LEARNING THEORY: CONSTRUCTIVISM MADISON C. JULYRIES P.
CONSTRUCTIVISM• It puts the learner at the center of the education.• Students learn by “doing”.• Teachers use scaffolding, which is, questions, clues, or suggestions that help a student link prior knowledge to new knowledge.• Students participate in learning process. Students working together is part of constructivism.
JEAN PIAGET• Developed the cognitive learning theory.• Believed children are active learners and think differently from adults.• Defined four cognitive stages: • Sensorimotor (birth to 2 years) – learning through senses and motor actions. • Preoperational (2 to 6/7 years) – begin to use symbols and images. • Concrete operational ( 6/7 to 11/12 years) – begin to think logically. • Formal operational (11/12 years through adulthood) – transition from concrete thinking to more abstract.
LEV VYGOTSKY• Developed social cognition• Believed that learning was influenced significantly by social development.• Proposed the zone of proximal development, which is the difference between the problem-solving ability that a child has learned and the potential that the child can achieve from collaboration with a more advanced peer or expert.• Theorized collaborative learning, a child will understand better with an adult or more advanced child than by himself.
OTHER KEY PEOPLE• John Dewey• Jerome Bruner• Giambattista Vico• Richard Rorty John Dewey
WHAT THE TEACHER DOES• Teachers use scaffolding• Teachers use schemata, an organized way of providing a cognitive framework for understanding and remembering information.• Teachers use anchored instruction, a model for technology-based learning.• Teachers should provide lessons that students can practice “doing” or where they can work with others.
WHAT THE STUDENT DOES• Student must “do”• Students actively participate in the learning process by using critical-thinking skills to analyze a problem• Students will create or construct (can use technology)• Students can use technology easily under this theory
WILL WE USE THIS IN OUR TEACHINGBoth of us are planning to be math teachers and this theory isperfect for math. Students have to work out problems so they are“doing” and understanding better. With the graphingcalculators, students can practice how to use them while doingclasswork or homework. They can also work with other studentswhich can fit into collaborative learning. While doing their mathproblems they are using the Socratic method, discovered byBruner. So it is a clear answer that we both can use this theorywhile we teach.
WORKS CITED• Gunter, Glenda A., Randolph E. Gunter, and Gary B. Shelly. Teachers Discovering Computers Integrating Technology in a Connected World. Boston: Course Technology, Cengage Learning. 2012. Book.• Sadker, David Miller, and Karen R. Zittleman. Teachers, Schools, & Society Brief Introduction to Education. The McGraw-Hill Companies. 2012. Book.• "Constructivism." Learning Theories. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Nov. 2012. <http://www.learning- theories.com/constructivism.html>.• "John Dewey." John Dewey. N.p., 19 July 1999. Web. 17 Nov. 2012. <http://dewey.pragmatism.org/>.• "TI-84 Plus Silver Edition." By Texas Instruments. N.p., 25 Mar. 1986. Web. 17 Nov. 2012. <http://education.ti.com/educationportal/sites/US/productDe tail/us_ti84pse.html>.