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Potato cultivation

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Potato cultivation

  1. 1. Group No:03 1
  2. 2.  History and Origin  Originate in Andees mountain range of South Africa  Maya and Inca nations had introduced potato as an edible food to the world  It was introduced to Sri Lanka in 1850 by Samuel Baker who is an Englishman 2
  3. 3.  Potato had been cultivated as large scale cultivation in 1951-1952 at Rahangala research station by department of Agriculture  But it was failed due to pest and disease attacks resulted by poor management practices  Then it was again cultivated in Sri Lanka in 1959 by SUMLABI potato research center and 1961 by a scientists came from Western Germany  After 1970 it has became the major crop n Sri Lanka  It was limited to Central hills at that time  But it has become a popular crop in areas like Kalpitiya and Jaffna 3
  4. 4.  Present status and the potential uses 75% of countries of the world cultivate potato. It is in 4th place of staple foods of peoples 1.Wheat 2.Zea Maize 3.Paddy 4.Potato 4
  5. 5.  Kingdom: Plantae  (unranked): Asterids  Order: Solanales  Family: Solanaceae  Genus: Solanum  Species: Solanum tuberosum 5
  6. 6. 6
  7. 7. Stem  Stem is consisted of stem, runners and tuber. It grows as a single stem for few time and then divided into branches.  1-9 suckers are emerged in one plant.  Stem divides into 3 categories based on height of the plant and flowering  short(less than 45cm)  Moderate (45-60 cm)  tall(greater than 60cm 7
  8. 8. Bud  Mainly two parts  Growth of buds is affected by the storage conditions of seed potato.  Basel parts are at under the soil and therefore both runners and tubers are developed. 8
  9. 9. Leaf  Potato has compound leaves.  It has prominent mid rib and it is also divided into leaflets.  Leaf I important to identify variety 9
  10. 10. Flower  Flower is an inflorescence axis is first divided into two.  White and purple colour petals are closely arranged and made a corolla. 10
  11. 11. Tuber  This is a modernized stem or an expanded runer.  It has uds/eyes same as a general stem.  One or more buds may be in one eye.  Tubers not only store food as well as act as a planting material. 11
  12. 12.  Varieties depend on,  Shape of the tuber  Shape of the eyes  Size of the tuber  Texture of the peel 12
  13. 13.  Features of tubers  Shape-round  Outer colour-white  Inner color-cream  Shape of the eyes-deep  Sucker-redish purple colour 13
  14. 14.  Shape-long and oval shape  Outer colour-white  Inner color-creamy  Shape of the eyes-moderate  Sucker-purplish green color and fibers are low 14
  15. 15.  Shape-round and oval shpe  Outer colour-white  Inner colour-white  Shape of the eyes –shallow  Sucker- Reddish purple color and equal size fibbers 15
  16. 16. 16
  17. 17.  Land Preparation  Soil is turned upto 30-40 cm depth and make into fine texture 17
  18. 18.  Lime is added when the soil is acidic in first land preparation. 18
  19. 19.  Making Ridges and Furrows  Drains are prepared a spacing between two drains is 60 cm and depth is 20-25 cm. 19
  20. 20.  Ridges and furrows are prepared in contour lines to reduce soil erosion in steep lands.  Lengths of the ridge can be decided based on the location of the field and the easiness of maintenance. 20
  21. 21. Selection of planting materials  Tubers with 28-55 diameter and free from pest and disease attacks are selected.  Therefore planting materials should be bought from a credible place.  Confirmation on type of planting material is must when buying. 21
  22. 22.  Remove the apical bud and keep for two weeks to grow axillary buds if only apical bud is on the seed potato.  Removal of bud is done only one time and then those can be used to plant 22
  23. 23. Field Planting  Selected seed potatoes are put on furrows as suckers are in upward.  Then the seed potatoes are covered with soil of the ridges. 23
  24. 24.  Spacing and seed potato requirement: Interow spacing is 60cm and intrarow spacing is 25 cm and therefore 2-2.5 tones of seed potato are required for one acre (2500kg acre). 24
  25. 25. Fertilization  Fertilization can be done in two ways.  Use of chemical fertilizer and organic fertilizer together is given better results. 25
  26. 26. 1)Organic matter I. Cattle manure (decayed) 0-12 tones/ha II. Poultry manure 5-6 tones/ha 26
  27. 27. 2)Chemical fertilizer • Typical Application Rates: • Nitrogen: 125 – 150 kg / ha • Phosphorous: 125 – 150 kg / ha • Potassium: 250 – 300 kg / ha • 10:10:20 or 7:6:17 Sulphate of Potash are ideal for potatoes • Fertilizer should be applied prior to sowing 27
  28. 28.  Earthing up  Earthing up is done 3-4 weeks after planting.  Suckers developed in to plants which produce tubers are growing in this period. 28
  29. 29.  Irrigation  Potato can withstand drought condition but adequate amount of irrigation is required for better growth and yield.  However limitation of irrigation is required when harvesting. Irrigation should be done to wash away the dew on the leaves 29
  30. 30.  Weed Control  Glyposet is used to destroy weeds at land preparation.  Weeding is not commonly practiced in potato cultivation. 30
  31. 31.  Potato blight – a fungal disease which can affect plants in humid weather  Blackleg – a bacterial disease which thrives in wet conditions  Gangrene – fungal  Common scab – bacterial disease which thrives in soils with high pH  Potato mosaic – viral disease spread by aphids 31
  32. 32. • Wireworms – can eat into tubers, common after grass, prevented using poison baits • Slugs – eat into tubers, high numbers during wet summers, killed using slug pellets • Aphids – eat plant and carry viral diseases, controlled using insecticides or ladybirds • Potato nematode and eelworms – eat into tubers, controlled by crop rotation 32
  33. 33.  Crop is ready to harvest when 80% of leaves become yellowish color.  Removing of shoots from the ground level enhance the maturity in up country areas.  Tubers are suitable to harvest if peel is not loosen when compress by fingers.  Damaged and undamaged tubers are graded after harvesting. 33
  34. 34.  Packaging and storage  Damaged and diseased tubers are sorted out prior to storage.  Potato is stored as layers less than 2 tuber thickness in a dark room with better ventilation. 34
  35. 35.  Duchesse  Lyonaise  Pomme anna  Boulangere  Gratin dauphinoise  Baked  Fondant  Macaire/ Croquette  Boiled  Mashed 35
  36. 36.  Potato chips  Sweets  Potato Starch 36
  37. 37.  N.D.G.A CHINTHAKA UWU/EAG/13/0005  M.M.B.S.SILVA UWU/EAG/13/0035 37

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