A sketch is a rough map of a place . Some important
landmarks on the sketch help to find the way easily.
A landmark is a place or thing that you can easily recognise .
It could be a temple, hospital, school or cinema hall.
A map without a scale is a
Maps are always drawn according to some scale.
Different types of information are shown on a map. It needs
to have a language.
The language of a map remains the same all over the world. It
is made up of :-
3. Signs & symbols
Maps are generally shown with north at top. Some maps,
however, indicate north & south with an arrow. When we are
facing north our left side indicates west & our right side
The four major directions are North, South, East & West.
Maps also follow the same system of directions.
We cannot make maps showing the actual sizes of
places. So scale is used to represent actual distances on
is the ratio between the map distance & the
Maps are always drawn according to some scale. A map
without a scale is a
If on a map, the scale states that 1 cm is equal to
100km, it means on that particular map 1cm. on the
map is equal to 100km . on the earth.
Generally, maps follow a common scheme of colours.
Water bodies such as oceans, seas, lakes & rivers are
always shown in different shades of blue . Light blue
colour shows shallow water & deeper water .
Green on a map shows plain areas or lowland .
Highlands & mountains are shown in varying shades
of yellow & brown . Snow-covered areas are shown in
The symbol & colours used in the maps are universal i.e. the
same set of symbols & colours are used all over the world.
So they are called
In every map a key or legend is given which helps us to
understand the meaning of signs & symbols used in that used
in that particular map.
A symbol is a sign representing a landmark. different
landmarks have different symbols.
The explanation of symbols is called a
A map is a drawing of the earth on a flat surface like
paper, cardboard or wood etc. It can be folded, rolled,&
even put in a book . Maps can be drawn to show the
whole world or even a very small part of it.
Maps may be of countries, continents, cities or even of a
neighbourhood . You can also make a map of your house
& show all the details of it.
Though a globe is very useful for studying about the
earth, as it is a true model of the earth, it has certain
1. With the help of a map you can easily locate the political
boundary of a country.
2. Through a map, you can easily show the courses of rivers,
roads, railways, waterways,& airways.
3. Distribution of rainfall, forests, minerals, crops,
population , climate, industries etc. are seen easily on
4. You can easily locate cities, hills, mountains, plains,
plateaus, valleys, etc on a map.
5. You can carry a map very easily.
There are many types of maps, some of which are
I. Political Maps
II. Physical Maps
III. Thematic Maps
Maps showing different
continents, countries, states,
cities, towns etc. in any given
area are called Political Maps.
Those maps which show
physical features such as
mountains, rivers, plains, etc.
which are called Physical Maps.
The maps which focus on specific information of
the regions are called Thematic Maps.
a) Some maps shown rainfall in different areas.
They are called rainfall maps.
b) Some maps show population in different
areas. They are called population maps.
c) Some maps show crops grown in different
parts of the given area. They are called crop
A globe is a ball shaped object with a map of the world on it.
It is usually fixed on a stand.
A globe, being spherical , serves as good model to help us to
visualize the earth & its surface. A major part of the earth is
The large water bodies are called .
The five major oceans on the earth are the ,
the , the , the
& the .
1. A globe occupies a lot of space.
2. It is not easy to carry a globe from one place to
3. It cannot show detailed information.
Because of these limitations a map is drawn on a flat
surface. A map can overcome all these
In comparison to a globe, map give more specific & detailed
information . Maps show location & features like types of
land, natural resources, agricultural & industrial resources,
climate, population, distribution, places of tourist interest,
roadways & railways routes etc. We can even enlarge the
features of a small area & show them clearly on a map. A book
which contains maps is called an .