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Guidance & counselling


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By Shahid Ali Bangash

Published in: Education

Guidance & counselling

  1. 1. FUNCTIONS OF GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING BUREAU IN AN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTEINTRODUCTION:1. The students have to face many types of difficult situations, make a wisecurricular and co-curricular choice; live with and share facilities with students fromvaried social and economic backgrounds; adjust to, the peers and parents, teachersand administrators; secure adequate financial aid to carry on the studies; spendleisure properly; adjust to heterosexual relations satisfactorily, and so on. Thestudents need expert help for optimum achievement and adequate adjustment inthese varied life situations. The primary objective of every guidance and counsellingprogramme is to adjust the perceptions and ambitions of the target (the client) tomatch the expectations of the deliverer (The counsellor or guidance professional).Guidance and counselling are interchangeable terms, but the main difference isguidance refers to helping somebody plan or choose a path or direction, whereascounselling it giving general advice that could pertain to almost anything. Anexample of counselling, that may not be considered guidance might be therapy.Many therapists counsel their clients and attempt to improve their coping skillswithout actually pushing them in any direction.HISTORY:2. Guidance and Counselling, concept that institutions, especially schools,should promote the efficient and happy lives of individuals by helping them adjust tosocial realities. The disruption of community and family life by industrial civilizationconvinced many that guidance experts should be trained to handle problems ofindividual adjustment. Though the need for attention to the whole individual had beenrecognized by educators since the time of Socrates, it was only during the 20th cent.that researchers actually began to study and accumulate information aboutguidance.This development, occurring largely in the United States, was the result of twoinfluences: John Dewey and others insisted that the object of education should be tostimulate the fullest possible growth of the individual and that the unique qualities ofpersonality require individual handling for adequate development; also in the early20th cent., social and economic conditions stimulated a great increase in schoolenrolment. These two forces encouraged a re-examination of the curricula andmethods of secondary schools, with special reference to the needs of students whodid not plan to enter college. The academic curriculum was revised to embrace thesealternative cultural and vocational requirements.Early guidance programs dealt with the immediate problem of vocational placement.The complexities of the industrial economy and the unrealistic ambitions of manyyoung people made it essential that machinery for bringing together jobs and
  2. 2. workers be set up; vocational guidance became that machinery. At the same time,counselling organizations were established to help people understand theirpotentialities and liabilities and make intelligent personal and vocational decisions.The first vocational counselling service was the Boston Vocational Bureau,established (1908) by Frank Parsons, a pioneer in the field of guidance. His modelwas soon copied by many schools, municipalities, states, and private organizations.Modern high school guidance programs also include academic counselling for thosestudents planning to attend college. In recent years, school guidance counsellorshave also been recognized as the primary source for psychological counselling forhigh school students; this sometimes includes counselling in such areas as drugabuse and teenage pregnancy and referrals to other professionals (e.g.,psychologists, social workers, and learning-disability specialists). Virtually allteachers colleges offer major courses in guidance, and graduate schools ofeducation grant advanced degrees in the field.FUNCTIONS:3. Based on the understanding and goals to be achieved then the compilers ofthe book by Tim Guidance and Counselling Guidelines (1994, 2004) that guidanceservices can function as follows: a. Understanding the function, ie guidance and counselling that will yield an understanding of something by specific parties in accordance with the purposes of development of students; understanding that includes: (i). Students understanding of self, especially by the students themselves, parents, teachers, and counsellors. (ii). Students understanding of the environment (including family and school environment), especially by the students themselves, parents, teachers, and counsellors. (iii). Understanding of the environment "wider" (including educational information, information position / job, and information bdaya / values), especially by students. b. Prevention function, which is guidance and counselling that will result from the students prevented or avoided the problems that would interfere with, hinder or cause difficulties in the process of development. c. Repair function, namely the function of guidance and counselling that will result in the splitting various problems experienced by students. d. Maintenance and Development function, the function of guidance and counselling that will result in maintained various potentials and positive
  3. 3. conditions for students within the framework of the development itself well and sustainably. e. Understanding the function, i.e. the function of guidance and counselling that will yield an understanding of something by certain parties in accordance with the interests of the development of learners, understanding it includes: (i). Understanding of self-learners, especially by learners themselves, parents, teachers in general, and the supervising teacher; (ii). Understanding of the environment learners (family environment, and school environment), especially by learners themselves, parents, teachers in general, and the supervising teacher, (iii). Understanding of the environment "wider" (including information in the office / employment, and social information and culture / values), especially by learners. f. Adjustment function, namely the function of guidance and counselling in order to help learners to gain personal adjustment and make progress in the development of optimal. g. The distribution function, the function of guidance and counselling in terms of helping learners to choose the school department, school type connection, employment in accordance with the ideals, talents, interests. h. Adaptation function, which is a function in terms of guidance to help officers in schools, particularly teachers to adapt programs to their interests, abilities and needs of learners.TYPES AND AREAS3. Here are some of the most common types of counsellors:a. Marriage and family counsellingb. Guidance and career counsellingc. Rehabilitation counsellingd. Mental health counsellinge. Substance abuse counsellingf. Educational CounsellingAs society becomes more complex, the partnership among school personnel,parents and students becomes more essential. Preparing students for life and workafter high school is a goal shared by all. To reach that goal, certain information must
  4. 4. be available and specific steps followed. The following are major areas of educationin which guidance and counselling services shall provided to assure that studentsreceive the help they need and deserve to prepare for life and work.· Academic Counselling· Personal/Social Counselling· Career Counselling· Graduation Requirements· Promotion/Retention Policy· Reports on Student Progress· College Admissions (applications, admissions testing)SCHOOL COUNSELLING4. School Counsellors design and deliver comprehensive school counsellingprograms that promote student achievement. These programs are comprehensive inscope, preventive in design and developmental in nature. A comprehensive schoolcounselling program is an integral component of the school’s academic mission.Comprehensive school counselling programs, driven by student data and based onstandards in cognitive, career and socio-emotional development, promote andenhance the learning process for all students.School Counsellors participate as members of the educational team and use skills ofleadership, advocacy and collaboration to promote systemic change as appropriate.Effective school counselling programs are a collaborative effort between the schoolcounsellor, parents and other educators to create an environment that promotesstudent achievement. School staff and school counsellors value and respond to thediversity and individual differences in our societies and communities. Comprehensiveschool counselling programs ensure equitable access to opportunities and rigorouscurriculum so that all students may graduate “career and college ready” as schoolcounsellors focus their skills, time and energy on direct and indirect services tostudents.One has to complete an approved master’s degree counsellor education program ina regionally accredited college or university in order to be a licensed schoolcounsellor. Within these counsellor education programs, several standards arestudied such as the professional identity of school counselling, cultural diversity,human growth and development and career development. Also required are the corecomponents for helping relationships, group and individual work, assessment,research and program evaluation, knowledge and requirements for schoolcounsellors, contextual dimensions of school counselling, and an internship under ahighly qualified school counsellor. School counsellors are expected to apply their
  5. 5. professional training in schools as leaders, advocates and collaborators in order tosupport student achievement.Comprehensive guidance and counselling programs and services are systematicallyplanned to meet the needs of all students and are infused into the daily activities ofschools. Comprehensive guidance and counselling programs and services supportstudent learning in areas of personal/social, educational and career development.Comprehensive guidance and counselling programs and services are inclusive; theyrespond to the unique and special needs of all students from Kindergarten to Grade12. Comprehensive guidance and counselling programs and services provide arange of guidance/counselling services from a developmental/preventive focus to aresponsive/remedial focus. Four types of services are provided: counselling,prevention, guidance education, and consultation (see diagram below).School Division Plans, Student Services Plans, and School Plans include guidanceand counselling services and programs. Plans for a comprehensive guidance andcounselling program include provisions for regular, systematic identification of needsand priorities, specification of expected outcomes, descriptions of activities, andidentification of success indicators. Guidance programs and services should beevaluated on a regular basis. The provision of comprehensive guidance andcounselling programs and services is the shared responsibility of all staff. A teamapproach should be employed, wherein all staff members have specified roles toplay. School counsellors play a key role in planning and implementing programs andservices.
  6. 6. COLLEGE COUNSELLING:5. College counsellors have the incredible opportunity—and responsibility—ofcounselling students through some of the most consequential decisions of their lives.The term “college counsellor” can refer to professionals who work in admissions,career services, academic counselling, or placement counselling or to those whoprovide specialized psychological services. In each of these roles, a counsellorprovides individualized attention to a student who is in the midst of making importantdecisions about courses, jobs, financial aid or graduation. Sometimes a counsellorprovides even more fundamental guidance to students experiencing academicdifficulties or challenging life circumstances. A college counsellor has the unusualopportunity to use his own powers of observation for the benefit of the students hecounsels and to make a significant difference in students’ academic and personallives. a. Work Environment: College counsellors generally work in two- and four-year colleges and universities or in high schools or preparatory schools to facilitate a student’s transition from high school to college. A counsellor typically works a standard forty-hour work week in an office setting; increasingly, though, part-time positions are available for college counsellors as well. Counsellors split their work time between direct interaction with students and administrative duties. b. Education: Most institutions require that candidates possess a bachelors degree, although some prefer candidates who have obtained a master’s degree. The specific type of bachelor’s degree is not particularly important, but many college counsellors do have a degree in psychology. Counsellors who have a degree in another field may find it advantageous to counsel students who are pursuing education or a career that resembles the counsellors own discipline. For example, a college counsellor who has earned a bachelor of science degree in biology may counsel pre-med students. College counsellors who provide psychological services usually must possess advanced degrees, such as an MS, PhD, or PsyD. c. Training: College counsellors who do not provide formal psychological care usually receive on-the-job training from their employing institution through orientation and continuing education seminars. Those counsellors who provide psychological care must complete graduate training in psychology, which usually entails a minimum of two to three years of study and includes a supervised practicum where the student practices under a licensed professional.GROUP COUNSELLING:6. Group counselling is a form of therapy, which posits that people benefit fromshared experiences. Usually group counselling is focused on a particular issue, for
  7. 7. example obsessive-compulsive disorder or anger management. While a therapistusually manages group counselling, contributions from other members in the groupare considered valuable since all in the group share similar issues. One of the mainprincipals behind group counselling is the idea that dealing with specific issues maycause isolation, and a feeling that one is alone in facing one’s problems. Groupcounselling attempts to counteract this isolation by assembling people with similarissues to enforce that difficulties are not singular to one person. Additionally,knowing other people with similar troubles can be comforting to each individual, whomay not have access in their own family and friends to people with the sameproblem.Group counselling may be highly organized, with people doing specific activitiestogether and then sharing the results. Alternately, it may be more freeform, wherepeople share current issues related to the group’s purpose. One person’s verbalcontributions to a group might be discussed, validated, and provoke problem solvingby other group members in a session. It might also be an entry into a discussionregarding a certain aspect of an illness or condition that is then primarily led by thetherapist. Group counselling may also embrace different psychological schools ofthought. For example a Jungian-oriented group dealing with depression mightevaluate symbols in dreams that could shed insight on each member’s condition. AGestalt-oriented group might be encouraged to question a person’s motives andevaluate both verbal and body language. Confrontation in Gestalt therapy isconsidered a vital part of healing. Some forms of group counselling take place inpsychiatric hospitals. The success of such therapy often depends upon the diversityof people’s conditions. Other group counselling is more like A.A. meetings and maynot be cou+nsellor directed, but may merely be a group of people meeting to helpfind their way out of addiction.Occasionally, group therapy suffers if a group is too large or small. Group therapymay also become problematic when one person appears to monopolize the group.Usually group counselling works best when an experienced counsellor can redirect aperson who is sharing too much, and allow equal time for people to share their ideas,problems or opinions. People may vary in their need for therapy, and generallythose who monopolize a group should not be despised but should be redirected toprivate counselling, where the person is the sole focus of attention. After some timein private sessions, a person may feel less need to monopolize a group counsellingsession.CHARACTERISTICS OF EFFECTIVE COUNCELLOR:7. Effective counselling is a two way street. It takes a cooperative effort by boththe person receiving counselling and the counsellor. And it takes a commitment tomake sometimes difficult changes in behavior or thinking patterns.
  8. 8. a. What you expect to achieve with your counsellor should be clearly defined as you begin your counselling. You and your counsellor should discuss realistic time frames for reaching your goals and agree on how you will measure your progress. b. It’s important that you and your counsellor establish a good relationship that allows you to be completely honest about your thoughts and feelings. Often, this requires an elusive “chemistry” between both of you in which you feel comfortable with your counsellor’s personality, approach and style. If after the first few sessions you don’t feel this chemistry, look for another counsellor with whom you feel more comfortable. c. Once you think you’ve found the right counsellor, how do you tell if your relationship is effective? Here are some signs to look for: d. While you are responsible for making changes in your life, an effective counsellor can help pinpoint the obstacles in your way. If you have control over these obstacles, a counsellor can suggest behavioural changes to help you overcome them. If these obstacles involve factors outside of your control, your counsellor can teach you coping mechanisms that will foster your well being in trying circumstances. e. An effective counsellor can identify negative thinking patterns that may be feeding feelings of sadness, depression or anxiety. By encouraging you to build upon personal strengths and suggesting skills that can overcome self- inflicted feelings of hopelessness, a counsellor can help you develop a more positive attitude. f. A good counsellor can assist you in making positive changes in your relationships with others, helping you recognize behaviors that may be contributing to a troublesome relationship. Your counsellor can teach you effective ways of communicating, clearing the way for honest exchanges with people in your life who may bGe causing you emotional pain. g. You can determine whether your work with your counsellor is effective if you begin to obtain insights about your own thoughts and behaviors that may have eluded you before. Over time, you should be able to recognize patterns in the way you act, trace their sources and identify stumbling blocks to your happiness that you may have unwittingly created. The end result is personal growth that empowers you to control your life and enjoy positive, life- affirming relationships with others.TECHNIQUES FOR EFFECTIVE GUIDANCE & COUNSELLING:8. Effective Counselling Techniques are discreet skills which, when practicedeffectively by a knowledgeable person, counsellor or not, make possible a trusting
  9. 9. environment where a client (or friend) can share what has been held "secretly" orprivately. a. First of the effective counselling techniques is the creation of an encouraging and empathic belief in the counsellors head for the initial phone call or return call. I think it is important to offer words of encouragement, and choices. A warm, friendly tone of voice is very important. I like to offer initial sessions at no charge and indicate we will explore whether I am the best fit for their issues, allying for the time being the financial burden a client may or may not be worried about. b. When the client arrives, I great them cordially, and ask, "What has changed since your phone call?" I want to set the expectation that change is happening already. c. Then comes the discreet listening and speaking skills that overall indicate to the client that his or her issues are worth "the gift of attention", which is a phrase one of my early mentors, Tony Kubicki, taught me, in the early 1990s. d. Those skills are taught in most basic counselling skills classes, and sometimes are given a little bit different name, but run along these lines; e. Active listening happens when you "listen for meaning". The listener says very little but conveys empathy, acceptance and genuiness. Tony Kubicki would add to this that I repeat the clients words in my own head, to keep from creating my retort. At some point in the process, I repeat back to the client what I have been hearing, and ask if I heard them correctly. If the answer is yes, we go on, if the answer is no, I ask them to repeat what they said until they hear my reflection/repeat and answer yes to my reflection question. The experience of having an individual pay close attention can be very calming for someone struggling with some strong feelings. f. Developing encouraging body language can take some practice. Remember that communication is 55% body language, 38% tone and 7% words. One of the interesting phenomena in the body language arena is that I perceive nonverbal cues and respond in 1/18th second according to Mihalyi Csikszemihalyi, author of "FLOW". (That means that I can process 126 bits of data every second). That is about twice as fast as I can blink my eyes. Paul Ekman, who has been studying facial expressions, reports we can process nonverbal cues from the face in 1/25th second, subconsciously, and I will respond emotionally (perhaps with adrenalin and cortisol) faster than I can create words in the prefrontal cortex. And I am always amazed at how much modeling goes on in as session, how much client and counsellor adopt very similar postures.
  10. 10. g. Asking questions - open and closed - is an important tool in the counselling kit. Open ended questions, which encourage an ongoing story line, are preferrable. Closed questions can be answered with one word, and stop the communication. h. Paraphrasing is when you, the listener, restate succinctly and tentatively what the speaker said - conveying empathy, acceptance and genuineness. This is very similar to what I called reflective listening above. j. A summary, in counselling, is when you focus on the main points of a presentation or session in order to highlight them. Both you and the client may have forgotten something and this gives you both a quick review. k. Note taking is the practice of writing down pieces of information, often in a shorthand and messy manner. I do not usually do this during a session, but get to it right after if at all possible, because note taking helps me remember the feelings around issues and the story line too, which will come up again. I think the client feels affirmed when the details come back to me in the next session, or I begin the second session with the question, "What has changed in regards to ...(their issue)?" Also very important for progress reports for third party referring agencies. l. Homework in counselling is fun and informative work done outside of the session. It extends the length of the session and increases progress. If the homework is not done, we have something to explore at the beginning of the next session.References:1. PNS RAHNUMA IT Docket Chapter-IV2. Guidance and Counselling by Indira Madhkar3.