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  • R&D in digital libraries provides a number of various opportunities to many other institutions - universities, national and regional libraries, information services, information businesses, publishers, international agencies, software providers, and the like. The range is large. And there are examples of many of those already involved in many countries, and in international efforts.
    The list of opportunities for projects on the two slides is not an exhaustive list. It provides examples of efforts. Moreover, these opportunities can be combined in a number of ways to build more comprehensive projects and approaches.
  • On the last opportunity (outsourcing): a number of commercial companies went into business providing services for various aspects of digital libraries. A typical example, are companies that offer facilities and service to digitize a collection at a given price per page, image etc.
    There are other companies that provide server and storage facilities and services for digital libraries of universities, companies etc.
    There are also companies that provide integrated software for digital libraries. Thus, digital libraries have also created a very lively commercial market.
    This provides an opportunity for libraries to shop around and avoid own development of necessary infrastructure & related services.
    Web examples of such services are provided in a previous slide.
  • Dlindia

    1. 1. Digitization Practices in India: Issues and Challenges V.N. Shukla
    3. 3. 3 AREAS OFCOMPETENCEAREAS OFCOMPETENCE Graphical Display System Security Systems Embedded System System Engineering and Consultancy NLP Solar Energy System E-Governance Internet on CATV & E-Commerce . . . NOIDANOIDA
    4. 4. •Digital Library Projects •Mega Centre for Digital Library •Mobile Digital Library : Dware Dware Gyan Sampada •Digital Library at President’s House •Digital Library at Nagari Pracharini Sabha Varanasi •Digital Library at Uttaranchal •GyanNidhi : Multilingual Parallel Corpus in Indian Languages •Digital Library at Gujrat Vidyapeeth ,Ahmedabad •Digitization of Libraries Digital Library Activities : CDAC Noida
    5. 5. Digital Library Mission Online Content Billions of web pages Offline Content Billions of items still unindexed To organize the information and make it universally accessible and useful.
    6. 6. DL Initiatives ~85% of books are out of print and/or out of copyright – these books are only found in libraries GOAL: Create a comprehensive virtual card catalog of all books in all languages, while respecting publishers’ rights Only ~15% of books are in print Source: Google
    7. 7. Metadata Search DL creation & processes Users Traditional Libraries Digital Libraries I N D E X Index Hyperlinks
    8. 8. 92% of the world's books are neither generating revenue for the copyright holder nor easily accessible to potential readers.* The value is in the middle A Typical Library Collection In-Print Public DomainUnclear copyright status • May be in copyright, but not for sale • Rights may have reverted to author • May be in the public domain Less than 20%**~65% or more 15% *Source: Covey, Denise Troll. "Global Cooperation for Global Access: The Million Book Project“ **OCLC analysis of the Google Books Library Project: http://www.dlib.org/dlib/september05/lavoie/09lavoie.html ~15%
    9. 9.  Digital Library (DL) may be seen as “Collection of intelligent creations by human beings through their own language and culture. It also reflects cultural heritage besides providing archive and generating many research issues pertaining to Natural Language Processing”
    10. 10. According to other definition Digital libraries are “Organizations that provide the resources, including the specialized staff, to select, structure, offer intellectual access to, interpret, distribute, preserve the integrity of, and ensure the persistence over time of collections of digital works so that they are readily available for use by a defined community or set of communities”. Digital Library ? Sun Microsystems defines a digital library as the electronic extension of functions users typically perform and the resources they access in a traditional library. These information resources can be translated into digital form, stored in multimedia repositories, and made available through Web-based services.
    11. 11. What is Digital library ?  A Service? An Architecture?  A set of Information Resources?  A set of tools to locate, search, retrieve information?  Possibly the tools to create such resources and services also fall within the purview of DLs  Digital face of traditional libraries  Include both digital collections and traditional  Backbone and nervous system of libraries.
    12. 12. •Efficient & qualitative services by collecting, organizing, storing, disseminating, retrieving and preserving the information. •Preservation benefits besides making information retrieval & delivery more comfortable. •Online access to historical and cultural documents whose existence is endangered due to physical decay. Digital libraries necessarily include a strong focus on the management of digital content, just as traditional libraries have focused for long on the management of content in physical forms. Digital library Vs traditional libraryDigital library Vs traditional library
    13. 13. The major areas for great exploitation are: • Information retrieval, • multimedia, • database, • data mining, • data warehouse, • on-line information repositories, • image processing, hypertext, • World Wide Web and wide area information services (WAIS). Most of the digital content that is being managed includes: • Human Language, in various forms character-coded electronic text, scanned images, printed or handwritten text or human speech. • Language technology helps in managing digital content • Management through learning from past experience also adds to manage content Digital Content ManagementDigital Content Management
    14. 14. • Access anywhere • Reducing delays • Distributed storage – central access • Better cataloguing • Cross references to other documents • Full text search • Protected information source • Wide exploration and exploitation of the information Few advantages of digital libraries The information explosion, the wide bandwidth data networks and the potentialThe information explosion, the wide bandwidth data networks and the potential of Internet-based technologies - such as the Web - make digital libraries one ofof Internet-based technologies - such as the Web - make digital libraries one of the important application areas of computer science.the important application areas of computer science.
    15. 15. Process of Digital Preservation Centralized Server Centralized Server Book scanning status Book scanning status XML Meta File Creation using Dublin core Std. XML Meta File Creation using Dublin core Std. Scanned Image in TIFF format Scanned Image in TIFF format S/w to divide even & odd pages S/w to divide even & odd pages Batch cropping & Cleaning Batch cropping & Cleaning OCR OCR Conversion to TXT/RTF/HTML Conversion to TXT/RTF/HTML Yes No Uploading Reject the Book Reject the Book
    16. 16. Goals of DL  Focused on digitization technology, metadata schemes, data management techniques, and digital preservation.  Second-generation digital library  exploring new opportunities and developing new competencies.  Third-generation digital library  focusing instead on fully integrating digital material into the library’s collections through a modular systems architecture.
    17. 17. Ingredients for DLs  Hardware The minimum machinery to do the job  Software The programs for handling data  Digital Objects Articles, Conference Papers, Thesis,……  Basic Skills Things one has to learn
    18. 18. Hardware  A Server  You’ll need access to a web server  A good PC  Scanners Flatbed – Auto feed, Back to back MF Book Scanner
    19. 19. Software  Open Source Software (OSS) Dspace, E-Prints, Fedora, GSDL……  Proprietary software you can’t avoid Image Editing and Optical Character Recognition Software have to be purchased
    20. 20. Content is King The information content is more important than the systems used for its storage, management and retrieval Objects should not be “locked” in specific DLs or archives
    21. 21. Creating DLs …  Six steps  Selecting  Acquiring  Digitization  Creation Of Meta Data  Organizing  Archiving  Providing Access
    22. 22. Possible Delivery Formats  Pure image formats: TIFF, JPEG  Open encoded formats: XML, HTML, ASCII, and Unicode  Hybrid formats: PDF, DjVu – can contain both image and text  Proprietary formats: Microsoft Word, WordPerfect
    23. 23. Digitization: Issues  Copyright  Access copy and archive copy  File size  Storage media( CD, Hard disc…)  File format ( TIFF,JPEG…)
    24. 24. 25 Challenges in Digitization  Building digital collections of national importance from existing texts, documents, images . . .  Creating new digital documents & linking them  Subject portals: Selecting and maintaining open source digital resources  Developing / adapting management tools for digital collections  Providing access to digital collections
    25. 25. 26 Challenges..  Integrating digital & other library collections  incl. integration of OPACs, subscribed e-resources and subject portals  Establishing services for digital libraries  online access & offline support  education & training of users and librarians  Addressing social, legal, policy issues
    26. 26. Challenges in Publishing  Preservation of layout  Searchability of content and metadata  Efficient image compression  Easy browsing of books  Accommodating low bandwidth user  Multilingual text support  Multipaging
    27. 27. Digital Library Support in India Funding  Ministry of Communication & Information Technology (MIT)  Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD)  Manuscript Mission of India  Department of Scientific & Industrial Research (DSIR- TRP)  All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE)  University Grants Commission (UGC)
    28. 28. 29  Library Consortium in India  Scholarly Science Journals  Theses & Dissertations  Institutional E-Print Archives  Books (out of copyright)  Manuscripts  Newspapers  Online Courseware  Open Access at Metadata Level  Portal and Gateway Services Digital Library Initiatives in India
    29. 29. Government of India Min. of C&IT Min of Culture INDEST-AICTE Consortium Others CSIR E-Journals Consortium UGC Infonet Consortium FORSA Consortium National Manuscript Library Universal Digital Library IIM Libraries Consortium
    30. 30. Digital Library of IndiaDigital Library of IndiaDigital Library of IndiaDigital Library of India Participating centers of DLI IISc IIIT-H State & City Central Library University of Hyderabad MIDC Pune University AKCE SASTRA ASR Melkote Sringeri Mutt Anna University TTD Tirupati IIIT-Allahabad CDAC Noida Rashtrapathi Bhavan Mega Scanning Centres at IIITH, IIITA CDAC- Noida and Kolkatta PTU-1 PTU-2 PTU-3 Goa University Kanchi MuttIISc, IIAP, PoornaPragya CDAC Kolkata ERNET
    31. 31. Digital Library Initiatives in India Some Examples
    32. 32. April 20, 2009 Workshop on Institutional Repositories 33 Digital Library of India http://www.dli.ernet.in/
    33. 33. April 20, 2009 Workshop on Institutional Repositories 35 http://www.ias.ac.in/
    34. 34. April 20, 2009 Workshop on Institutional Repositories 36 http://www.insa.ac.in/
    35. 35. April 20, 2009 Workshop on Institutional Repositories 37 http://medind.nic.in/
    36. 36. April 20, 2009 Workshop on Institutional Repositories 38
    37. 37. 39
    38. 38. Manuscripts  India has the largest collection of manuscripts in the world (5 million Approximately).  India is the repository of an astounding wealth of ancient knowledge belonging to different periods of history, going back to thousands of years. Most of this knowledge belonging to different areas of intellectual activity such as religion, philosophy, science, arts and literature is preserved in the form of manuscripts. Composed in different Indian languages and scripts, they are preserved in materials such as birch bark, palm leaf, cloth, wood, stone and paper.  National Manuscript Mission was launched five-year programme in Feb., 2003 by the Ministry of Human Resource Development, Govt. of India to get all the manuscripts and conserve them.
    39. 39. http://namami.nic.in/
    40. 40. 43 Archives of Indian Labour V.V. Giri National Labour Institute Heritage of Indian Working Class Commissions on Labour Oral History Collections Trade Union Collections Regional Collections Strike Collections Powered by Green Stone Digital Library http://www.indialabourarchives.org/
    41. 41. Digital Libraries Benefits : Individual  Gain access to the holdings of libraries worldwide through automated catalogs. Locate both physical and digitized versions of scholarly articles and books.  Optimize searches, simultaneously search the Internet, commercial databases, and library collections.  Save search results and conduct additional processing to narrow or qualify results.  From search results, click through to access the digitized content or locate additional items of interest. All of these capabilities are available from the desktop or other Web-enabled device such as a personal digital assistant or cellular telephone.
    42. 42. Conclusion  Digital Libraries are redefining the role of libraries in society & the role of librarians & information specialists  National level mechanism is essential to promote and coordinate open access and public domain digital library systems  Improve awareness of open access  Regular training – tools, processes, standards  Support setting up of working models, services  National Resource Centre for open access publishing  International agencies like UNESCO, ICSU, ICSTI, CODATA need to actively promote and support developing country initiatives
    43. 43. References  Digitization Of Library Forum Survey 2010. IT Act . Available at www.mit.gov.in/it-bill.htm.  A digital library for education: the PEN-DOR project. The Electronic Library, 17(2), 75-82.  Government of India. 2000. “Background Report on IT for Masses” itformasses.nic.in/vsitformasses/page1.htm  Government of India. 2000. IT for the Common Man: The Millenium IT Policy. Department of Information.
    44. 44. Thank You