Segmentation Targeting and Positioning


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  • Click the video icon to launch a video clip about Nike’s position.
  • Segmentation Targeting and Positioning

    1. 1. MARKETING MANAGEMENT 12 th edition 10 Crafting the Brand Positioning Kotler Keller
    2. 2. Chapter Questions <ul><li>How can a firm choose and communicate an effective positioning in the market? </li></ul><ul><li>How are brands differentiated? </li></ul><ul><li>What marketing strategies are appropriate at each stage of the product life cycle? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the implications of market evolution for marketing strategies? </li></ul>
    3. 3. How can PBS position itself?
    4. 4. Marketing Strategy Segmentation Targeting Positioning
    5. 5. Positioning Act of designing the company’s offering and image to occupy a distinctive place in the mind of the target market.
    6. 6. Value Propositions <ul><li>Perdue Chicken </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More tender golden chicken at a moderate premium price </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Domino’s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A good hot pizza, delivered to your door within 30 minutes of ordering, at a moderate price </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Positioning
    8. 8. Writing a Positioning Statement Mountain Dew: To young, active soft-drink consumers who have little time for sleep, Mountain Dew is the soft drink that gives you more energy than any other brand because it has the highest level of caffeine.
    9. 9. Defining Associations <ul><li>Points-of-difference (PODs) </li></ul><ul><li>Attributes or benefits consumers strongly associate with a brand, positively evaluate, and believe they could not find to the same extent with a competitive brand </li></ul><ul><li>Points-of-parity </li></ul><ul><li>(POPs) </li></ul><ul><li>Associations that are not necessarily unique to the brand but may be shared with other brands </li></ul>
    10. 10. PODs and POPs
    11. 11. Conveying Category Membership Announcing category benefits Comparing to exemplars Relying on the product descriptor
    12. 12. Consumer Desirability Criteria for PODs Relevance Distinctiveness Believability
    13. 13. Deliverability Criteria for PODs Feasibility Communicability Sustainability
    14. 14. Examples of Negatively Correlated Attributes and Benefits <ul><li>Low-price vs. High quality </li></ul><ul><li>Taste vs. Low calories </li></ul><ul><li>Nutritious vs. Good tasting </li></ul><ul><li>Efficacious vs. Mild </li></ul><ul><li>Powerful vs. Safe </li></ul><ul><li>Strong vs. Refined </li></ul><ul><li>Ubiquitous vs. Exclusive </li></ul><ul><li>Varied vs. Simple </li></ul>
    15. 15. Addressing negatively correlated PODs and POPs <ul><li>Present separately </li></ul><ul><li>Leverage equity of another entity </li></ul><ul><li>Redefine the relationship </li></ul>
    16. 16. Differentiation Strategies Product Channel Image Personnel
    17. 17. Product Differentiation <ul><li>Product form </li></ul><ul><li>Features </li></ul><ul><li>Performance </li></ul><ul><li>Conformance </li></ul><ul><li>Durability </li></ul><ul><li>Reliability </li></ul><ul><li>Reparability </li></ul><ul><li>Style </li></ul><ul><li>Design </li></ul><ul><li>Ordering ease </li></ul><ul><li>Delivery </li></ul><ul><li>Installation </li></ul><ul><li>Customer training </li></ul><ul><li>Customer consulting </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance </li></ul>
    18. 18. Personnel Differentiation: Singapore Airlines
    19. 19. Channel Differentiation
    20. 20. Image Differentiation
    21. 21. Identity and Image Identity: The way a company aims to identify or position itself Image: The way the public perceives the company or its products
    22. 22. Figure 10.1 Product Life Cycle
    23. 23. Facts about Life Cycles <ul><li>Products have a limited life. </li></ul><ul><li>Product sales pass through distinct stages. </li></ul><ul><li>Profits rise and fall at different stages. </li></ul><ul><li>Products require different marketing, financial, manufacturing, purchasing, and human resource strategies in each stage. </li></ul>
    24. 24. Figure 10.2 Common PLC Patterns
    25. 25. Figure 10.3 Style, Fashion, and Fad Life Cycles
    26. 26. Figure 10.4 Long-Range Product Market Expansion Strategy
    27. 27. Marketing Program Modifications Prices Distribution Advertising Sales promotion Services
    28. 28. Product in Decline
    29. 29. Market Evolution Stages Emergence Growth Maturity Decline
    30. 30. Emerging Markets Latent Single-niche Multiple-niche Mass-market
    31. 31. Figure 10.5 Maturity Strategies
    32. 32. Marketing Debate <ul><li>Do brands have finite lives? </li></ul><ul><li>Take a position: </li></ul><ul><li>Brands cannot be expected to last </li></ul><ul><li>forever. </li></ul><ul><li>2. There is no reason for a brand to </li></ul><ul><li>ever become obsolete. </li></ul>
    33. 33. Marketing Discussion <ul><li>What strategies do firms use to </li></ul><ul><li>try to position themselves on the </li></ul><ul><li>basis of pairs of attributes and </li></ul><ul><li>benefits? </li></ul>