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Ncf 2005 and_teaching_at_elementary_level-1


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Detail pointer of NCF for teacher training

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Ncf 2005 and_teaching_at_elementary_level-1

  1. 1. NCF 2005 and Teaching at Elementary Level Complied by Mrs Madhu Jha Assessment Specialist
  2. 2. Guiding Principles of NCF 2005 - Connecting knowledge to life around and outside the school. - Shifting away of learning from rote methods. - Enriching the curriculum for overall development of children than remain textbook centric. - Making examinations flexible and integrated into life. - Nurturing an identity under caring democratic concerns of the country.
  3. 3. Recommendations • Integrated knowledge of subjects and understanding • Textbooks and other material should incorporate local knowledge and traditional skills • School to provide a stimulating environment that responds to the child's home and community environment
  4. 4. School and Classroom Environment • Teacher is a facilitator and supporter • Learner centeredness and autonomy • Active learner engagement • Understanding based learning • Learning in the company of others • Giving primacy to learners experiences • Multi linguism &Flexibility
  5. 5. School and Classroom Environment • Connecting school knowledge and local knowledge, • Going beyond the textbook with greater use of audio visual materials • Repeated opportunities to use the knowledge • Respect for multiple views. • Opportunities to the learner to evolve and create knowledge. • Less of information transmission. • Community participation to enhance quality and accountability.
  6. 6. NCF 2005- THE PERSPECTIVE • Reorientation of our perception of learners and learning. • Holistic approach in the treatment of learners’ development and learning. • Creating an inclusive environment in the classroom for all students. • Learner engagement for construction of knowledge and fostering of creativity. • Active learning through the experiential mode. • Adequate room for voicing children’s thoughts, curiosity, and questions in curricular practices. • Connecting knowledge across disciplinary boundaries to provide a broader frame work for insightful construction of knowledge.
  7. 7. NCF 2005- THE PERSPECTIVE • Learner to be engaged in – observing, – exploring, – discovering, – analyzing, – critical reflection, – content of knowledge. • Activities for developing – critical perspectives on socio-cultural realities need to find space in curricular practices. – Local knowledge and experiential learning. – Environmental sensitive generation by undertaking environment-related projects – Attitudes and interests that have implicates choosing and organising the content and process of knowledge.
  8. 8. IMPLICATIONS FOR CURRICULUM AND PRACTICE • Teaching for Construction of Knowledge • The Value of Interactions • Designing Learning Experiences • Approaches to Planning • Critical Pedagogy
  9. 9. Teaching for Construction of Knowledge Learners to be motivated and directed to actively construct their own knowledge by connecting new ideas to existing ideas on the basis of materials/activities presented to them (experience). The Value of Interactions To provide an environment for learning to take place through interactions with the environment around, nature, things and people, both through actions and through language. The physical activity of moving, exploring and doing things, on one's own, with one’ s peers or in the company of adults, also propagates learning. Designing Learning Experiences The learning experience to be designed well as • The quality of the learning task influences its learn ability. • Learners should start valuing their own ability to think and reason than receiving the knowledge created by others The onus falls teacher to ‘motivate’ children who do not seem to be naturally motivated. • Learners should be empowered with independence and flexibility as the controlled atmosphere is detrimental to the growth of cognitive self-reflexivity and flexibility
  10. 10. Approaches to Planning • Teachers would need to devise, in advance, thematic topic plans in order to engage learners with exercises created for their level. • The practices of teachers in classrooms, the materials they use, and the evaluation techniques employed must be internally consistent with each other Critical Pedagogy • Teacher and student engagement is critical in the classroom because it has the power to define whose knowledge will become a part of school-related knowledge and whose voices will shape it. • Students are critical observers of their own conditions and needs, and should be participants in discussions and problem solving related to their education and future opportunities and not fed in with solutions. • Hence children need to be aware that their experiences and perceptions and should be encouraged to develop the mental skills needed to think and reason independently and have the courage to dissent.
  11. 11. KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING • Basic Capabilities • Forming and sustaining relationships • Some principles regarding the approach to knowledge in the curriculum
  12. 12. KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING Basic Capabilities: • Children’ s basic capabilities are those that form the broad basis for the development of understanding, values and skills. • Language and other forms of expression provide the basis for meaning making, and sharing with others. • They create possibilities of development of understanding and knowledge, providing the ability to symbolise, codify and to remember and record. Forming and sustaining relationships: Knowledge and understanding forms a sustainable relationship with the • Social world, • The natural world, • One’ s self, • Emotional richness, • Sensitivity Values . This gives meaning to life, providing it with emotional content and purpose. This is also the basis for ethics and morality. • Capabilities for work and action involves the coordination of bodily movement with thought and preference, drawing on skill and understanding, and directing oneself to achieve some purpose or create something.
  13. 13. Some principles regarding the approach to knowledge in the curriculum : The knowledge and understanding of curriculum helps students in: • Acquiring a critical perspective on social reality and the natural environment • Connecting with the local and the contextualized in order to ‘situate’ knowledge and realizing its ‘relevance’ and ‘meaningfulness’. • Moving out of boundaries to draw one's learning from observing, interacting, classifying, categorising, questioning, reasoning and arguing in relation to these experiences. • Making connections across disciplines and bringing out the interrelatedness of knowledge.
  14. 14. • Realising the ‘fruitfulness’ and ‘openness’ of enquiry, and the provisional nature of truth. • Engaging with ‘local knowledge’/indigenous practices in the local area, and relating these to school knowledge wherever possible. • Encouraging questions and leaving space open for the pursuit of new questions. • Being sensitive to the issues of ‘equality’ in classroom (e.g. girls not being given field-based projects, the blind being excluded from the option of learning mathematics). • Developing the imagination, and keeping imagination and fantasy alive
  15. 15. NCF 2005 and School Subjects Languages – The importance of language in the life of any human being needs no emphasis. Language plays a very important role in the all round development of a child. It shapes the child's world, gives him / her means of expressing himself / herself, contributes to his / her emotional growth, besides academic and all other aspects of life.. The purpose of language learning is the attainment of basic proficiency and the development of language as an instrument for basic interpersonal communication and later for abstract thought and knowledge acquisition.
  16. 16. Guideline – NCF 2005 recommends that ….. • ‘Language learning is essentially a matter of acquiring the important skills of listening, speaking, reading and writing in an integrated manner, and harnessing these skills to the performance of formal as well as informal communication tasks.’ • In language learning, stress should be on ‘language-across-the- curriculum approach’ that breaks down barriers between English and other languages and subject areas • In classes I and II focus should be on EVS components integrated with language with further integration of key environmental, social and arithmetical concepts in the primary classes
  17. 17. NCF 2005 Gives a Fresh Impetus to Language Education: • A renewed attempt should be made to implement the three language formula. • Children's mother tongues, including tribal languages should be considered as the best medium of instruction. • Proficiency in multiple languages including English should be encouraged in children. Reading should be emphasized throughout the primary classes. • The learner should be able to develop sensitivity towards their culture and heritage, aspects of contemporary life and languages in and around the classroom
  18. 18. Language and its relevance in complete education Language and the Arts • Stories, poems, songs and drama link children to their cultural heritage and give them an opportunity to understand their own experiences and to develop sensitivity to others. • In language learning, listening needs to be enriched with the help of music, which includes folk, classical and popular compositions. Language across the curriculum • Language education is not confined to the language classroom. A science, social science or mathematics class is also a language class. Such a policy of languages across the curriculum will foster genuine multilingualism in the school. It is important to view language education as everybody's concern at school and not as a responsibility of the language teacher alone. • Teachers would be being bilingual to some extent for the first few weeks. • Teachers should make themselves aware of their students' first language or mother tongue so that in times of difficulty they can explain to the students in a simple and comprehensible language, may be mother tongue
  19. 19. Skills to be fostered • The development of linguistic proficiency in the learner is needed for the spontaneous and appropriate use of language in different situations. • The learner should acquire the ability to listen and understand, and should be able to employ non-verbal clues to make connections and draw inferences. • The learner should develop the habit of reading for information and pleasure; draw inferences and relate texts to previous knowledge; read critically and develop the confidence to ask and answer questions. • The learner should be able to employ her communicative skills, with a range of styles, and engage in a discussion in an analytical and creative manner. • The learner should be able to identify a topic, organise and structure thoughts and write with a sense of purpose and an awareness of audience. • The learner should be able to understand and use a variety of registers associated with domains such as music, sports, films, gardening, construction work, etc.
  20. 20. • The learner should be able to use a dictionary and other materials available in the library and elsewhere, access and collect information through making and taking down notes, etc. • The learner should be able to use language creatively and imaginatively in text transaction and performance of activities. • The learner should be able to develop sensitivity towards their culture and heritage, aspects of contemporary life and languages in and around the classroom. • The learner should be able to refine their literary sensibility and enrich their aesthetic life through different literary genres. • The learner should be able to appreciate similarities and differences across languages in a multilingual classroom and society. • It is important for the leaner to notice that different languages and language varieties are associated with different domains and communicative encounters. • The leaner should become sensitive to the inherent variability that characterises language and notice that languages keep changing all the time.
  21. 21. Attitudes to be nurtured Attitudes and motivation of learners and teachers play an important role in all learning, including language learning. • When the teacher is positively inclined towards pupils of diverse linguistic, ethnic and socio-cultural backgrounds, pupils will also tend to get positively motivated and involved in the teaching-learning processes. • It is extremely important that teachers begin to appreciate the fact that all languages represented in their multilingual classrooms are equally scientific and should receive equal respect from the teacher and the taught. • The teacher should also begin to use the multilingual classroom as a resource. • Languages flourish in each other’s company. They die when they are isolated as ‘pure objects’. • Languages which have become powerful in the modern world have gone through a process of constant borrowing at all levels from other languages and they have still not closed their doors. • The teacher’s positive attitude will go a long way in lowering the anxiety levels of learners, while raising their awareness levels of self-respect, self- discipline, respect and care for others, interdependence and cooperation.
  22. 22. Primary Level (Classes I – V) Level – 1 (Classes I – II) Objectives •to build familiarity with the language primarily through spoken input in meaningful situations (teacher talk, listening to recorded material, etc.). • to provide and monitor exposure to and comprehension of spoken, and spoken-and- written inputs (through mother tongue, signs, visuals, pictures, sketches, gestures, single word questions/answers). • to help learners build a working proficiency in the language, especially with regard to listening with understanding and basic oral production (words/phrases, fragments of utterances, formulaic expressions as communicative devices). •to recite and sing poems, songs and rhymes and enact small plays/skits •to use drawing and painting as precursors to writing and relate these activities to oral communication. •to become visually familiar with text [word(s)], what it means, and to notice its components - letter (s) and the sound-values they stand for. •to associate meaning with written/printed language. At the end of this stage learners should be able to • talk about themselves, members of the family and the people in their surroundings. •follow simple instructions, requests and questions, and use formulaic expressions appropriately • enjoy doing tasks (including singing a rhyme or identifying a person, object or thing) in English • recognise whole words or chunks of language •recognise small and capital forms of English alphabet both in context and in isolation •Read simple words/short sentences with the help of pictures and understand them •Write simple words/phrases/short sentences
  23. 23. Level – II (Classes III, IV and V) Objectives • to provide print-rich environment to relate oracy with literacy. • to build on learners’ readiness for reading and writing. • to promote learners’ conceptualization of printed texts in terms of headings, paragraphs and horizontal lines. • to enrich learners’ vocabulary mainly through telling, retelling and reading aloud of stories/ folktales in English. • to use appropriate spoken and written language in meaningful contexts/situations. • to give them an opportunity to listen to sounds/sound techniques and appreciate the rhythm and music of rhymes/sounds. • to enable them to relate words (mainly in poems) with appropriate actions and thereby provide understanding of the language. • to familiarize learners with the basic process of writing.
  24. 24. At the end of this stage learners will be able to do the following:  Narrate his/her experiences and incidents exchange his/her ideas with the peers. Carry out a brief conversation involving seeking/giving information enjoy reading a story, poem, a short write-up, a notice, poster etc take dictation of simple sentences and to practise copy writing from the blackboard and textbook and to use common punctuation marks.  Write a short description of a person, thing or place – prepare a notice, or write a message for someone. Write a short composition based on pictures. Take part in group activity, role play and dramatisation. Language Items at the primary level, knowledge of grammar is to be seen mainly as a process of discovering uses and functions of items through exposure to spoken and written inputs.
  25. 25. Methods and Techniques •(At level I, there will be a shift of emphasis from learning of limited input (textbook) to providing exposure to a wide range of inputs.) •an oral-aural approach to be followed (with limited focus on reading and writing depending on the level) •learner-centred activity-based approach including bilingual approach. •integration of key environmental, social and arithmetical concepts. •pictures, illustrations, cartoons, and toys to be used to arouse the interest of children focus on discussions, project works, activities that promote reading with comprehension depending on the level
  26. 26. Time Available •There are about 180 working days available for teaching/learning amounting to one period per •day allotted to the teaching of English. The actual number of periods available, however, may be about 150. The size of the curricular package should be such as can be conveniently covered in the given time.
  27. 27. Evaluation •Evaluation in language should be periodic, preferably at regular intervals of 4 to 6 weeks of actual instruction. •Evaluation should be both oral and written. Periodic tests should carry a weightage of fifty per cent – twenty-five per cent each to oral and written. The marks should be taken into account in the final grade. •Results of test and examinations should be treated basically as feedback to teachers. They should guide them in programming their teaching and in organizing remedial work. •Evaluation should be linked to assessment of general proficiency rather than to specific achievements
  28. 28. Mathematics – •Mathematisation (ability to think logically, formulate and handle abstractions) rather than‘ knowledge' of mathematics (formal and mechanical procedures) is the main goal of teaching mathematics. •The teaching of mathematics should enhance children's ability to think and reason, to visualise and handle abstractions, to formulate and solve problems. •Access to quality mathematics education is the right of every child.
  29. 29. MATHEMATICS CLASSES I – V General Points for mathematics teaching The following syllabus has been developed keeping the philosophy of the Yashpal’s Report and the National Focus Group for Teaching Learning Mathematics in view., •We have kept a thumb rule of 140 periods, of 30-40 minutes each, per year for mathematics. We need to encourage the development of a culture of learning outside the classroom to continue beyond the 140 periods. •The syllabus has been developed in five very natural streams flowing from Class I to Class V, which overlap very often, not only with each other but also with themes developed in other subjects that are being learnt simultaneously. •The focus in the activities/exercises, are to be built around children’s real-life experiences and from areas across the curriculum. In order to meet more than one objective simultaneously, and cover more than one stream at the same time. •The teachers would need to give enough leeway to children, or modify the activity, to suit child’s interests. The children’s current local interests and enthusiasms to be utilised to the maximum as opportunities for developing math concepts. •Mathematics is about a certain way of thinking and reasoning.
  30. 30. • Particular stress must be given to allow the child to articulate her reasons behind doing an exercise in a certain way, for example, why she is continuing a pattern in a particular way. Such interactive learning will require the teacher to plan for more time to be given for certain concepts in the classroom, • The language used in for Classes III to V should be what the child would normally use and understand. • The sequencing of the concepts should not be linear, but spiral. • The concepts in books should not appear to be dry and should be attractive to children in various ways. • While dealing with problems, the text books should have several situations with multiple correct solutions. Make the children aware that there can be several strategies for teaching a problem. • The material regarding patterns should be created in a way that would allow the child to observe patterns to generalise them, and to develop her own patterns. • Lessons should not we begin by definitions and explanations. Concepts and ideas should be arrived at from observing patterns, exploring them and then trying to define them in their own words. There should be no overt emphasis on remembering definitions in known standard forms in exactly the same words. • Problem posing is an important part of doing maths. Exercises that require children to formulate and create a variety of problems for their peers and others should be built in.
  31. 31. Science – enable child to: - examine and analyze everyday experiences - deal with issues related to environment - take up activities involving outdoor project work - generate knowledge through discovery learning Social Science- integration as well as disciplinary approach -sensitivity towards issues The National Curriculum Committee had recommended in the 1975 policy document “TheCurriculum for the Ten-year School: A Framework”, that a single subject ‘Environmental Studies’be taught at the primary stage. (Class I-II) Environmental • Studies will look at both the natural and the social environment, (Classes III-V) • There would be separate portions for social studies and general science termed as EVS Part I and Part II. Teaching of Environmental Studies
  32. 32. Course materials should also draw upon the following concerns in an integrated manner: I. Self, Family, Home, Friends and Pets II. Neighbourhood and Community at large III. The Nation – diversity (socio-cultural, religious and ethnic, as well as linguistic), heritage (myths/legends/folktales) IV. The World – India’s neighbours and other countries (their cultures, literature and customs) V. Adventure and Imagination VI. Sports VII.Issues relating to Adolescence VIII.Science and Technology IX. Peace and Harmony X. Travel and Tourism XI. Mass Media XII. Art and Culture XIII. Health and Reproductive health Environmental StudiesEnvironmental Studies
  33. 33. NCF 2005 and Objectives of Environmental Studies • To train children to locate and comprehend relationships between the natural, social and cultural environment; • To develop an understanding based on observation and illustration, drawn from lived experiences and physical, biological, social and cultural aspects of life, rather than abstractions; • To create cognitive capacity and resourcefulness to make the child curious about social phenomena, starting with the family and moving on to wider spaces; • To nurture the curiosity and creativity of the child particularly in relation to the natural environment (including artifacts and people); • To develop an awareness about environmental issues; • to engage the child in exploratory and hands-on activities to acquire basic cognitive and psychomotor skills through observation, classification, inference, etc • Toemphasise design and fabrication, estimation and measurement as a prelude to the development of technological and quantitative skills at later stages; • To be able to critically address gender concerns and issues of marginalisation and oppression with values of equality and justice, and respect for human dignity and rights.
  34. 34. Themes for a Child Centered and Integrated Approach This syllabus web has been developed within a child centered perspective of themes that provide a common interface of issues in social studies, sciences and environmental education. The syllabus for Classes III-V is woven around six common themes 1. Family and Friends: 1.1 Relationships; 1.2 Work and Play; 1.3 Animals; 1.4 Plants 2. Food; 3. Shelter; 4. Water; 5. Travel; 6. Things We Make and Do
  35. 35. Experiential Learning (through Co- Scholastic subjects) • Direct participation in the events of life. • Reflect upon everyday experiences • Create space for exploration- data collection, classification, labelling, analyzing…….. Work Education- Transforms knowledge into experience and generates values. Art Education- Music, dance, visual arts and theatre. - to express oneself in different forms - interactive approach and not instruction Physical and Health Education- more attention to be given
  36. 36. 3.11 ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION • Evaluation should be a way of providing credible feedback on the extent to which we have been successful in imparting purpose of pedagogy is to identify children who need remediation (this neednot wait for formal assessment; it can be detected by the teacher in the course of teaching and attended to as a part of pedagogic planning , throughindividualised attention • to diagnose learning difficulties and problem areas—while broad indications about conceptual difficulties can be identified via evaluation and formal testing. • Diagnosis requires special testing instruments and training. It is also specific to foundational areas of literacy and numeracy, and is not meant for subject areas.
  37. 37. Assessment at Classes I and II of the Elementary Stag e : • At this stage, assessment must be purely qualitative judgements of children's activities in various domains and an assessment of the status of their health and physical development, based on observations through everyday interactions . On no account should they be made to take any form of test, oral or written. • .
  38. 38. Class III to Class VIII of the Elementary Stage : • A variety of methods may be used, including oral and written tests and observations . • Children should be aware that they are being assessed, but this must be seen by them as a part of the teaching process and not as a fearful constant threat. • Grades or marks along with qualitative judgements of achievement and areas requiring attention are essential at this stage. • Children's own self-evaluation can also be a part of the report card from Class V onwards . • Rather than examinations, there could be short tests from time to time, which are criterion based. • Term-wise examinations could be commenced from Class VII onwards when children are more psychologically ready to study large chunks of material and, to spend a few hours in an examination room, working at answering questions . • The progress card must indicate general observations on health and nutrition, specific observations on the overall • progress of the learner, and information and advice for the parents
  39. 39. The ten core components identified in the National Policy of Education must be suitably integrated in school curriculum. Since all contemporary concerns and issues cannot be included in the curriculum as separate subjects of study, some emerging concerns should be suitably incorporated in the course content.  environmental issues,  conservation of resources,  population concerns,  disaster management,  forestry,  animals and plants,  human rights,  safety norms The thematic package given above is suggestive and at each stage should be in line with learners’ cognitive level, interest and experience. In every textbook, there should be some lessons, which are translations from other languages.