evaluation of Experimental Designs
  • 10. Experimental Methods Experimental Methods ±± Independent & Dependent Variables Independent & Dependent Variables Confounding & Extraneous Variables Confounding & Extraneous Variables Cause & Effect Cause & Effect Types of Experiments Laboratory Field Quasi (natural) Types of Experiments Laboratory Field Quasi (natural) Independent Measures Repeated Measures Matched-Pairs Independent Measures Repeated Measures Matched-Pairs Sampling Methods Opportunity Random Snowball Stratified Self-Selected Sampling Methods Opportunity Random Snowball Stratified Self-Selected EthicsEthics Ecological Validity Reliability Validity Ecological Validity Reliability Validity
  • 11. Experiments – Hypotheses Participants memory will be much worse when there is a distraction in the room than when there is no distraction. Participants memory will be much worse when there is a distraction in the room than when there is no distraction. How are we measuring memory? What’s better or worse? Higher / Lower? More / Less? What is the distraction? How are we manipulating it? Operationalising your hypothesis How have you manipulated your IV? How have you measured your DV?
  • 12. Experiments – Hypotheses Participants memory will be much worse when there is a distraction in the room than when there is no distraction. Participants will remember significantly more words from a list of 20 presented for 60 seconds when they are in a room with no distractions than participants who are in a room where rock music is playing in the background.
  • 13. Experiments – Hypotheses Participants who [do something] will be significantly [faster/better/quicker etc] at [something] than participants who [do something else]. There will be no significant difference between participants who [do something] and those who [do something else]. Any difference will be down to chance. AlternativeNull
  • 14. Experiments – Hypotheses Participants who [do something] will be significantly [faster/better/quicker etc] at [something] than participants who [do something else]. There will be a significant difference between participants who [do something] and those who [do something else]. 1Tailed 2Tailed
  • 15. Key Terms - Experiments • Laboratory Experiment • Field Experiment • Quasi Experiment • Independent Variable • Dependent Variable • Confounding Variable • Extraneous Variable • Replication • Cause and Effect • Ecological Validity • Alternative Hypothesis • Demand Characteristics • Ethics • Independent Measures • Repeated Measures • Matched-Pairs • Individual Differences • Order Effects • Counter Balancing • Operationalising Hypothesis • Null Hypothesis
  • 17. Correlation • Positive Correlation • Negative Correlation • Zero Correlation Can’t infer causation – only relationships! Correlation Coefficients +1.0 Perfect Positive +0.8 Strong +0.2 Weak 0 Zero -0.2 Weak -0.8 Strong -1.0 Perfect Negative
  • 18. Correlation – Hypotheses There will be a significant [direction] correlation between [variable 1] (measured by [something]) and [variable 2] (measured by [something]) There will be no significant correlation between [variable 1] (measured by [something]) and [variable 2] (measured by [something]) Alternative. Null
  • 19. Correlation – Hypotheses There will be a significant [direction] correlation between [variable 1] (measured by [something]) and [variable 2] (measured by [something]) There will be a significant correlation between [variable 1] (measured by [something]) and [variable 2] (measured by [something]) 1Tailed 2Tailed No Direction
  • 20. Data Analysis Descriptive Statistics • Summary of data to illustrate patterns and relationships – BUT can’t infer conclusions Inferential Statistics • Statistical tests that allow us to make conclusions in relation to our hypothesis. eg. Mann-Whitney or Spearman’s Rho.
  • 21. Data Analysis Scattergram to show the Correlation between variable 1 and variable 2 Titles are VERY important. Title your axis, the integers and give the graph a title.
  • 22. Data Analysis Descriptive Statistics • Summary of data to illustrate patterns and relationships – BUT can’t infer conclusions Inferential Statistics • Statistical tests that allow us to make conclusions in relation to our hypothesis. eg. Mann-Whitney or Spearman’s Rho.
  • 23. Data Analysis Nominal - measure of central tendency: mode Data in categories (finished, fell, started) Ordinal - measure of central tendency: median Data which are ranked or in order (1st 2nd 3rd ) Interval - measure of central tendency: mean Precise and measured using units of equal intervals (1m54s, 1m59s, 2m03s) Measure of dispersion = range (Highest – Lowest)
  • 24. Key Terms - Correlation • Positive Correlation • Negative Correlation • Zero Correlation • Causation • Correlation Coefficient • Operationalise Variables • Hypothesis • One-tailed Hypothesis • Two-tailed Hypothesis • Alternate Hypothesis • Null Hypothesis • Descriptive Statistics • Inferential Statistics • Scattergram • Cause-and-effect
  • 26. Self-Report Data Types Quantitative Data Number data: easy to analyse – no meaning Qualitative Data Describing meaning: difficult to analyse More valid – no interpretation needed
  • 27. Self-Report Questionnaires • Open Questions = Qualitative Data • Closed Questions = Quantitative Data – Fixed Choice (yes / no) – Rating Scales (Likert-type Scales) • Social Desirability & fibbing • Response rates & leading questions Types of SR Hand Out Face-to-face Phone Email / Internet Postal
  • 28. Self-Report Interviews • Structured / Unstructured Interviews • Demand Characteristics / Social Desirability Reliability – how consistent are the findings Validity – does the question measure what is claims to measure? Questionnaires: Split-Half Method Interviews: Replicate them Ask OPEN questions – more valid Conduct an observation of behaviour
  • 29. ±± Self Reports Self Reports Interviews Structured Unstructured Interviews Structured Unstructured Data-Types Quantitative Qualitative Data-Types Quantitative Qualitative Types of SR’s Postal / Mail Email / Web Handout Telephone Face-to-Face Types of SR’s Postal / Mail Email / Web Handout Telephone Face-to-Face Sampling Opportunity Self-Selected Random Stratified Snowball Sampling Opportunity Self-Selected Random Stratified Snowball Reliability & Validity Social Desirability Reliability & Validity Social Desirability Question Types Open / Closed Fixed Choice / Likert Question Types Open / Closed Fixed Choice / Likert
  • 31. Sampling Opportunity Sample • People who are there at the time. • Quick / Cheap / Easy • Not representative Random Sample • Each person in the GP has an equal chance of being chosen. • Expensive and time consuming. • Representative sample
  • 32. Sampling Self-Selected • Participants volunteer to be in the sample following advert etc. • Quick / Cheap / Easy • Not representative What kind of person volunteers for a psychology experiment? Snowball Sampling • One person tells others who tell others … • Allows us to collect -difficult to locate people • Time consuming
  • 33. Key Terms - Self-Report • Questionnaires • Interviews • Open Questions • Closed Questions • Social Desirability • Response Rate • Leading Questions • Unstructured Interviews • Quantitative Data • Qualitative Data • Likert Scales • Fixed Choice • Reliability • Validity • Split-half method • Sampling • Opportunity Sample • Random Sample • Self-selected Sample • Stratified Sample • Snowball Sample
  • 35. Observation • Participant Observations – Take part in what you’re observing • Non-Participant Observations – Just observe – no interaction • Disclosed (overt) Observations – Participants aware of observer • Undisclosed (covert) Observations – Participants unaware of observer Ethics! Observer effect Act differently Objectivity?
  • 36. Observation • Structured Observation – Coding scheme is used to record behaviour – Quantitative data collected • Unstructured Observation – Researchers just record what’s going on – Qualitative data collected (usually) • Controlled Observations – Researchers manipulate some variables Event Sampling Time Sampling
  • 37. Observation - Sampling Event Sampling • Coding Scheme • Researcher records an event every time it happens. • If too many things happen at once it may be difficult to record everything. Time Sampling • Researcher decides on a time and then records what is occurring at that time • Some behaviours will be missed therefore the observation may not be representative.
  • 38. Observation Reliability • Difficult to replicate observation – confounding variables. • Check consistency within observations with inter- rater reliability (≥ 0.8) • Improve reliability by using good coding scheme Validity • If participants know = low validity • Observer bias = low validity • Improve by using wider categories or single-blind technique • Check validity by asking participants – self-report
  • 39. Ethics • Consent • Withdrawal • Debriefing • Deception • Confidentiality • Observation • Protection • Advice • Colleagues
  • 40. Key Terms - Observation • Ecological Validity • Non-participant Obs. • Participant Obs. • Undisclosed (covert) • Disclosed (overt) • Structured • Unstructured • Coding Scheme • Controlled Observation • Event Sampling • Time Sampling • Reliability • Inter-rater Reliability • Validity • Categories • Ethics • Quantitative Data • Qualitative Data