Results-Based Monitoring andEvaluation System (RBME)A Tool for Public Sector Management Madhawa Waidyaratna B. Sc. (Chem.), MBA , MSc (IT), MA, MCSSL, MSLIM Director Planning, Industrial Development Board of Ceylon
Overview of RBMERBME is a powerful public management tool that can beused to help policymakers and decision makers trackprogress and demonstrate the impact of a given project,program, or policyThere are growing pressures in developing countries toimprove performance of their public sectors
Overview of RBME [contd.]Involves reform by tracking results of government ororganizational actions over timeResults-based M&E differs from traditionalimplementation-focused M&E in that it moves beyond anemphasis on inputs and outputs to a greater focus onoutcomes and impactsNew results-based approaches help to answer the “sowhat” questionIn other words, governments and organizations maysuccessfully implement programs or policies, but havethey produced the actual, intended results
New Challenges in Public SectorGovernments are increasingly being called upon todemonstrate results. Stakeholders are no longer solelyinterested in organizational activities and outputs; they arenow more than ever interested in actual outcomes. Have policies, programs, and projects led to the desired results and outcomes? How do we know we are on the right track? How do we know if there are problems along the way? How can we correct them at any given point in time? How do we measure progress? How can we tell success from failure?
The Power of MeasuringIf you do not measure results, you can not tell success from failure If you can not see success, you can not reward itIf you can not reward success, you are probably rewarding failure If you can not see success, you can not learn from it If you can not recognize failure, you can not correct it If you can demonstrate results, you can win public support Adapted from Osborne & Gaebler, 1992
Reasons to Do Results-Based M&EProvides crucial information about performanceProvides a view over time on the status of aproject, program or policyPromotes credibility and public confidence by reportingon the results of programsHelps formulate and justify budget requestsIdentifies potentially promising programs or practices
Reasons to Do Results-Based M&EFocuses attention on achieving outcomes important tothe organization and its stakeholdersProvides timely, frequent information to staffHelps establish key goals and objectivesPermits managers to identify and take action to correctweaknessesSupports a development agenda that is shifting towardsgreater accountability for finances
International InitiativesMillennium Development Goals (MDGs)Paris Declaration on Aid EffectivenessAccra Agenda for Action (AAA)International Aid Transparency Initiative (IATI)Highly Indebted Poor Country (HIPC) Initiative
Managing for resultsUse the information to improve decision making and steerdevelopment interventions towards clearly defined goals Traditional Management Approach • Focused mainly on inputs and activities. Results-Based Management Approach • Focus on the results obtained rather than just on the inputs used or the activities conducted
Critical Factors for Defining Results Socio-economic context: Results statement should reflect local needs and priorities Local Capacity: Existing skills, leadership, and management capacity will impact on what can be implemented to achieve expected results Resources: Level of resources will impact on what can realistically be achieved Timetable: Results framework must identify the results (changes) to be achieved in the life of the program
Monitoring & EvaluationResults-based monitoring is a continuous process of collectingand analyzing information on key indicators, and comparingactual results to expected resultsResults-based evaluation is an assessment of a planned,ongoing, or completed intervention to determine its relevance,efficiency, effectiveness, impact, and/or sustainability Monitoring: tracks movement of indicators towards the achievement of specific, predetermined targets Evaluation: takes a broader view, considering progress toward stated goals, the logic of the initiative, and its consequences Both are needed to better manage policies, programs, and projects Adapted from OECD definition
Key Types of Monitoring ImpactResults Results Monitoring Outcome OutputImplementation Activity Implementation Monitoring (Means and Strategies) Input
Results-Based Monitoring Goal (Impacts) • Long-term, widespread improvement in societyResults Outcomes • Intermediate effects of outputs on clients Outputs • Products and services producedImplementation Activities • Tasks personnel undertake to transform inputs to outputs Inputs • Financial, human, and material resources
Results-Based Monitoring • Higher income levels of Goal (Impacts) entrepreneurs ; IncreasedResults global competitiveness Outcomes • Increased productivity; reduction of production cost • Number of programmes Outputs conducted ; Number of trained personnelImplementation Activities • Productivity enhancement programmes Inputs • Facilities, trainers, materials
The Essential Actions in Building M&E SystemFormulate outcomes and goalsSelect outcome indicators to monitorGather baseline information on the current conditionSet specific targets to reach and dates for reaching themRegularly collect data to assess whether the targets arebeing metAnalyze and report the results
Implementation Monitoring Links to Results Monitoring Outcome Target 1 Target 2 Target 3 Means and Means and Means and Strategies Strategies Strategies (Multi-Year (Multi-Year (Multi-Year and Annual and Annual and Annual Work Plans) Work Plans) Work Plans)
Performance IndicatorsA variable that provides accurate and reliable evidence about the achievement ofa specific resultIndicators should be SMART or CREAMSpecific ; Measurable ; Attributable ; Realistic ; TargetedClear ; Relevant ; Economic ; Adequate ; Monitorable What gets measured gets done If you don’t measure results, you can’t tell success from failure
Complementary Roles of Monitoring and Evaluation Monitoring Evaluation Analyzes why intended results were or Clarifies program objectives were not achieved Links activities and their Assesses specific causal contributions of resources to objectives activities to results Translates objectives into performance indicators and set targets Examines implementation process Routinely collects data on these indicators, compares actual results with targets Explores unintended results Provides lessons, highlights significant Reports progresstotoproblems and alerts them managers accomplishment or program potential, and offers recommendations for improvement
Examples of Results Chain Long Term Outcomes Outputs Goal • Teachers trainedEducation • Increased student • Increase literacy • Text Books rates completion rates provided Long Term Outcomes Outputs Goal • Increased use of • Doctors hiredHealth • Improved health clinics • Health workers maternal trained mortality
Translating Outcomes to ActionActivities are crucial. They are the actions you take tomanage and implement your programs, use yourresources, and deliver the services of governmentBut the sum of these activities may or may not mean youhave achieved your outcomesQuestion is: How will you know when you have beensuccessful?
Designing Good Evaluations Better to be approximately correct than precisely wrong • Paraphrased from Bertrand Russell
Designing, Building and Sustaining a RBME System Planning for Selecting Key ImprovementConducting a Indicators to — Selecting The Role of UsingReadiness Monitor Results Targets Evaluations YourAssessment Outcomes Findings 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Agreeing on Baseline Data Monitoring Reporting Your Sustaining Outcomes to on for Results Findings the Monitor and Indicators— M&E System Evaluate Where Are Within Your We Today? Organization
Barriers to M&EDo any of the following present barriers to building anM&E system? lack of an lack of a lack of outcome- lack of fiscal resources champion for political will linked strategy the system or experience How do we confront these barriers?
In Conclusion We are what we repeatedly do. Excellence, then, is not an act, but a habit • AristotleQuestions? Comments? Views?