SINIFICANCE OF EDUCATION IN PRESENT ERA1.      INTRODUCTION:           Etymologically, the word "education" is derived fro...
self-development by which the individual can "gain complete possession of of all hispowers." Broadly speakly, education ha...
Preschool education is important because it can give a child the edge in acompetitive world and education climate. While c...
paying schools, or charitable educational foundations have an even longerhistory.d.     Vocational education:       Vocati...
such as a high school or secondary school. Tertiary education is normallytaken to include undergraduate and postgraduate e...
looking to enjoy the shared social aspects that many people value in       traditional on campus education that is not oft...
many more are now available to students through the Internet. With the boom ofinformation from availability of knowledge t...
United States (No Child Left Behind), teachers must be highly qualified. A popularway to gauge teaching performance is to ...
(Sargent 1994). Learners may be motivated by aspirations for progress and      betterment. Education is perceived as a pla...
widow, if she is educated, need not remain at the mercy of others. She can stand onher legs. She can support herself and h...
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Sinificance of education

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Sinificance of education

  1. 1. SINIFICANCE OF EDUCATION IN PRESENT ERA1. INTRODUCTION: Etymologically, the word "education" is derived from theLatin ēducātiō (“A breeding, a bringing up, a rearing") from ēdūcō (“I educate, I train”)which is related to the homonym ēdūcō (“I lead forth, I take out; I raise up, I erect”)from ē- (“from, out of”) and dūcō (“I lead, I conduct”). The education system in Pakistanis generally divided into five levels: primary (grades one through five); middle (grades sixthrough eight); high(grades nine and ten, leading to the Secondary School Certificate orSSC); intermediate(grades eleven and twelve, leading to a Higher Secondary (School)Certificateor HSC); and university programs leading to undergraduate and graduatedegrees. The literacy rate ranges from 87% in Islamabadto 20% in the Kohlu District.Between 2000—2004, Pakistanis in the age group 55–64 had a literacy rate of almost 30%,those aged between 45–54 had a literacy rate of nearly 40%, those between 25–34 had aliteracy rate of 50%, and those aged 15–24 had a literacy rate of 60%. Literacy rates varyregionally, particularly by sex. In tribal areas female literacy is 7.5%. Moreover, English isfast spreading in Pakistan, with 18 million Pakistanis (11% of the population) having acommand over the English language, which makes it the 9th Largest English SpeakingNation in the world and the 3rd largest in Asia. On top of that, Pakistan produces about445,000 university graduates and 10,000 computer science graduates per year. Despitethese statistics, Pakistan still has one of the highest illiteracy rates in the world.2. AIM OF EDUCATION: "The relationship between society and theindividual is not to be understood simply in the sense that cultural patterns and socialinstitutions influence the individual. The interaction goes much deeper; the wholepersonality of the average individual is moulded by the way people relate to eachother, and it is determined by the socioeconomic and political structure of society tosuch an extent, that in principle, one can infer from the analysis of one individual thetotality of the social structure in which he lives."3. PURPOSE OF EDUCATION: "To culture the mind of a man so that hecan accomplish all his aims in life. Education, to justify itself, should enable a man touse the full potential of his body, mind and spirit. It should also develop in him theability to make the best use of his personality, surroundings and circumstances sothat he may accomplish the maximum in life for himself and for others." (51) Thepurpose of education would be met if the schools provided educational methods of
  2. 2. self-development by which the individual can "gain complete possession of of all hispowers." Broadly speakly, education has two goals which are mutually dependent:cultivation and development of the individual and the improvement of society. But itis individuals who make up the society. Therefore the society improves with theimprovement of the individuals who make it up".4. Systems and purpose of schooling: Systems of schooling involveinstitutionalized teaching and learning in relation to a curriculum, which itself isestablished according to a predetermined purpose of the schools in the system.Schools systems were also based off of peoples religion giving them a differentcurriculum. Individual’s purposes for pursuing education can vary. However in earlyage the focus is generally around developing basic Interpersonal communication andliteracy skills in order to further ability to learn more complex skills and subjects. Afteracquiring these basic abilities education is commonly focused towards individualsgaining necessary knowledge and skills to improve ability to create value and alivelihood for themselves.5. Curriculum: In formal education, a curriculum is the set of courses and theircontent offered at a school or university. As an idea, curriculum stems from the Latinword for race course, referring to the course of deeds and experiences throughwhich children grow to become mature adults. A curriculum is prescriptive, and isbased on a more general syllabus which merely specifies what topics must beunderstood and to what level to achieve a particular grade or standard. An academicdiscipline is a branch of knowledge which is formally taught, either at the university–or via some other such method. Each discipline usually has several sub-disciplinesor branches, and distinguishing lines are often both arbitrary and ambiguous.Examples of broad areas of academic disciplines include the natural sciences,mathematics, computer science, social sciences, humanities and applied sciences.Educational institutions may incorporate fine arts as part of K-12 grade curriculumsor within majors at colleges and universities as electives. The various types of finearts are music, dance, and theatre. a. Pre-schools: The term preschool refers to a school for children who are not old enough to attend kindergarten. It is a nursery school.
  3. 3. Preschool education is important because it can give a child the edge in acompetitive world and education climate. While children who do not receivethe fundamentals during their preschool years will be taught the alphabet,counting, shapes and colors and designs when they begin their formaleducation they will be behind the children who already possess thatknowledge.b. Primary schools: Primary (or elementary) education consists of thefirst 5–7 years of formal, structured education. In general, primary educationconsists of six or eight years of schooling starting at the age of five or six,although this varies between, and sometimes within, countries. Globally,around 89% of primary-age children are enrolled in primary education, andthis proportion is rising. Under the ‘Education for All’ programs driven byUNESCO, most countries have committed to achieving universal enrollment inprimary education by 2015, and in many countries, it is compulsory forchildren to receive primary education. The division between primary andsecondary education is somewhat arbitrary, but it generally occurs at abouteleven or twelve years of age. Schools that provide primary education aremostly referred to as primary schools. Primary schools in these countries areoften subdivided into infant schools and junior school.c. Secondary schools: In most contemporary educational systemsof the world, secondary education comprises the formal education that occursduring adolescence. It is characterized by transition from the typicallycompulsory, comprehensive primary education for minors, to the optional,selective tertiary, "post-secondary", or "higher" education (e.g. university,vocational school) for adults. The exact boundary between primary andsecondary education also varies from country to country and even withinthem, but is generally around the seventh to the tenth year of schooling.Secondary education occurs mainly during the teenage years. The purpose ofsecondary education can be to give common knowledge, to prepare for highereducation or to train directly in a profession. In Europe, the grammar school oracademy existed from as early as the 16th century; public schools or fee-
  4. 4. paying schools, or charitable educational foundations have an even longerhistory.d. Vocational education: Vocational education is a form of educationfocused on direct and practical training for a specific trade or craft. Vocationaleducation may come in the form of an apprenticeship or internship as well asinstitutions teaching courses such as carpentry, agriculture, engineering,medicine, architecture & arts.e. Alternative education: Alternative education, also known as non-traditional education or educational alternative, is a broad term that may beused to refer to all forms of education outside of traditional education (for allage groups and levels of education). This may include not only forms ofeducation designed for students with special needs (ranging from teenagepregnancy to intellectual disability), but also forms of education designed for ageneral audience and employing alternative educational philosophies andmethods. These alternatives, which include charter schools, alternativeschools, independent schools, homeschooling and auto didacticism vary, butoften emphasize the value of small class size, close relationships betweenstudents and teachers, and a sense of community. Alternative education mayalso allow for independent learning and engaging class activities.f. Special Education: In the past, those who were disabled were oftennot eligible for public education. Children with disabilities were often educatedby physicians or special tutors. These early physicians (people like Itard,Seguin, Howe, and Gallaudet) set the foundation for special education today.They focused on individualized instruction and functional skills. Specialeducation was only provided to people with severe disabilities in its earlyyears, but more recently it has been opened to anyone who has experienceddifficulty learning.g. Systems of higher education: Higher education, also called tertiary,third stage, or post secondary education, is the non-compulsory educationallevel that follows the completion of a school providing a secondary education,
  5. 5. such as a high school or secondary school. Tertiary education is normallytaken to include undergraduate and postgraduate education, as well asvocational education and training. Colleges and universities are the maininstitutions that provide tertiary education. Collectively, these are sometimesknown as tertiary institutions. Tertiary education generally results in thereceipt of certificates, diplomas, or academic degrees. Higher educationgenerally involves work towards a degree-level or foundation degreequalification. In most developed countries a high proportion of the population(up to 50%) now enter higher education at some time in their lives. Highereducation is therefore very important to national economies, both as asignificant industry in its own right, and as a source of trained and educatedpersonnel for the rest of the economy.h. University systems: University education includes teaching,research and social services activities, and it includes both the undergraduatelevel (sometimes referred to as tertiary education) and the graduate (orpostgraduate) level (sometimes referred to as graduate school). Universitiesare generally composed of several colleges. Universities can be private andindependent, like Hamdard University, they can be public and State governed,like the Pennsylvania State System of Higher Education, or they can beindependent but State funded, like the University Of Karachi.j. Open Education: Higher education in particular is currentlyundergoing a transition towards open education; e-learning alone is currentlygrowing at 14x the rate of traditional learning. Open education is fast growingto become the dominant form of education, for many reasons such as itssuperior efficiency and results compared to traditionalist methods.[13] Cost ofeducation has been an issue throughout history, and it a major political issuein most countries today. Open education is generally significantly cheaperthan traditional campus based learning and in many cases even free. It hasbeen called the biggest change in the way we learn since the printing press.Many people despite favourable studies on effectiveness may still desire tochoose traditional campus education for social and cultural reasons. Therehas been a culture forming around distance learning for people who are
  6. 6. looking to enjoy the shared social aspects that many people value in traditional on campus education that is not often directly offered from open education. Examples of this are people in open education forming study groups, meet ups and movements.6. Technology: One of the most substantial uses in education is the useof technology. Computers and mobile phones are used in developed countries bothto complement established education practices and develop new ways of learningsuch as online education (a type of distance education). This gives students theopportunity to choose what they are interested in learning. Technology offerspowerful learning tools that demand new skills and understandings of students,including Multimedia, and provides new ways to engage students, such as Virtuallearning environments. Virtual manipulative are dynamic visual/ pictorial, which havelong been used to demonstrate and teach various mathematical concepts. Virtualmanipulative can be easily accessed on the Internet as stand-alone applets, allowingfor easy access and use in a variety of educational settings. The use of technologiessuch as PowerPoint and interactive whiteboard is capturing the attention of studentsin the classroom. The use of computers and the Internet is in its infancy indeveloping countries, if these are used at all, due to limited infrastructure and theattendant high costs of access. Usually, various technologies are used incombination rather than as the sole delivery mechanism. The Open University of theUnited Kingdom (UKOU), established in 1969 as the first educational institution inthe world wholly dedicated to open and distance learning, still relies heavily on print-based materials supplemented by radio, television and, in recent years, onlineprogramming. Similarly, the Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU) in Pakistancombines the use of print, recorded audio and video, broadcast radio and television,and audio conferencing technologies.7. Adult education: Adult learning, or adult education, is the practice oftraining and developing skills in adults. It is also sometimes referred to as andragogy(the art and science of helping adults learn). Adult education has become common inmany countries. It takes on many forms, ranging from formal class-based learning toself-directed learning and e-learning. A number of career specific courses such asveterinary assisting, medical billing and coding, real estate license, bookkeeping and
  7. 7. many more are now available to students through the Internet. With the boom ofinformation from availability of knowledge through means of internet and othermodern low cost information exchange mechanisms people are beginning to take anattitude of Lifelong learning. To make knowledge and self improvement a life longfocus as opposed to the more traditional view that knowledge and in particular valuecreating trade skills are to be learned just exclusively in youth.8. Learning modalities: There has been work on learning styles over thelast two decades. Howard Gardner identified individual talents or aptitudes in hisMultiple Intelligences theories. Based on the works of Jung, the Myers-Briggs TypeIndicator and Keirsey Temperament Sorter[30] focused on understanding howpeoples personality affects the way they interact personally, and how this affects theway individuals respond to each other within the learning environment. The work ofDavid Kolb follows a similar but more simplified approach. It is currently fashionableto divide education into different learning "modes". The learning modalities areprobably the most common: Visual: learning based on observation and seeing what is being learned. Auditory: learning based on listening to instructions/information. Kinesthetic: learning based on hands-on work and engaging in activities.A consequence of this theory is that effective teaching should present a variety ofteaching methods which cover all three learning modalities so that different studentshave equal opportunities to learn in a way that is effective for them.9. Instruction: Instruction is the facilitation of anothers learning. Instructors inprimary and secondary institutions are often called teachers, and they direct theeducation of students and might draw on many subjects like reading, writing,mathematics, science and history. Instructors in post-secondary institutions might becalled teachers, instructors, or professors, depending on the type of institution; andthey primarily teach only their specific discipline. The quality of teachers is the singlemost important factor affecting student performance, and that countries which scorehighly on international tests have multiple policies in place to ensure that theteachers they employ are as effective as possible. With the passing of NCLB in the
  8. 8. United States (No Child Left Behind), teachers must be highly qualified. A popularway to gauge teaching performance is to use student evaluations of teachers(SETS), but these evaluations have been criticized for being counterproductive tolearning and inaccurate due to student bias.10. Modern times: Nowadays some kind of education is compulsory to allpeople in most countries. Due to population growth and the proliferation ofcompulsory education, UNESCO has calculated that in the next 30 years morepeople will receive formal education than in all of human history thus far. a. Philosophy: As an academic field, philosophy of education is "the philosophical study of education and its problems...its central subject matter is education, and its methods are those of philosophy" .For example, it might study what constitutes upbringing and education, the values and norms revealed through upbringing and educational practices, the limits & legitimization of education as an academic discipline, & the relation between education theory & practice. b. Psychology: Educational psychology is the study of how humans learn in educational settings, the effectiveness of educational interventions, the psychology of teaching, and the social psychology of schools as organizations. Educational psychology is concerned with the processes of educational attainment in the general population and in sub-populations such as gifted children and those with specific disabilities. Educational psychology in turn informs a wide range of specialities within educational studies, including instructional design, educational technology, curriculum development, organizational learning, special education and classroom management. Educational psychology both draws from and contributes to cognitive science and the learning sciences. c. Sociology: The sociology of education is the study of how social institutions and forces affect educational processes and outcomes, and vice versa. By many, education is understood to be a means of overcoming handicaps, achieving greater equality and acquiring wealth and status for all
  9. 9. (Sargent 1994). Learners may be motivated by aspirations for progress and betterment. Education is perceived as a place where children can develop according to their unique needs and potentialities. The purpose of education can be to develop every individual to their full potential.11. Education in impoverished areas: Technology has a role in allowingaccess to education to people living in impoverished areas. There are charities whichwork for getting internet access and laptops with pre-loaded information to theseareas. One example is the one laptop per child program that, as of 2011, hasdistributed over 2.4 million laptops to people seeking better education. Along withaccess to hardware, online universities are being used, in Africa & Pakistan.12. Female Education: There was a time when very few women received propereducation. But now girls are receiving the highest education. Some people insist onhaving educated girl as their wives. Others are strongly against this. Let us hereconsider, in brief, the advantages and disadvantages of having an educated wife.There are many advantages also of having an educated wife. Being educated, shecan manage her home more efficiently. She can look after the work of the servants.She can maintain accounts. Thus, by keeping the family budget, she helps the familyin making the best of its income. She keeps her kitchen in hygienic condition. Inshort, she is of definite help as a successful manager of the household.An-educated girl understands her duties well. She proves a source of great comfortto her husband in times of trouble. She can amuse and entertain her husband indifferent ways. Thus she can keep his away from various vices. Besides this, as amother also an educated wife is very useful. She can teach many things to herchildren. She can give them elementary education. She can keep them neat clean,they become healthy. Thus, both the husband and the children are benefited. Upsand downs come in life. If the husband is out of employment, his educated wife canbe a great help to him. The husband may be ill or he may meet with some accident.In such emergencies an educated wife can get some job for herself. An unfortunate
  10. 10. widow, if she is educated, need not remain at the mercy of others. She can stand onher legs. She can support herself and her children.13. Internationalization: Education is becoming increasingly international.The most represented case is the spread of mass schooling. Mass schooling hasimplanted the fundamental concepts that everyone has a right to be educatedregardless of his/her cultural background and gender differences. The global campusonline, led by American universities, allows free access to class materials andlecture files recorded during the actual classes. This facilitates the globalization ofeducation14. SUMMARY: Education is essential for diverse purposes. First, why iseducation important? It is the fundamental base which helps us understand ourrights, opportunities, and responsibilities in life. Education does not only gives usmore opportunities to get better jobs but also helps in developing ourselves as betterhuman beings. The government does not see educating our children as a priority. Onthe contrary, the state is firing teachers that have dedicated their lives in giving theirbest effort to providing their students with the best education possible. There havebeen several budget cuts in education without taking into account that if we do notprovide our youth with resources they may not be as successful in the near future. Ifthese cuts in education continue, this country will go from being a world leader to acountry without leadership role in the world. From my experience, I have learned thatwe must value education and must stay on top of it.References:a. http://www.holisticeducator.com/aimofeducation.htmb. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Educationc. http://www.publishyourarticles.net/knowledge-hub/essay/an-essay-on-female- education.html

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