Enviornmental injustice


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Environmental injustice to the mining and conservation induced displaced people in Odisha

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Enviornmental injustice

  1. 1. Environmental injustice to theConservation & Mining induceddisplaced people in OdishaMadhulika SahooSenior Research FellowAnthropological Survey of India, CRC NagpurMinistry of Culture, Govt. Of Indiamadhulika.sahoo@hotmail.co.ukInternational Association For Forced Migration Studies (IASFM), Swabhumi Kolkata6th – 9th January 2013
  2. 2. Displacement and Environmental injusticeThe root cause of environmental injusticesare mainly due to "institutionalized racism;co-modification of land, water, energy andair; unresponsive, unaccountablegovernment policies and regulation; andlack of resources and power in affectedcommunities” (Matsuoka, 2003)
  3. 3. Displacement in OdishaIn Odisha district like Keonjhar, Koraput,Rayagada and Sunadargarh wheredisplacement due to mining is rampantThe state has approved more then200Proposals for aluminum, Ferro alloy’s, power,Steel, alumina, cementMining 11.24%,industries 13.48%,dam projects 67.42%(Ota, 2009)
  4. 4. Displacement for miningThere are 105 mining companiesspreading over 33,000 hecter, 2.4 lakhtones of iron ore are been extracted everyday in KeonjharPolitics behind ignoring rights of thetribals, e.g., Keonjhar-Juangs habitat rightsThe bad consequences of afforestation,plantation, e.g., Kandhamal, Kondh tribes
  5. 5. Displacement for mining Degradation of water quality, air quality, or forestresources that are central to the livelihoods of tribalpopulations The highly polluted area are Joda, Badbil, Bolani, Joda-Barbil area- (North) Eastof Khandabandh-Matangtoli (South) KoliRiver, (Barsuan -Kalta area) (Photo showing mining area, Keonjhar)
  6. 6. Displacement in protected area, SimlipalDisplacement in protected area, in Odishadisplacement had occurred in Chandaka wildlifeSanctuary (273 families) & Simlipal wildlifesanctuary (176 families)Situation in Simlipal core area 4 villages No basic facilities, leading to tribal movement inSimlipal December 2011
  7. 7. No Govt. &healthfacilitiesNo securedlivelihood for manyFood insecurityleading to child labor inResettlement colonyLack of access toforest producesDisplacement in protected area, SimlipalPhoto taken in Kapanda Banbasaresettlement colony, Mayurbhanj
  8. 8. ConsequencesLoss of access to basic facilitiesReduction in quality of life of the DPs & PAPsUnaccountable government policies andregulationLack of resources and power in affectedcommunitiesIncrease migration to urban areas for workSubstantial increase of child labor & traffickingLoss of culture & traditional practices
  9. 9. Suggestion• Following legal mandates- Vesting of forestrights under FRA, LA and R & R policy properly• Database- Tracking & updating the displacementfigures and R & R time to time• Transparency- On expenditure of the R & Rpackage, access to bank details, constantmonitoring by state authorities• Providing livelihood options- Training,occupation, market, proper rehabilitationmeasures• Trust- Grievance redressal & executing R& R planin time
  10. 10. Suggestion• Similar environment- resettling with samecommunity people & previous environment tointact with their own traditional practices)• Basic Infrastructure-Agricultural land, waterfacilities, houses, market linkage, commonproperty resources• Sustainable livelihood- Through market linkageof the NTFP & other tribal produces• Awareness- Constant awareness of there rights& Govt. facilities
  11. 11. Thank you