R&D in digital libraries provides a number of various opportunities to many other institutions - universities, national and regional libraries, information services, information businesses, publishers, international agencies, software providers, and the like. The range is large. And there are examples of many of those already involved in many countries, and in international efforts. The list of opportunities for projects on the two slides is not an exhaustive list. It provides examples of efforts. Moreover, these opportunities can be combined in a number of ways to build more comprehensive projects and approaches.
On the last opportunity (outsourcing): a number of commercial companies went into business providing services for various aspects of digital libraries. A typical example, are companies that offer facilities and service to digitize a collection at a given price per page, image etc. There are other companies that provide server and storage facilities and services for digital libraries of universities, companies etc. There are also companies that provide integrated software for digital libraries. Thus, digital libraries have also created a very lively commercial market. This provides an opportunity for libraries to shop around and avoid own development of necessary infrastructure & related services. Web examples of such services are provided in a previous slide.
Digitization Practices in
India: Issues and
C-DAC, NOIDA UNITC-DAC, NOIDA UNITC-DAC, NOIDA UNITC-DAC, NOIDA UNIT
AREAS OFCOMPETENCEAREAS OFCOMPETENCE
System Engineering and
Internet on CATV
•Digital Library Projects
•Mega Centre for Digital Library
•Mobile Digital Library : Dware Dware Gyan Sampada
•Digital Library at President’s House
•Digital Library at Nagari Pracharini Sabha Varanasi
•Digital Library at Uttaranchal
•GyanNidhi : Multilingual Parallel Corpus in Indian Languages
•Digital Library at Gujrat Vidyapeeth ,Ahmedabad
•Digitization of Libraries
Digital Library Activities : CDAC Noida
Digital Library Mission
Billions of web pages
Billions of items still unindexed
To organize the information and make it universally
accessible and useful.
~85% of books are out of print
and/or out of copyright – these
books are only found in libraries
GOAL: Create a comprehensive virtual card catalog of all
books in all languages, while respecting publishers’ rights
Only ~15% of books are in print
DL creation &
92% of the world's books are neither generating revenue for the
copyright holder nor easily accessible to potential readers.*
The value is in the middle
A Typical Library Collection
In-Print Public DomainUnclear copyright status
• May be in copyright, but not for sale
• Rights may have reverted to author
• May be in the public domain
Less than 20%**~65% or more
*Source: Covey, Denise Troll. "Global Cooperation for Global Access: The Million Book Project“
**OCLC analysis of the Google Books Library Project: http://www.dlib.org/dlib/september05/lavoie/09lavoie.html
Digital Library (DL) may be seen as
“Collection of intelligent creations by human
beings through their own language and
culture. It also reflects cultural heritage
besides providing archive and generating
many research issues pertaining to Natural
According to other definition Digital libraries are
“Organizations that provide the resources, including the specialized
staff, to select, structure, offer intellectual access to, interpret,
distribute, preserve the integrity of, and ensure the persistence over
time of collections of digital works so that they are readily available for
use by a defined community or set of communities”.
Digital Library ?
Sun Microsystems defines a digital library as the electronic extension of
functions users typically perform and the resources they access in a
These information resources can be translated into digital form, stored
in multimedia repositories, and made available through Web-based
What is Digital library ?
A Service? An Architecture?
A set of Information Resources?
A set of tools to locate, search, retrieve
Possibly the tools to create such resources and
services also fall within the purview of DLs
Digital face of traditional libraries
Include both digital collections and traditional
Backbone and nervous system of libraries.
•Efficient & qualitative services by collecting, organizing, storing,
disseminating, retrieving and preserving the information.
•Preservation benefits besides making information retrieval & delivery more
•Online access to historical and cultural documents whose existence is
endangered due to physical decay.
Digital libraries necessarily include a strong focus on the management of
digital content, just as traditional libraries have focused for long on the
management of content in physical forms.
Digital library Vs traditional libraryDigital library Vs traditional library
The major areas for great exploitation are:
• Information retrieval,
• data mining,
• data warehouse,
• on-line information repositories,
• image processing, hypertext,
• World Wide Web and wide area information services (WAIS).
Most of the digital content that is being managed includes:
• Human Language, in various forms character-coded electronic text, scanned
images, printed or handwritten text or human speech.
• Language technology helps in managing digital content
• Management through learning from past experience also adds to manage
Digital Content ManagementDigital Content Management
• Access anywhere
• Reducing delays
• Distributed storage – central access
• Better cataloguing
• Cross references to other documents
• Full text search
• Protected information source
• Wide exploration and exploitation of the information
Few advantages of digital libraries
The information explosion, the wide bandwidth data networks and the potentialThe information explosion, the wide bandwidth data networks and the potential
of Internet-based technologies - such as the Web - make digital libraries one ofof Internet-based technologies - such as the Web - make digital libraries one of
the important application areas of computer science.the important application areas of computer science.
Process of Digital Preservation
XML Meta File
Dublin core Std.
XML Meta File
Dublin core Std.
Image in TIFF
Image in TIFF
S/w to divide
even & odd
S/w to divide
even & odd
Goals of DL
Focused on digitization technology, metadata schemes,
data management techniques, and digital preservation.
Second-generation digital library
exploring new opportunities and developing new competencies.
Third-generation digital library
focusing instead on fully integrating digital material into the
library’s collections through a modular systems architecture.
Ingredients for DLs
The minimum machinery to do the job
The programs for handling data
Articles, Conference Papers, Thesis,……
Things one has to learn
You’ll need access to a web server
A good PC
Flatbed – Auto feed, Back to back
Open Source Software (OSS)
Dspace, E-Prints, Fedora, GSDL……
Proprietary software you can’t avoid
Image Editing and Optical Character Recognition Software
have to be purchased
Content is King
The information content is
more important than the
systems used for its storage,
management and retrieval
Objects should not be “locked”
in specific DLs or archives
Creating DLs …
Creation Of Meta Data
Possible Delivery Formats
Pure image formats: TIFF, JPEG
Open encoded formats: XML, HTML, ASCII, and
Hybrid formats: PDF, DjVu – can contain both image and
Proprietary formats: Microsoft Word, WordPerfect
Access copy and archive copy
Storage media( CD, Hard disc…)
File format ( TIFF,JPEG…)
Challenges in Digitization
Building digital collections of national importance from
existing texts, documents, images . . .
Creating new digital documents & linking them
Subject portals: Selecting and maintaining open source
Developing / adapting management tools for digital
Providing access to digital collections
Integrating digital & other library collections
incl. integration of OPACs, subscribed e-resources and
Establishing services for digital libraries
online access & offline support
education & training of users and librarians
Addressing social, legal, policy issues
Challenges in Publishing
Preservation of layout
Searchability of content and metadata
Efficient image compression
Easy browsing of books
Accommodating low bandwidth user
Multilingual text support
Digital Library Support in India
Ministry of Communication & Information Technology
Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD)
Manuscript Mission of India
Department of Scientific & Industrial Research (DSIR-
All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE)
University Grants Commission (UGC)
Library Consortium in India
Scholarly Science Journals
Theses & Dissertations
Institutional E-Print Archives
Books (out of copyright)
Open Access at Metadata Level
Portal and Gateway Services
Digital Library Initiatives in India
Government of India
Min. of C&IT Min of Culture
Digital Library of IndiaDigital Library of IndiaDigital Library of IndiaDigital Library of India
Participating centers of DLI
State & City
University of Hyderabad
MIDC Pune University
Mega Scanning Centres at
CDAC- Noida and Kolkatta
Kanchi MuttIISc, IIAP,
Digital Library Initiatives in India
April 20, 2009 Workshop on Institutional Repositories 33
Digital Library of India
April 20, 2009 Workshop on Institutional Repositories 35
April 20, 2009 Workshop on Institutional Repositories 36
April 20, 2009 Workshop on Institutional Repositories 37
April 20, 2009 Workshop on Institutional Repositories 38
India has the largest collection of manuscripts in the world (5 million
India is the repository of an astounding wealth of ancient knowledge
belonging to different periods of history, going back to thousands of
years. Most of this knowledge belonging to different areas of
intellectual activity such as religion, philosophy, science, arts and
literature is preserved in the form of manuscripts. Composed in
different Indian languages and scripts, they are preserved in materials
such as birch bark, palm leaf, cloth, wood, stone and paper.
National Manuscript Mission was launched five-year programme in
Feb., 2003 by the Ministry of Human Resource Development, Govt. of
India to get all the manuscripts and conserve them.
Archives of Indian Labour
V.V. Giri National Labour Institute
Heritage of Indian Working Class
Commissions on Labour
Oral History Collections
Trade Union Collections
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Digital Libraries Benefits : Individual
Gain access to the holdings of libraries worldwide through
automated catalogs. Locate both physical and digitized versions of
scholarly articles and books.
Optimize searches, simultaneously search the Internet, commercial
databases, and library collections.
Save search results and conduct additional processing to narrow or
From search results, click through to access the digitized content
or locate additional items of interest.
All of these capabilities are available from the desktop or other
Web-enabled device such as a personal digital assistant or
Digital Libraries are redefining the role of libraries in
society & the role of librarians & information specialists
National level mechanism is essential to promote and
coordinate open access and public domain digital library
Improve awareness of open access
Regular training – tools, processes, standards
Support setting up of working models, services
National Resource Centre for open access publishing
International agencies like UNESCO, ICSU, ICSTI,
CODATA need to actively promote and support developing
Digitization Of Library Forum Survey 2010. IT Act .
Available at www.mit.gov.in/it-bill.htm.
A digital library for education: the PEN-DOR project. The
Electronic Library, 17(2), 75-82.
Government of India. 2000. “Background Report on IT
for Masses” itformasses.nic.in/vsitformasses/page1.htm
Government of India. 2000. IT for the Common Man:
The Millenium IT Policy. Department of Information.